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Veterinary Pathology

Veterinary Pathology

Published in Association with American College of Veterinary Pathologists

eISSN: 15442217 | ISSN: 03009858 | Current volume: 61 | Current issue: 4 Frequency: Bi-monthly

Veterinary Pathology is the premier international publication of basic and applied research involving domestic, laboratory, wildlife, marine and zoo animals, and poultry. Bridging the divide between natural and experimental diseases, the journal details the diagnostic investigations of natural and emerging diseases of animals; reports experimental studies enhancing understanding of the mechanisms of specific processes including cancer, infection, immunologic, metabolic and genetically mediated diseases; provides unique insights into animal models of human disease; and presents studies in identification and characterization of environmental (food, plant and chemical) and pharmaceutical hazards.

Written for veterinary pathologists, veterinary diagnostic laboratory staff, toxicologic pathologists, comparative pathologists, medical pathology researchers, environmental scientists, and others involved in veterinary diagnosis and animal research across all animal species, each issue features original articles, in-depth reviews, brief communications and unique case reports. Veterinary Pathology is at the forefront of important issues including emerging disease trends, biothreat, genetic modification of animals, food, chemical and drug safety, environmental monitoring, and diagnostic technologies.

The members of the distinguished editorial board are all internationally recognized in their specialty areas and have achieved awards and recognition attendant with their thought leader reputation.

Among the important topics covered are:

  • Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis
  • Diseases Linked With the Environment
  • Etiology and Pathogenesis
  • Genetically modified animals
  • Genomic, Proteomic and Imaging Technology
  • Immunobiology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Mechanisms
  • Xenobiotic Injury
  • Zoonotics

Special Focus Issues

Special Focus: SARS-CoV-2 and Other Zoonotic Respiratory Coronaviruses in Animals (July 2022)
The July 2022 issue presents a collection of articles focused on the role of animals models in the understanding of zoonotic respiratory coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2. Respiratory coronaviruses have been responsible for multiple zoonotic disease event in the last 20 years, with the COVID-19 pandemic being the most recent and significant example of the zoonotic importance of these viruses. Animal models and pathology play critical roles in understanding the pathogenesis of respiratory coronaviruses. This special focus includes critical reviews on multiple animal models and alternatives to animal models, and original articles on both the pathologic features of these models and of naturally occurring disease in veterinary species. 

Special Focus: Diagnostic Veterinary Oncologic Pathology (September 2021)
The September 2021 issue provides a series of original and review articles that seek further answers to some of the enduring questions of veterinary oncologic pathology. For the diagnostic veterinary pathologist, oncologic pathology remains the cornerstone of any surgical pathology service. With advancements in immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and molecular analysis, we are better able to refine our diagnoses and provide valuable data that can be used in prognostic studies. Over the last decade, interest in using spontaneously arising neoplasia in companion animals as models for similar human cancers has been renewed and revitalized. These include common but devastating neoplasms such as osteosarcoma, melanoma, and glioma. While there remains much to be elucidated about the pathogenesis and prognosis of companion animal cancer, the articles presented herein provide a window into some of the advancements and refinements that have occurred over the last decade and offer new avenues of exploration.

Special Focus: Regulated Cell Death: Emerging Mechanisms and Current Perspectives in Biology and Pathology (July 2021)
The July 2021 issue features a collection of articles on regulated cell death, a rapidly evolving field that is intrinsic to disease pathogenesis. The understanding of cell death has emerged from the antiquated view of apoptosis vs. necrosis to a complex landscape of multiple highly regulated cell death pathways. A highlight of this issue is a comprehensive review on the emerging forms of regulated cell death including apoptosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, autophagy, NETosis, and pyroptosis. Additional papers focus on the detection of cell death using Fluoro-Jade C and the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in Coxiella brunetii infection.

Special Focus: Pathology and Pathogenesis of Immune-Mediated Diseases of Animals (January 2018)

The January 2018 issue focuses on the pathology and pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases. Immune-mediated diseases share the common element of immune response dysregulation as an intrinsic component of their pathogenesis. These diseases can vary in their clinical manifestations and pathogenesis, but share a common element of their pathogenesis; namely the pathogenesis is driven by a dysregulation of the normal immune response. This issue presents publications ranging from descriptions of natural diseases in domestic animals to the use of translational animal models of human disease. While there is a tremendous breadth of publications, they are all intrinsically connected by inherent role of immune dysregulation.

Special Focus: Pathology of Aging (March 2016)

The March 2016 issue provides a special focus on the pathology of aging. As aging is an intrinsic part of an organisms normal life cycle, it is important to understand the effects of cumulative changes and stressors on tissues and organisms, as these changes provide valuable insights into disease pathogenesis. This issue provides broad insights into age-related findings across multiple species, the use of animal models in aging studies, and the interpretation of age-related findings in the context of postmortem examinations.

Special Focus: Veterinary Forensic Pathology (September 2016)
The September 2016 issue presents a series of articles on forensic pathology. Forensic pathology requires unique considerations and approaches, especially when considering the legal implications of a forensic investigation. This special issue covers a multitude of topics critical to the practice of forensic pathology including evidence collection; the forensic necropsy; forensic entomology; the interpretation of postmortem changes with regards to the postmortem interval; and the mechanism of injury including blunt force trauma, firearms, and sharp injuries. This issue provides critical insights into the importance and practice of forensic pathology.

Special Focus: Modeling Lethal and Emergent Viral Diseases in Laboratory Animals (January 2015)

The January 2015 special issue features publications highlighting the use of animal models to study Ebola virus Zaire, Nipah virus, and Machupo virus. Lethal and emergent viruses have dramatic impacts globally, and animal models serve as critical tools to understand and develop therapeutic approaches for these viruses. These articles highlight the insights gained from modeling emergent viruses in animal models.

Special Focus: Pathology of Bones and Joints (September 2015)

The September 2015 special issue focuses on the pathology of bones and joints. While investigating bone and joint pathology has its unique challenges, this issue tackles these challenges in both diagnostic and experimental settings with a wide spectrum of papers focused on bone and joint pathology. The manuscripts range from publications of the pathogenesis of osteochondrosis to approaches for investigating skeletal deformities in livestock to a reports of oral lesions in the dog, cat, and horse to reviews on models of rheumatoid arthritis, bone metastases, and bone implants and devices.

Special Focus: Investigative Techniques (January 2014)
The January 2014 issue presents a series of articles on investigative techniques used by pathologists in different settings. For many years, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and other histochemical stains were the main and typically the sole methodology to evaluate disease processes. Electron microscopy (EM), although used sporadically, contributed to the identification of pathogens and the study of disease processes. In the early 1970s, immunohistochemistry (IHC) started to play a role in the identification of pathogens, cell components, and neoplasia. The next significant leap in our ability to understand diseases came with the use of genomics to decipher changes in nucleic acids. These technological advances resulted in the identification of new diseases, reclassification of pathogens, and increased understanding of neoplasia and other entities in human beings and, to a lesser extent, in animals. Next-generation sequencing has a tremendous potential to elucidate the disease process and is currently used in many human and some animal diseases.

Special Focus: Infectious Diseases of Domestic Animals (March 2014)

The March 2014 special issue focuses on the detection, characterization, and pathogenesis of infectious diseases in domestic animals. Veterinary pathologists routinely encounter infectious diseases in their daily practice. Infectious diseases impact all veterinary species from pets to livestock to laboratory animals and pathology plays a critical role in the diagnosis and characterization of infectious diseases. This issue provides insights into the diverse roles infectious diseases play in veterinary species and approaches to detect and studies these diseases.

Special Focus: Celebrating The Second Half-Century of Veterinary Pathology (November 2014)

The November 2014 issue celebrates 50 years of Veterinary Pathology with a pair of reviews on papillomaviruses and brucellosis that revisit papers published in Volume 1. Despite the time that has passed, these topics remain important today.

