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Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics

Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics

eISSN: 19351054 | ISSN: 10769986 | Current volume: 49 | Current issue: 3 Frequency: Bi-monthly
The Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics provides an outlet for papers that are original and provide methods that are useful to those studying problems and issues in educational or behavioral research. Typical papers introduce new methods of analysis. Critical reviews of current practice, tutorial presentations of less well known methods, and novel applications of already-known methods are also of interest. Papers discussing statistical techniques without specific educational or behavioral interest or focusing on substantive results without developing new statistical methods or models or making novel use of existing methods have lower priority. Simulation studies, either to demonstrate properties of an existing method or to compare several existing methods (without providing a new method), also have low priority. 

Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, sponsored jointly by the American Educational Research Association and the American Statistical Association, publishes articles that are original and provide methods that are useful to those studying problems and issues in educational or behavioral research. Typical papers introduce new methods of analysis, provide properties of these methods, and an example of use in education or behavioral research. Critical reviews of current practice, tutorial presentations of less well-known methods, and novel applications of already-known methods are also of interest. Papers discussing statistical techniques without specific educational or behavioral interest or focusing on substantive results without developing new statistical methods or models or making novel use of existing methods have lower priority. Simulation studies, either to demonstrate properties of an existing method or to compare several existing methods (without providing a new method), also have low priority.

Steven Culpepper University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Gongjun Xu University of Michigan, USA
Associate Editors
Yinghan Chen University of Nevada, Reno, USA
Peng Ding University of California – Berkeley, USA
Minjeong Jeon University of California - Los Angeles, USA
Steffi Pohl Freie Universität Berlin, Germany
Shiyu Wang University of Georgia, USA
Editorial Assistant
Anqi Li University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Editorial Board
Ulf Bockenholt Northwestern University, USA
Daniel Bolt University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
Katherine Castellano Educational Testing Service, USA
Wendy Chan University of Pennsylvania, USA
Yunxiao Chen London School of Economics, UK
Kilchan Choi University of California - Los Angeles, USA
Ben Domingue Stanford University, USA
Jeffrey Douglas University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Carl Falk McGill University, Canada
Jean-Paul Fox University of Twente, Netherlands
Jorge Gonzalez Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Chile
Yuqi Gu Columbia University, USA
Qiwei He Georgetown University, USA
Kosuke Imai Harvard University, USA
Paul Jewsbury Educational Testing Service, USA
Hyeon-Ah Kang The University of Texas at Austin, USA
Brian Keller University of Missouri, USA
Bryan Keller Teachers College, Columbia University, USA
Justin Kern University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Nidhi Kohli University of Minnesota, USA
Hok Chio Lai University of Southern California, USA
Roy Levy Arizona State University, USA
Yang Liu University of Maryland, USA
Nicholas T. Longford Imperial College London, UK
Wenchao Ma The University of Alabama, USA
Matthew Madison The University of Georgia, USA
Luke Miratrix Harvard University, USA
Dylan Molenaar University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
Kristopher J. Preacher Vanderbilt University, USA
James Pustejovsky University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
Christopher Rhoads University of Connecticut Storrs, USA
Leslie Rutkowski University of Indiana Bloomington
Peter Z. Schochet Mathematica Inc, USA
Benjamin Shear University of Colorado Boulder, USA
Yongyun Shin Virginia Commonwealth University, USA
Yajuan Si University of Michigan, USA
Jessaca Spybrook Western Michigan University, USA
Peter M. Steiner University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
Tracy Sweet University of Maryland, College Park, USA
Xueying Tang University of Arizona, USA
Elizabeth Tipton Northwestern University, USA
Jeroen K. Vermunt Tilburg University, Netherlands
Chun Wang University of Washington, USA
Shiyu Wang University of Georgia, USA
Xiaojing Wang