Special Focus: Diseases of Aquatic Animals (May 2013)
The May 2013 issue presents a series of articles on diseases of aquatic animals. These animals represent an integral component of the species diversity on this planet. Articles in this special focus issue reflect this amazing diversity and criticality of aquatic animals in maintaining the integrity of the aquatic ecosystem. Aquatic animals play an essential role as monitors of the health and wholesomeness of our aquatic environment. They are an important food source. They enrich our human existence with their beauty, grace, and sometimes downright weirdness. Aquarium exhibits of an unseen world are an ever-popular entertainment and education source. Given the importance of aquatic animals in our lives and in the world as a whole, threats to aquatic existence, including disease and environmental issues, must be identified and methods developed to ensure the continuation and sustainability of these amazing life forms well into the future.

Special Focus: Toward a Better Understanding of Mouse Models of Disease (January 2012)
The January 2012 issue focuses on te use of genetically engineered mice in biomedical research forms a cornerstone for advancing our understanding of disease. The phenotyping of mutant mice creates a foundation for defining the normal biology associated with the manipulated gene. However, extensive variation in background lesions and responses to myriad endemic infectious agents, even between in-bred laboratory mouse strains, complexes interpretations of histopathologic findings. The challenges in the evaluation of the genetic manipulation of mice, as an independent variable, should not be underestimated. This special focus issue highlights some of these confounding factors, as well as includes GEM phenotyping information not previously gathered together and/or presented in journal format. This issue will emphasize some of the complexities in evaluating gene modifications in mice and will serve as a reference and a resource for pathologists and researchers alike, in their search to better understand genetic function and disease.

Special Focus: Diagnosis and Prognosis of Companion Animal Neoplastic Diseases (January 2011)
The January 2011 issue focuses on veterinary oncology. A lead manuscript, “Recommended Guidelines for the Conduct and Evaluation of Prognostic Studies in Veterinary Oncology,” represents the consensus of an international group of veterinary pathologists, oncologists, and epidemiologists, highlighting the importance of close collaboration among veterinary pathologists and oncologists to advance our abilities to diagnose, prognosticate, and successfully treat animal cancer. A series of manuscripts focus on the current state of prognostication and diagnosis of canine neoplastic diseases, including melanomas, mast cell tumors, mammary carcinomas, soft tissue sarcomas, myeloid leukemias, and lymphomas. Additional consensus manuscripts address the trimming, margin evaluation, and reporting of surgical biopsy samples, the classification of canine malignant lymphomas, and the grading of mast cell tumors. Additional review papers provide detailed insight into current techniques for the diagnosis of neoplastic disease, such as flow cytometry, and highlight the importance of integrating recently gained molecular understanding, such as loss of heterozygocity, into the evaluation of neoplastic diseases. With the emerging use of dogs and cats as models for human neoplastic diseases, well established and uniformly applied criteria to classify companion animal neoplastic disease will form a cornerstone in extrapolation of learnings across species.

Special Focus: Research Challenges and Animal Models in Biological Defense (September 2010)
The September 2010 issue focuses on research challenges and animal models in biological defense. Medical countermeasures against deadly biological select agents like anthrax, Ebola virus, smallpox and highly pathogenic influenza viruses are greatly needed to combat infections that may arise naturally or through acts of bioterrorism or biowarfare. Animal diseases involving such agents are important in their own right or as models of human infections necessary to develop vaccines, therapeutics or other countermeasures. The articles in this issue illustrate the many scientific, regulatory, safety and security challenges that research with biological select agents and toxins must overcome. They also provide a current knowledge base for animal models of several major select agents. A profound expansion of biomedical defense efforts in the United States and other countries in the last decade has provided numerous opportunities at established and recently minted facilities around the world. This issue seeks to engender, among pathologists and biologists of many disciplines, a better understanding of existing biological threats in order to show the way forward and promote the development of the medical countermeasures.

Special Focus: Emerging Diseases and Global Surveillance (January 2010)
The January 2010 issue focuses on emerging and expanding diseases that have caused significant disruptions in recent years. Bird ‘flu, foot-and-mouth disease, bluetongue, and melamine - all emerged in new places or new hosts to cause economic or public health panics. The articles chronicle the underlying reasons and highlight the global disparities in recognition and response capacities, which will ensure continuing emergence. Opportunities abound for recognizing emerging diseases, creating sound public policies, and promoting programs that protect agricultural and public health. This issue encourages animal health communities, in cooperation with local, state, federal, and international agencies, to develop proactive cooperative programs designed to detect and limit these outbreaks.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)

Veterinary Pathology, an international peer-reviewed journal of natural and experimental disease, publishes manuscripts, reviews, brief communicatons, case reports, editorials, letters, and advertisements for employment opportunities and new products. 

Joshua Webster Genentech, USA
Wolfgang Baumgärtner University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany
Kazuyuki Uchida The University of Tokyo, JCVP
Managing Editor
Paola Roccabianca University of Milan, Italy
F. Yvonne Schulman Heska, an Antech company
Infectious Disease
Patricia Pesavento University of California - Davis, USA
Jens P. Teifke Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Germany
Degenerative & Immune-mediated Disease
Mitsuru Kuwamura Osaka Metropolitan University, Japan
Clinical Pathology
Jennifer Johns Oregon State University, USA
Domestic Animals
Monika Hilbe University of Zurich, Switzerland
Andrew D. Miller Cornell University, USA
Nondomestic, Exotic, Wild & Zoo Animals
Dalen Agnew Michigan State University, USA
Francesco Origgi University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland (SUPSI) & Mendrisio, Switzerland
Laboratory Animals
Jerrold M. Ward Global Vet Pathology, USA
Animal Models of Human Disease
Hibret Adissu AstraZeneca, USA
Pharmaceutical Pathobiology
Eric Blomme AbbVie Laboratories, USA
Christiane Löhr Oregon State University, USA
Diagnostic Exercises
Charles Bradley University of Pennsylvania, USA
Dan Rissi University of Georgia, USA
Image Challenge
Fernanda Castillo-Alcala Massey University, New Zealand
Santiago Diab Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, USA
Taryn Donovan Animal Medical Center, USA
Ingeborg Langohr Sanofi, USA
Deborah M. Gillette  
Hannah Bender Genentech, USA
Silvia Ferro University of Padova, Italy
Past Editors
Editorial Board
Lesly Acosta Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Spain
Verena Affolter University of California-Davis, USA
Fabio Aloisio Idexx, USA
Giancarlo Avallone University of Bologna, Italy
Jeremy Bearss US Army Veterinary Corps, USA
Christof Bertram University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Austria
Mark Chalkley IDEXX Laboratories, USA
James Chambers University of Tokyo, Japan
Shambhunath Choudhary Pfizer, USA
Timothy Cooper StageBio, USA
A. Sally Davis Horner Davis Consulting, USA
Alina Demeter Cornell University, USA
Olga Gonzalez Southwest National Primate Research Center, USA
Sushan Han Denver Zoo, USA
Takeshi Izawa Osaka Prefecture University, Japan
Laura Janke St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, USA
Yava Jones-Hall Texas A&M University, USA
Anja Kipar University of Zurich, Switzerland
Rebecca Kohnken AbbVie, USA
Elise LaDouceur Joint Pathology Center, USA
Klaus Langohr Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Spain
Sebastien Monette Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, USA
Tomoaki Murakami Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan
Alisa Newton Disney’s Animals, Science and Environment, USA
Kevin Niedringhaus University of Pennsylvania, USA
Ilaria Porcellato University of Perugia, Italy
Simon Priestnall The Royal Veterinary College, UK
Enrico Radaelli University of Pennsylvania, USA
Roberta Rasotto Histopathology Consultant, Italy
Elena Riccardi Idexx, USA
Jana Ritter Centers for Disease Control, USA
Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann University of Florida, USA
Sara Santagostino Genentech, USA
Yuji Sunden Tottori University, Japan
Marian Taulescu University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj--Napoca, Romania
Somporn Techangamsuwan Chulalongkorn University, Thailand
Reiner Ulrich Leipzig University, Germany
Vanessa Vrolyk Charles River Laboratories, Canada
Geoff Wood University of Guelph, Canada
  • CABI
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)
  • Clarivate Analytics: Current Contents - Agriculture, Biology & Environmental Sciences
  • Clarivate Analytics: Current Contents - Life Sciences
  • Clarivate Analytics: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)
  • Clarivate Analytics: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)
  • Clarivate Analytics: Zoological Record
  • ProQuest
  • Scopus

    Table of Contents



    Authors’ Contributions: New requirement in 2023

    • Using the authors’ initials, state each author’s contribution to the manuscript at the end of the manuscript following the declaration of funding.

    DLB, JFG, and MLK designed and performed the experiments; BRC contributed to the experimental design; DLB, BRC, and YX performed histologic evaluations; FTL performed statistical analysis; the manuscript was written by DLB and BRC with contribution from the other authors.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available, see below.

    Veterinary Pathology offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

    Text of the manuscript: key points

    • Microsoft Word file, Arial 12-point font, left-justified, 1 inch margins on all side, double- spaced, number every page, use continuous line numbering.
    • Full-length manuscripts: Title page, Abstract (≤250 words), Keywords (119 characters, use MeSH terms), Introduction (heading omitted), Materials and Methods (include statement on ethical treatment of animals; follow ARRIVE guidelines when relevant), Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, Authors’ Contributions, References, Figure legends. Submit tables as separate files.
    • Brief communications and case reports: Abstract (≤150 words), Keywords, Body of the text (<1700 words) with no subheadings, Acknowledgements, Authors’ Contributions, References (n≤20), Figure legends. No more than two plates of 8 figures total.
    • Cite figures and tables in the order they appear in the text.
    • Title page: informative and descriptive title, authors names, institutions, contact information of corresponding author.
    • Copying material from other manuscripts, including the author’s own work, constitutes plagiarism and is unacceptable.

     Figures: key points

    • Each figure (each plate) may be a single image or a group of images (panels), and exactly 90 mm or 180 mm wide, 300 dpi, TIF file format.
    • Group photos as a rectangular plate exactly 90 or 180 mm wide and ≤180 mm high for 2 column (180 mm wide) plates (eg, 3 photos wide x 2-4 photos high, or 1 wide x 2-3 high) or ≤ 210 mm for 1 column (90 mm wide) plates, with no white space between photos.
    • Exclude scale bars (except from electron micrographs).
    • Number each figure (each plate) in the order it is cited in the text. For figures containing multiple panels, label each panel (each image) using lower case letters sequentially from left to right. Place the letter in the bottom left corner: white or black 14-point Arial font, no border, include the letter but not the figure number.
    • Figure legend: Include a title for the figure, then briefly describe what is shown in each panel, avoiding repetition. Disease name, organ, species, and stain should be mentioned.
    • Supplemental Figures: number each plate as Supplemental Figure S1, etc. For each panel, include the letter (no number) in the lower left corner of the figure.

    Reference format: key points

    • In text citations are listed in superscript after the punctuation as shown.1, 2-4, 8
    • Arrange the list of references alphabetically, numbered consecutively.
    • Journal, ≤6 authors: Holman RT, Wiese HF, Smith AN. Essential fatty acid deficiency. Am J    
            Pathol. 1976;95:255–257.
    • Journal, >6 authors: Ortega J, Uzal FA, Walker R, et al. Zygomycotic lymphadenitis in
            slaughtered feedlot cattle. Am J Pathol. 2009;47(1):108–114.
    • Book chapter: Sligh EG. Neutral lipid storage disease. In: Dyer WJ, ed. Biochemistry of Lipids. 5th
            ed. Academic Press; 1956:471–476.

    Submission and Evaluation of Manuscripts

    Submit all articles via Manuscript Central:

    If you do not have access to the necessary resources for online submission, please contact Jill Findlay, Managing Editor (

    Authors are urged to consult a recent issue of the journal and follow the style therein, as this follows the 10th Edition of the AMA Manual of Style. Veterinary Pathology will also consider manuscripts prepared according to the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (New Engl J Med 336:309– 315, 1997). Please indicate in your cover letter and as a footnote on the title page of your manuscript that you have prepared your manuscript in the Uniform Requirements format. Only original papers written in American English will be accepted. An editing service is available from the publisher, SAGE, including translation from Spanish, Portuguese, or Chinese.  Use of this service does not guarantee acceptance of the paper by the journal.

    Submission of a manuscript requires each author to have an Open Researcher and Contributor identification (ORCID iD). ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized. The collection of ORCID IDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID ID, you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID ID will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID ID is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications. If you do not already have an ORCID ID please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage, please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    Manuscripts submitted to Veterinary Pathology are evaluated by the editorial staff. If the manuscript is potentially suitable, peer reviewers are normally selected by the Associate Editor.

    Veterinary Pathology operates a single-blind reviewing policy in which the reviewer’s name is concealed from the submitting author.

    As part of the submission process, the corresponding author will be asked to provide the names of peers who could be called upon to review your manuscript. Recommended reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Authors should not recommend reviewers who would have a conflict of interest, including (but not limited to) the following guidelines:

    • The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission.
    • The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with or have a personal relationship any of the authors.
    • Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted.

    Editors are not obliged to invite any recommended reviewers to assess your manuscript. Authors may

    request that specific individuals be excluded as reviewers, but the decision to use or not use opposed reviewers is made by the editors.

    Acceptance of a manuscript for publication is determined by the Editor and Associate Editor based on the peer review, scientific merit, and value to readers. This decision may be made in consultation with other editorial staff and/or the Editorial Board. Appeals of decisions should be directed to the Managing Editor (Email:

    When re-submitting a revised manuscript, upload a clean copy of the manuscript as the manuscript file and a marked-up copy as a Supplemental File (enabling editors and reviewers to see changes that were made from the original version). Authors must include a response letter that addresses each of the reviewer’s and editor’s comments, in order.

    Reviewer’s comments should be taken as constructive criticisms by experts in the subject area, and reviews lead to substantial improvement in the quality of scientific manuscripts. Nonetheless, authors are not obliged to make changes as suggested by the reviewers if a compelling rebuttal or counter- argument can be stated. After one or more reviews of the manuscript, the editorial staff will decide if the reviewer’s and editors’ comments have been satisfactorily addressed.

    Editorial Policies

    Scope and Criteria for Acceptance

    Veterinary Pathology publishes basic and applied research involving domestic, laboratory, and zoo animals, wildlife, poultry, and other animals. The scope of the journal includes novel descriptions of pathologic changes, clinical pathology, and clinical-pathologic correlations for natural and experimental diseases of animals; investigations of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of disease (general pathology) and other aspects of pathogenesis; descriptions and use of animal models of human disease; and studies of pharmaceutical and environmental hazards.

    Manuscripts considered for publication must:

    1. have significant importance to animal and/or human health,
    2. include new knowledge supported by valid data,
    3. address disease mechanisms (pathogenesis, pathophysiology) or pathologic findings in important new or emerging diseases, or clinico-pathologic correlations, AND
    4. be of sufficiently broad interest to be of substantial value to veterinary pathologists.

    Thus, manuscripts should characterize previously unrecognized diseases, advance our ability to more accurately diagnose diseases, identify pathologic features that indicate prognosis or appropriate therapy, or provide an important comparative viewpoint. Case series must describe new diseases or provide novel insights into known diseases; those that report disease prevalence in a particular population of animals are not published unless significant novel findings are reported. Results of in vitro experiments or genetic analyses may be suitable if they reveal aspects of pathogenesis or advance knowledge in understanding of disease mechanisms, pathogenesis, pathologic diagnosis, or clinical relevance of pathologic findings. Descriptions of novel methods relevant to the practice of veterinary pathology are considered, as are papers that describe or validate animal models of human disease, enhance the translational study of animal models, or are relevant to animals used in pharmacologic studies. Manuscripts describing normal anatomy or molecular data in normal tissues are not within the journal scope.

    Veterinary Pathology is the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists, the European College of Veterinary Pathologists, and the Japanese College of Veterinary Pathologists. The Editor-in-Chief is responsible for the editorial content of the journal—including peer-reviewed manuscripts—and the timing of its publication. The aforementioned Colleges do not interfere with the recruitment, evaluation or editing of individual scientific manuscripts submitted to the journal, but they do contribute to the strategic direction of the journal.


    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors.

    Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors. The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    1. made a substantial contribution to the concept and design, acquisition of data or analysis, and            
          interpretation of data,
    2. drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content, and
    3. approved the version to be published. Please refer to the ICMJE Authorship guidelines.

    Research Ethics, Ethical Treatment of Animals, and Consent of Animal Owners

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals.

    Studies involving live animals (or samples that were obtained from live animals for the purpose of the study) must be approved by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). In the Methods section of the manuscript, state the full name and institution of the IACUC, in addition to the approval number.  Furthermore, studies must be carried out in accordance with all applicable institutional, local, and national guidelines and laws. These guidelines may include, but are not solely limited to, the National Institutes of Health’s Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, which can be obtained from the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching, available from the Federation of Animal Science Societies, and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Manuscripts may be rejected if the editors suspect unnecessary or unacceptable animal suffering, even if IACUC approval was provided.

    Studies involving samples or records that are owned by the author's institution (such as archived samples owned by a diagnostic laboratory) may not require IACUC approval or informed consent of the animal's original owners, depending on the requirements of the institution and local laws. In such circumstances, the journal does not require a statement of IACUC approval or informed owner consent. Authors must ensure that they have obtained appropriate permission from the institution or individuals who own the samples or records, prior to submitting a manuscript that involves analysis of those samples.

    For studies in which samples, data, or photographs are collected from privately owned animals (such as client-owned animals), please state in the Methods whether written or verbal informed owner consent was obtained, or include a statement explaining why such consent was not necessary. Do not submit the actual written informed consent with your article, as this breaches confidentiality. As mentioned above, such consent may not be necessary if ownership of diagnostic specimens is transferred to the author’s institution. If research participants (such as animal owners) received compensation or were offered any incentive for participating in the study, this must be stated.

    Reports that include surveys of human subjects must include a statement that the survey was approved by an institutional ethics board. In the Methods section of the manuscript, state the full name and institution of the research ethics board, in addition to the approval number. 

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants

    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

    Availability of supporting research data

    Manuscripts reporting original research must include a statement of the data availability at the end of the Methods, which informs readers of whether the underlying data will be made available or not, and if so the location at which readers can access the data (and, when relevant, the date when the data will be made available and any restrictions on availability). This statement may take the following form: The data analyzed in this study are / are not available as Supplemental Materials (or by stating the name of the repository, permanent weblink, request to the author, etc.).

    Authors are strongly encouraged to include detailed tables of individual-animal raw data as Supplemental Materials, in an effort to promote transparency and openness in communication of scientific findings, to allow readers increased confidence in the findings, to promote the visibility of the article, and to provide case series data as reference information to the scientific community.

    At SAGE, we are committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research. Where relevant, The Journal encourages authors to share their research data in a suitable public repository subject to ethical considerations and where data is included, to add a data accessibility statement in their manuscript file. Authors should also follow data citation principles. For more information please visit the SAGE Author Gateway, which includes information about SAGE’s partnership with the data repository Figshare. 

    Duplicate or Related Publication, and Plagiarism

    Submission of a manuscript implies commitment to publish in Veterinary Pathology. Manuscripts submitted to the journal must not be under consideration for another journal, nor should manuscripts of similar form or with substantially similar content have been submitted, accepted, or published elsewhere. In the cover letter accompanying the manuscript, the author must disclose to the editor all submissions and previous reports that might be regarded as prior, duplicate, or related publication of the same or similar work, along with a statement of how the submitted and prior works differ. Copies of such material should be included with the submitted paper, as Word or PDF files that are uploaded as supplemental information files. Failure to notify editors of substantially similar previously published work would normally result in rejection of the manuscript.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights to the work and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for materials used in the study and for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal, and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere. Please see guidelines on prior publication.

    Studies forming a novel investigation of previously published case material must clearly state the relationship to the prior work. In circumstances in which the manuscript predominantly represents material already published, please contact the editor to determine if sufficient new material is presented to warrant publication. A poster or oral presentation at a conference (if the published abstract is less than 350 words), or publication of findings in a thesis as part of a graduate degree, are not normally considered to interfere with publication of the same material as a peer-reviewed paper.

    The Journal may accept submissions of papers that have been posted on pre-print servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the journal's author archiving policy. If your paper is accepted, you must include a link on your preprint to the final version of your paper.

    Duplicate or redundant publication or copying from other manuscripts without disclosure is unethical. Plagiarism includes copying material from other publications, including copying from the author’s own work that is already published elsewhere. Undisclosed duplicitous, redundant, or plagiarized manuscripts will be rejected or retracted, and the author’s institution may be notified.

    Publication of Reprinted Material

    Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures, or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. Note that most published material is protected by copyright, and reprinting such material without permission is prohibited. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway.

    Conflict of Interest Policy: Authors

    Authors should state any potential conflicts of interest at the time of submission of the manuscript. Such information will not alter established editorial and review policies but will assist the editorial staff in avoiding any potential conflicts that could give the appearance of a biased review.

    Financial support. To comply with the guidance for Research Funders, Authors, and Publishers issued by the Research Information Network (RIN), Veterinary Pathology requires all Authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit Funding Acknowledgements on the SAGE Journal Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding or state in your acknowledgments that: “This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not- for-profit sectors.” This section is completed during the process of online submission of the manuscript. If those who provided financial support had a role in the research or its publication, this role should be stated. If the study evaluates a commercial or candidate pharmaceutical product or medical device, the authors must disclose support in a cover letter when the manuscript is submitted for initial review, unless the association of the author with the sponsoring company is obvious. The editor will hold such information in confidence. If the manuscript is accepted for publication, the editor will discuss with the authors how such information is to be communicated to the reader.

    Financial interest. Authors must disclose in the submission letter as well as in the “Declaration of Conflicting Interests” any financial interest (including employment, consultancies, and honoraria) in a company (or its competitor) that produces or benefits from a product under discussion, or a diagnostic test or therapy of a disease relevant to the manuscript. Authors must provide detailed information about all relevant financial interests, activities, relationships, and affiliations, including but not limited to employment; affiliation; funding and grants received or pending; consultancies; honoraria or payment; speakers’ bureaus; stock ownership or options; expert testimony; royalties; donation of medical equipment; or patents planned, pending, or issued. The “Declaration of Conflicting Interests” section is completed during the process of online submission of the manuscript.

    Examples of published Conflict of Interest statements:

    • Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Jones reported serving as a paid consultant to Wyler Laboratories. Dr Jacques owns stock in Wyler Laboratories. Drs Smith and Brown reported no financial interests.
      [Or: Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.]
    • Funding/Support: This study was funded in part by Wyler Laboratories.

    Publication of papers dealing with a commercial or candidate pharmaceutical product or medical device or diagnostic test does not convey or imply an endorsement by the journal Veterinary Pathology or the American College of Veterinary Pathologists, the European College of Veterinary Pathologists, or the Japanese College of Veterinary Pathologists.

    Conflict of Interest Policy: Reviewers

    Potential reviewers of all manuscripts submitted to Veterinary Pathology should disclose any potential conflicts of interest they may have before agreeing to review a manuscript and disqualify themselves from a specific review if necessary.

    Conflicts of interest include work at the same institution, current collaborative research, co- authorship in the past 5 years, close personal relationships, or competing business or academic relationships with any of the authors of the manuscript. Such associations or relationships may not disqualify a potential reviewer; however, if a reviewer is concerned about a possible conflict, the circumstances should be discussed with the editorial staff. We expect that reviewers with a substantial conflict of interest will disqualify themselves from reviewing a manuscript.

    More information as well as general Instructions to Reviewers is on the journal website and on the publisher’s website.

    Exclusive License to Publish

    To publish a manuscript, we require a signed Exclusive License to Publish agreement from one author (usually the corresponding author) with the understanding that all authors have seen and agreed to the contents of the manuscript. The form will be reviewed and signed online at the time of acceptance. Under the agreement, the author retains copyright to the work and grants an exclusive license to SAGE to publish the article and its contents.

    Employees of the federal government are required to indicate this affiliation on the same form. Any financial disclosures or declarations of potential conflicts of interests should be listed on the agreement.

    Wellcome Trust Open Access Policy

    SAGE is fully compliant with the Wellcome Trust Open Access Policy. Any article published by SAGE that has had an Article Processing Charge (APC) funded by the Wellcome Trust will be published under a Creative Commons, Attribution (CC BY) license, Version 4 (effective 1st April 2017) and will be automatically deposited in PubMed Central (PMC) on behalf of the author without embargo.

    To facilitate this, it is essential that the corresponding author indicates that their work is Wellcome Trust funded when they submit their work by selecting the relevant FundRef ID in the manuscript submission.

    SAGE audits the funding status of all of our Open Access articles on a regular basis. If for any reason the correct process has not been followed, SAGE undertakes to make any required adjustments in a timely manner.

    These commitments also apply to APCs paid for by all other partners of the Charity Open Access Fund (COAF): Arthritis Research UK, Bloodwise, British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, Parkinson’s UK.

    General Information for All Types of Manuscripts

    Margins and Fonts

    Electronic text files should be submitted as Word files. Manuscripts should be prepared using Arial 12-point font. Margins on all sides should be at least 25 mm (1 inch), with no right justification.

    All sections of the manuscript should be double- spaced. Every page should be numbered. Add continuous line numbers (in Word: Layout tab—Text layout—Line numbers—Continuous).

    Arrangement of Sections

    There are more specific guidelines for full-length manuscripts, brief communications, and case reports; however, the general arrangement of the sections of the manuscript is as follows:

    • Title page
    • Abstract
    • Keywords
    • Introduction (untitled; no heading is included)
    • Materials and Methods
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • Acknowledgements
    • Declaration of conflicting interests
    • Funding
    • Authors’ Contributions
    • References
    • Figure legends
    • Tables (submit as separate files)

    Reporting Guidelines (for tumor prognosis studies, studies using animals, etc.)

    Reporting guidelines for manuscripts on tumor prognosis and markers of tumor behavior are available here: When submitting the manuscript, please upload this checklist to indicate the manuscript line numbers corresponding to the 10 items a-j.

    Where relevant, authors should consult published standards for minimum information about reporting animal studies (ARRIVE guidelines), diagnostic accuracy (STARD), experiments using proteomics (MIAPE) or quantitative real-time PCR (MIQE), and randomized clinical trials (CONSORT).

    Abbreviations and Nomenclature

    Abbreviations should be intuitive, kept to a minimum, only for words used ≥5 times in the manuscript, and defined at their first mention within the body of the article; for example, “neuron-specific enolase (NSE).” Avoid abbreviations in the abstract. Abbreviations used in tables are spelled out in full in a footnote.

    Abbreviations used in figure legends should be defined once in each plate of figures.

    For anatomic terminology, use the English equivalents of terms used in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and Nomina Histologica Veterinaria. Eponymous names are not used by NAV or NHV (that is, anatomic structures are not named by those who first described them).

    Names of infectious agents should follow published standards for viruses (ICTV, International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses), bacteria (List of prokaryotic names with standing in nomenclature, or Bacterial nomenclature up-to-date) and fungi (Species Fungorum or Mycobank). Bacterial names (genus and species) are italicized (Mannheimia haemolytica). When referring to virus particles or the viral agent causing a disease, the virus names are written in lower case (except for those which are a proper name) and are not italicized (bovine herpesvirus-1, West Nile virus) except when referring generally to the concept of the taxonomic grouping (see guidance from ICTV).

    SI (International System of Units) units of measurement must be used when applicable, including for laboratory data (if needed, U.S.-conventional units may be also included in parentheses). U (enzyme units) are preferred for expression of enzymatic activity.

    For listing the genetic strains of mice, use the correct strain/stock/line designation available from the company providing the mice (for example, Mouse Genome Informatics, Jackson Laboratory). Disease names should be those in generally accepted use.

    Use of Case Numbers

    Number cases starting with case 1 regardless of your particular numbering system. Laboratory case numbers should not be used. Include case numbers in all sections of the manuscript where the cases are described or discussed (eg, case 1–10, case 2, 3, and 5).

    Title Page

    The first page should include:

    • the full title of the paper
    • the full name of each author (eg, first name, middle initials if needed, last name)
    • the names and locations of the institutions where the work was conducted, with the authors' initials in parentheses after the appropriate institution; for example: Tokyo University (SH, TK).
    • the address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address of the corresponding author.

    Authors should create concise, informative and descriptive titles that clearly inform readers of the content of the manuscript. Titles should, where relevant, include the key aspects describing the nature of the work such as the species of animal, name of the disease, specific molecules or cells, disease mechanism, pathogenesis, or the clinical-pathologic correlation that is the focus of the work. Titles that focus on the subject of the work are generally more effective that those based on the methods.


    The abstract should be informative rather than descriptive, and 250 words or less (≤150 words for Brief Communications and Case Reports). The abstract should briefly summarize the rationale and methods for the study, but most of the abstract should be a detailed summary of the findings and their significance. Absolute numbers of subjects (either animals or tissue samples) should be given with the percentage in parentheses (eg, “75/250 tissues (30%) stained positively”, but do not state the percentage if the denominator is less than 10). The species of animal, the number of animals studied, the organ system or tissue evaluated, the technology or methods used, and the disease process should be mentioned in the abstract, as well as alternative names for the disease or causative agent when relevant. Abstracts of review papers should name the topics covered and provide a summary of the main content, rather than simply stating the objectives of the review.


    Identify key words (up to 119 characters with spaces) and place them after the abstract in alphabetic order. Where possible, use terms from the medical subject headings (MeSH) list of the U.S. National Library of Medicine. The species of animal, the organ system or tissue studied, the technology or methods used, and the disease process should be listed, as well as alternative names for the disease or causative agent when relevant, and other appropriate terms likely to be used by those conducting an internet search. Where possible, these keywords should be repeated in the abstract.


    Tables are used to present key comparisons, summarized data, and selected information of major importance to the outcome of the study. In contrast, the following should be included only as Supplemental Tables: individual-animal data for >20 animals, raw data, data of lesser importance to the study’s conclusions, or large data tables that do not fit on a single page of the printed journal.

    Tables should be submitted as separate Word or Excel files, not as part of the main document. Tables must be editable and cannot be embedded images in a Word document. Tables are named in the order that they are cited in the text (Table 1, Table 2, etc.).

    Table must fit on a single page of the printed journal and must not contain more than 130 characters (including spaces) per row. Larger tables may be included as Supplemental Materials. The title of the table should be complete so that the reader is able to understand the content without reference to the text; the title may be more than one sentence. All parts of a table must be double-spaced, set in full-size type, left-justified, and sentence case. Omit all vertical lines from the table format. The contents of cells within a column should be balanced to avoid disparity in the amount of text. Empty cells are not permitted; use n/d or n/a if the analysis was not done or not applicable, respectively. Rows or columns with identical values should be omitted and mentioned as a footnote or in the text.

    Footnotes are designated by superscript letters in order of presentation within the table (aThis is the note for the first notation in the table. bThis is the second note.). A note that applies to the table as a whole should be located at the end of the table title with a superscript letter a (Table Titlea). All abbreviations are included in a single footnote, and not shown by a superscript letter.


    The style requirements for figures changed in 2022; earlier articles may differ from that described below.

    Image file format. Images should be TIF files with a resolution of 300 pixels per inch for color and 600 pixels per inch for black and white. The image mode for color figures is RGB, and for black and white figures is Grayscale.

    Grouping of images into figures. Each figure (each plate) may be a single image or a group of images (panels; see Fig 1). Figures must form a perfect square or rectangle with edges of individual images directly apposed and no white space between or around images. Do not add a border around images; white borders are added later by the publisher. Plates must be exactly 90 or 180 mm wide (1 or 2 columns, respectively) and no more than 180 mm high for 2 column (180 mm wide) plates or 210 mm high for 1 column (90 mm wide) plates. Effective methods of presentation include plates that are single images, 2 or 3 images wide (180 mm) by ≤4 images tall (≤180 mm), or 1 image wide (90 mm) by 2 or 3 images tall (≤210 mm).

    Figure numbers and letters. Number each figure (each plate) in the order it is cited in the text (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc.). For figures containing multiple panels (eg, Fig 1 below), label each panel (each image) using lower case letters (a, b, c, etc.) sequentially from left to right; place the letter in the bottom left corner in white or black 14-point Arial font with no border, and do not include the figure number.

    Do not use scale bars in gross, histologic, or cytologic images, except in rare cases where their use is critical to the understanding of the image; justification for their use must be included in the cover letter. If required, the bar or scale should be about 1 cm long, placed in the lower right of the image, and its equivalent value (10, 25, 100 µm, etc.) given in the legend, never on the image itself. Scale bars should be included in electron micrographs.

    If needed, histologic photos may include a rectangular inset in one corner, such as a higher magnification.

    Photographic quality and modifications. Gross and light microscopic images must be in color. Correct anatomic orientation should be maintained; for instance, the surface of the skin should be at the top of the figure, and where possible gross photos should be taken with the head to the right (but the orientation of existing photos must not be flipped).

    Photos of microscopic lesions must not contain photographic or tissue artefacts. The images must be evenly lit, and backgrounds of photomicrographs must be white. Gross images should be presented against a clean, uniform, evenly colored background. Before the images are submitted, unacceptable backgrounds (grass, surgery drapes and other textured cloth, rulers, necropsy numbers, etc.) must be removed or the figure prepared with a uniform background of a suitable color.

    Image modification or enhancement is acceptable if applied to the entire image, such as changing the brightness, contrast, or color balance. It is acceptable to modify the background of specimen photos. Changing a localized area of the tissue or lesion is not normally considered acceptable; it is essential that modifications do not affect the veracity of what is shown, and the image submitted must match the appearance of the real specimen.

    For graphs, the text labels should be in Arial font, at sufficient size to be easily read in the published size of the figure.

    Cost of color figures. Authors are allowed two free color plates (that is, two color pages up to 180 x 180 mm), and the cost of remaining plates will be the responsibility of the authors. The cost for each additional color plate will be US $250. The author will be billed directly by SAGE.

    Obtaining permission to publish reprinted material, including reprinting figures from published papers, is the responsibility of the corresponding author.

    Figure Legends

    Each figure must have a legend. Figure legends should be placed in a separate section at the end of the manuscript within the main Word document, and this section must not contain embedded figures. When uploading figure files to Manuscript Central, please do not upload the individual figure legends directly (leave this option blank).

    Information described in the legend must be clearly visible in the photo; do not describe other findings of the study that are not visible in the photo. For gross and microscopic images, the legend should briefly describe the observations rather than providing only a morphologic diagnosis. Abbreviations used in figure legends should be defined once in each plate of figures.

    Figure legends should be concisely written. Gross and histopathology images must mention the diagnosis, organ, and species (and the stain used for histology images). Recommended styles are as follows.

    Single image: Figure 1. Piloleiomyosarcoma, skin, cat. Spindle cells are arranged in uniform bundles with low cellularity, atypia, and mitotic activity. Case 11. Hematoxylin and eosin.

    Multiple images of 1 diagnosis, style 1: Figure 1. Plasma cell tumor, skin, cat. a) Central aggregate of amyloid with peripheral neoplastic plasma cells. Case 3. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE). b) Neoplastic plasma cells have hyperchromatic nuclei, coarsely clumped chromatin, anisokaryosis, and binucleation. Case 7. HE. c) The amyloid stains red-orange with Congo red. Case 8. d) Amyloid is birefringent after Congo red staining (viewed with polarized light). Case 8.

    Multiple images of 1 diagnosis, style 2: Figure 1. Infectious laryngotracheitis, chicken. Immunohistochemistry for gallid alphaherpesvirus 1. Immunolabeling is present in epithelial cells of the trachea (a), conjunctiva (b), bronchus including intraluminal necrotic material (c, arrow), and parabronchi (d).

    Multiple images on a single theme: Figure 1. Histopathologic features of rhombencephalitis in ruminants with listeriosis. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE). a) Midbrain, cow. An early lesion contains a small aggregate of neutrophils and microglial cells (arrowheads). b) Midbrain, sheep. An acute lesion contains neutrophils and necrotic neurons (arrowhead). c) Medulla oblongata, cow. A subacute lesion contains macrophages and lymphocytes but few neutrophils. d) Medulla oblongata, cow. A chronic lesion contains multinucleated giant cells (arrowheads).

    Multiple images with different diagnoses: Figure 1. Reproductive tumors in Asian elephants. a) Leiomyoma, uterus. The myometrium is distorted by numerous variably sized masses. b) Anaplastic sarcoma, pelvic inlet. The mass contains spindyloid neoplastic cells with indistinct borders that are arranged in loose streams. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE). c) Primitive neuroectodermal tumor, uterus. Neoplastic cells are arranged in sheets and trabeculae with frequent rosettes. HE.

    Figure legends should not include information about the original magnification or magnification factors.

    For illustrations of other laboratory data such as graphs and photos of gels, figure legends should briefly summarize the methodology and indicate the important findings where necessary, at a level of detail that allows the reader to understand the data being presented. However, the text of the materials and methods or the results should not be repeated.

    Supplemental Figure legends should be submitted in a separate Word file.

    Citation of Figures and Tables in the Manuscript Text

    Figures and tables are numbered by the order they are cited in the text. For example, the first figure cited in the text is Figure 1, the second cited is Figure 2, etc.

    Notes in the text (eg. the manufacturer name [omit the location], or personal communications) are put in parentheses at the appropriate location within the text. Footnotes are used only for tables and are not used in the body of the text.


    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an ‘Acknowledgements’ section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    Declaration of Conflicting Interests

    State any potential conflicts of interest such as those related to financial support for the study or a financial interest in the study outcomes or product being tested (see also the above section “Conflict of Interest Policy”). If there are none, state: “The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


    List the sources of funding for the study (see also the above section “Conflict of Interest Policy”). If there was none, state: “The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

    Authors’ Contributions

    Using the authors’ initials, state each author’s contribution to the manuscript.  The recommended styles are as follows:

    DLB, JFG, and MLK designed and performed the experiments; BRC contributed to the experimental design; DLB, BRC, and YX performed histologic evaluations; FTL performed statistical analysis; the manuscript was written by DLB and BRC with contribution from the other authors.


    Only published materials or material that has been accepted for publication should be listed in the References section. In the case of accepted articles that are not yet available online, a copy of the letter of acceptance and the manuscript itself should be provided; these are uploaded as supplementary files, for viewing by the editorial staff and reviewers. Personal communications and personal observations should be used sparingly and cited in parentheses in the text (eg, JB Williams, personal communication).

    In the text, citations should be in superscript, have no parentheses, and follow all punctuation marks (eg, Previous studies have shown that mice are good models of this disease.1,7,9–11).

    The reference list should be arranged alphabetically and numbered consecutively. Journal abbreviations should be those used in PubMed.

    • Article in a journal, ≤6 authors: Holman RT, Wiese HF, Smith AN. Essential fatty acid deficiency. Am J Pathol. 1976;95:255–257.
    • Article in a journal, >6 authors (list the first 3, then et al.): Ortega J, Uzal FA, Walker R, et al. Zygomycotic lymphadenitis in slaughtered feedlot cattle. Am J Pathol. 2009;47:108–114.
    • Supplement in a journal: Nardley HJ. Sterols and keratinization. Br J Dermatol. 1969;81(Suppl 2):29–42.
    • Chapter in a book (for which each chapter has a different author): Sligh EG. Neutral lipid storage disease. In: Dyer WJ, ed. Biochemistry of Lipids. 5th ed. Academic Press; 1956.
    • Book (for which the entire book has the same authors): Modlin J, Jenkins P. Decision Analysis in Planning for a Polio Outbreak in the United States. Pediatric Academic Societies; 2004.
    • Digital references: Tseng V. Effect of noise reduction methods in the ICU on sleep quality. UC Irvine. June 8, 2016. Accessed August 17, 2016.
    • Preprints: Bloss CS, Wineinger NE, Peters M, et al. A prospective randomized trial examining health care utilization in individuals using multiple smartphone-enabled biosensors. Preprint. Posted online October 28, 2015. bioRxiv 029983. doi:10.1101/029983
    • References for data repositories and data: HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. Human Gene Nomenclature database search engine. Accessed March 14, 2018.

    Supplemental Materials

    Supplemental material is published electronically on the journal website and does not appear in the print version of the journal but is readily accessed from the journal’s website (from the citation of the paper and from the table of contents). In general, information that is necessary to understand and provide validity to the study (ie, information used by most readers) is included in the main part of the manuscript, whereas information that is needed only for detailed analysis and critique (ie, information to a small number of readers) should be moved to supplemental materials. By so doing, this can remove distractions, thereby making the paper easier to read and focusing readers’ attention on the key outcomes of the study. Information that should be included in Supplemental Materials and not in the main text of the paper includes:

    • Tables describing semi-quantitative scoring systems, unless the scoring system is a main outcome of the study.
    • Details of the methods that would be needed to replicate the findings or fully describe the methods, but are not needed for readers to understand the work that was done.
    • Tables of individual-animal data that are large or include >20 animals.
    • Tables containing large amounts of text or are too large to be printed in portrait orientation on one page. Tables must not have more than 130 characters (including spaces) per row.
    • Detailed tables of data that are adequately summarized in the text or are included for completeness or archiving of data but not needed to understand the main outcome of the study.
    • Additional photographs of lesions, or videos.

    Reference to each supplemental material should be made in the main text of the paper (eg.

    Supplemental Figure S1, Supplemental Table S2, etc.), and their legends/titles should be labeled in the same way.

    Supplemental Materials should be submitted in the format for publication because they are not type-set or edited by the publisher and are not provided with the page proofs.

    For Supplemental Figures, number each plate as Supplemental Figure S1, S2, etc. For each panel, include the letter (no number) in the lower left corner of the figure. Figure size and formatting are as described above; submit as TIF files. Begin the legend with the figure name (Supplemental Figure S1). Supplemental figures legends are grouped and submitted as a separate Word document.

    Supplemental tables should be single-spaced and may include borders as needed for clarity; the layout should be as published. Large tables of data may be posted online as an Excel file rather than a pdf file; please notify the editor of such requests.

    Types of Manuscripts

    Full Length Manuscripts

    Full-length manuscripts contain the following sections, in order: Introduction (untitled; no heading is included), Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, References, and Figure Legends. Logical subheadings (but not sub- subheadings) may be used for groups of ≥2 paragraphs. Tables should be uploaded to Manuscript Central as separate Word or Excel files, and Supplemental Figure legends should be grouped and uploaded in a separate Word file.

    Titles should be concise and clearly inform readers of the content of the manuscript, with important words placed near the beginning of the title. Titles should, where relevant, include the key aspects describing the nature of the work such as the name of the disease, specific molecules or cells, and animal species that is the focus of the work. Titles that focus on the outcome of the work are generally more effective that those based on the methods. Reviews should include the word “review” in the title and keywords.

    The Abstract should be informative rather than descriptive, and 250 words or less. The abstract should briefly summarize the rationale and methods for the study, but most of the abstract should be a detailed summary of the findings and their significance. Absolute numbers of subjects (either animals or tissue samples) should be given with the percentage in parentheses; for example, “75/250 tissues (30%) stained positively” (but, do not state the percentage if the denominator is less than 10).

    The abstract should mention (as appropriate) the species of animal, the number of animals studied, the organ system or tissue evaluated, the technology or methods used, and the disease process, as well as alternative names for the disease or causative agent when relevant. Linnean nomenclature (eg. sugar glider, Petaurus breviceps) should be included in the abstract for all but common domestic species.

    The Introduction may include a short summary of the disease or problem studied, a focused summary of relevant prior studies, the rationale for the investigation, and the specific objectives or hypotheses. The Introduction is not a comprehensive review of the disease or topic, but instead is focused on providing adequate background information for the reader to understand the study. The last paragraph of the introduction should normally include a clear statement of hypothesis or objectives of the study. The introduction should not describe the experimental approach, methodology, or results.

    The Materials and Methods describe the selection of case material (including their provenance, and inclusion and exclusion criteria), the methodology at a level of detail allowing knowledgeable colleagues to repeat the study, and the statistical analysis. Where relevant, authors should consult published standards for minimum information about reporting animal studies (ARRIVE guidelines), indicators of tumor prognosis (REMARK), diagnostic accuracy (STARD), experiments using proteomics (MIAPE) or quantitative real-time PCR (MIQE), and randomized clinical trials (CONSORT).

    Manuscripts reporting original research must include a statement of the data availability at the end of the Materials and Methods, which informs readers of whether the underlying data will be made available or not, and if so the location at which readers can access the data (and, when relevant, the date when the data will be made available and any restrictions on availability).

    This statement may take the following form: The data analyzed in this study are / are not available as Supplemental Materials (or by stating the name of the repository, permanent weblink, request to the author, etc.).

    Results should not be exhaustive, but instead focused on the major findings of the study. The text should not repeat the findings listed in tables or figures, but instead describe a different aspect of the findings. Results that are not critical to the conclusions of the study (including large tables of individual animal data and scoring systems for semi-quantification of lesions) should be moved to Supplemental Materials. Summary data are reported as absolute numbers with percentages; eg, “positive staining in 15/20 cases (75%)” (but, do not state the percentage if the denominator is less than 10). Statistical results described in the text or figure legend should normally mention the method used and the number per group (eg, P=0.015, Student’s t- test, n=12 cases per group).

    The Discussion often begins with a brief re- iteration of the main hypothesis or objectives and a summary of the main outcomes in relation to this rationale. Depending on the nature of the study, subsequent paragraphs may: (a) summarize the findings without repeating what was stated in the Results, (b) discuss the suitability or validity of the cases, methodology, or experimental system studied, (c) consider the possible interpretations of the data including corroboration or contradiction of the hypothesis,

    (d) develop an argument in support of the favored interpretation, (e) compare the findings with that of prior studies, (f) address any important limitations of the study, and (g) report the implications and importance of the findings without excessive speculation.

    The final paragraph of the discussion should summarize the major findings and practical recommendations based on the outcomes of the study. The methodology is not normally mentioned, but instead summarize the key findings of the paper that will be of value to readers. The conclusions should be stated specifically rather than as a generality, and they should not be speculative, but based on the factual outcomes of the study.

    Brief Communications and Case Reports

    Brief communications are used when the extent of the investigation or the findings do not warrant a full paper.

    Collections of ≤3 cases are normally considered a case report rather than a case series. A case report must provide a novel pathologic description of substantial value to veterinary pathologists. The following are not usually sufficient for publication as a case report: a known entity in an unusual species of animal, a neoplasm in an unusual location, concurrent finding of two unrelated conditions in the same animal, the first occurrence of a disease in a geographic region, or novel findings of trivial importance or that do not provide substantial value to readers. Multiple-animal case series of such disease conditions are encouraged if they are novel and advance knowledge in pathologic diagnosis, clinical relevance of pathologic findings, or understanding of disease mechanisms.

    Brief communications and case reports are limited to 4 pages of printed material: ≤1700 words in the body of the text, an abstract of ≤150 words, two plates of ≤8 figures total, no more than 1 table, and no more than 20 references. Additional information and photos, if relevant and of high quality, may be included as Supplemental Materials.

    Brief communications and case reports should have only the following headings: Abstract, Acknowledgements, References, and Figure Legends. Headings are not used for Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion.

    Abstracts for brief communications and case reports are limited to 150 words. For descriptions of >1 cases, the findings should be described in aggregate rather than as a series of individual case reports. Case reports focus on presenting the findings of the case and their interpretation and implications, not a review of the associated literature. The concluding paragraph should be a summary of the important novel features of the case.


    Authors are encouraged to discuss the content with editorial staff prior to writing review papers, to ensure the topic and scope are suitable for the journal. Reviews should include a title page, abstract, and key words as described above. The word “review” should be included in the title and keywords. Concise reviews focused on a narrowly defined topic are usually more effective than long reviews of a broad topic.

    Diagnostic Challenge in Veterinary Pathology

    The goal of “Diagnostic Challenge in Veterinary Pathology” (DCVP) is to provide continuing education to readers by presenting the diagnostic process for one or more cases of a particular disease, particularly in obtaining in definitive diagnosis in an otherwise challenging case or a case with multiple differential diagnoses.  Straightforward cases with “classic” lesions and that only involves confirmation of a single top differential diagnosis are discouraged.  Reports may include single cases, multiple cases, or herd problems. Cases must involve veterinary pathology and may also include information relevant to other disciplines. It is important to understand that the aim of the DCVP is not to cloak a case report. Submissions for DCVP do not need to contain novel information, and diseases frequently encountered in the veterinary pathology diagnostic routine are encouraged. Although authors could focus on the evaluation and interpretation of clinical signs and pathologic changes in a particular case or situation, submissions emphasizing a discussion of the differential diagnoses and critical approaches to a final diagnosis, including the role of laboratory testing and further clinical investigation, will be given more thorough consideration. Inconclusive cases in which only differential diagnoses could be achieved may be considered if exceptionally well-crafted and informative. However, it is expected that most suitable reports will include a solid final diagnosis.

    Submissions first will be considered by the editors. Those meeting the above criteria will be peer-reviewed as for other manuscripts.

    Diagnostic Challenges should include a cover letter explaining the value of the report to readers, as well as a title page (no abstract), one plate of color figures, and no more than 10 references. Figures and their legends must follow the above instructions (see Figures and Figure Legends). Follow the Instructions to Authors for preparing the title page, figures, figure legends, and references. Do not include an abstract or keywords. Figure legends should mention the organ and species but are not required to state the diagnosis. The text must be ≤1400 words and normally uses the following headings:

    • Clinical history, laboratory results, and gross findings
    • Differential diagnoses (if applicable)
    • Microscopic findings
    • Further investigations and diagnosis
    • Discussion

    The text and figures should be structured to present the initial case information (which may include one row of figures, 90 or 180 mm wide by ≤60 mm high) that allows readers to consider the nature of the problem and differential diagnoses, and a subsequent discussion of the case that reveals the additional investigations, the diagnosis, and the discussion of the diagnostic process (and usually includes a second plate of figures, 90 or 180 mm wide by ≤180 mm high).

    The article title should state the initial problem that is the basis for the diagnostic challenge, but not the final diagnosis. The title should begin with “Diagnostic Challenge in Veterinary Pathology: …” (for example: “Diagnostic Challenge in Veterinary Pathology: Alopecic Crusting Dermatitis in a Goat”).

    Submit Diagnostic Challenges via Manuscript Central: ( and choose Diagnostic Challenge as the article type.

    Meeting Reports

    Veterinary Pathology does not normally publish meeting reports but encourages submission of review papers arising from topics presented at meetings and conferences.

    Letters to the Editor

    Letters to the editor are considered for publication provided they have not been submitted or published elsewhere. Letters must provide scientific or educational value to readers. Subject matter can include useful critique of recent articles in Veterinary Pathology, current medical issues, and scientific issues relevant to the ACVP, ECVP, and JCVP

    Letters should be based on published references. Case descriptions, new unpublished data, or arguments promoting future research are not normally considered, unless they are of considerable timely significance. The suitability for publication is decided by the Editor.

    Letters are submitted via the online system as described above. All individuals submitting a letter must sign or be willing to sign the letter, and they must provide their full names, titles, institutional affiliations, and addresses. The principal submitter should also provide telephone and fax numbers and an e-mail address. All individuals submitting a letter must disclose any financial associations or other possible conflicts of interest related to the letter.

    Guest Editorials

    Guest editorials are normally solicited from experts by editorial staff, and usually refer to a recently published paper in the journal. The objective is to highlight papers with particular novelty or impact, to provide additional insights and value to the paper, and to provide a second perspective on the findings that will enhance reader's understanding or appreciation of the findings. They should provide additional background or a concise review of the topic area, include insights and additional dimensions beyond those given in the accompanying paper, and explain the significance of the research findings or the current event. Guest editorials must not be simply a summary of the paper’s methods and findings. Guest editorials are normally less than 1000 words, with no abstract or keywords, should be directed to a non- specialized audience, and are not normally peer- reviewed. Authors are encouraged to include figures.


    Commentaries provide insight, perspective, and factually based opinion on a topic of current scientific interest to readers. A pre-submission inquiry to the editor is recommended. Commentaries may or may not be peer- reviewed, depending on the nature of the content.

    Image Challenge

    Veterinary Pathology invites submission of original, high-quality gross, histology, or cytology images for consideration as an Image Challenge, along with a multiple choice question and answer. The aim is to share exceptional images and to help readers improve their knowledge. The Image Challenge is not a case report. It uses case-based images to illustrate and educate on a common theme. The primary criteria are 1) the condition is interesting, 2) the image shows a typical example, 3) readers must be able to formulate a diagnosis based on the single image without magnification, and 4) the image is of high quality. Images should show typical findings or common variants of known conditions rather than “once-in-a-lifetime” cases or atypical case presentations.

    Each submission should include one original high-quality color image as a TIF file, and question and answer text submitted as a single Word file. One or 2 additional TIFF images may be used to support the answer. The image must be in sharp focus and clearly show the features described, and readers must be able to formulate a diagnosis based on the single image without magnification. The image should be 90 mm wide, 300 dpi, and RGB (not CMYK) image mode. Do not include the figure number in the lower left corner or a border. Images for questions should not have any annotations. If annotations (arrows, asterisks, etc.) are included in images for answers, please also send the same image without annotations. Do not include scale bars in gross or histologic images unless it is essential for diagnosis.

    The multiple choice question should have 3-4 possible and viable answers. Indicate the species and anatomic location. The answer paragraph should be no more than 100 words and should highlight the distinguishing pathological features of the correct answer. The answer paragraph should also briefly mention why each other foil is incorrect. For each question, the name of a single contributor and their affiliation will be placed at the end of the answer. Unsuitable images will be returned; the publication of potentially suitable images may be delayed until a theme-based collection is assembled.

    Contributors must agree to a non-exclusive grant of rights and a declaration of potential conflicting interests. Submissions must be original images and information that have not been published previously and are not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

    For consideration, email the image, question, and answer to: Image Challenges are submitted via this email address, not through the usual website for submission of manuscripts.


    Obituaries, normally of college members or those with a particular relationship with the colleges, are published without charge for the first page. Subsequent pages incur a cost of US$100 per page. One page is approximately 480 words with a 90 x 70 mm photo, or 700 words text-only. Please submit through as for a usual manuscript.

    Production and Page Proof Corrections: Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal SAGE Edit or by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence, and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. Please note that if there are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to complete and sign a form authorising the change.

    Page proofs will be e-mailed to the author about 3 weeks from the date that the article was submitted to the publisher. Proofs should be checked carefully for typographical errors, mathematical errors, and any other necessary corrections. Please ensure that all tables and figures are correct, including their headers, content, and spacing and alignment. The journal editor will need to approve any substantial rewriting. These proofs are an opportunity to correct any errors that may have been introduced during the production process, not an opportunity for rewriting. In addition to journal editor approval, a fee of $2 per line will be charged for extensive rewriting not due to SAGE error or request. Instructions for how to submit page proof corrections will be e-mailed with page proofs. Supplemental files are published online as submitted (they are not typeset or edited by the publisher) and are not included with the page proofs.


    Version: 26-Feb-2023

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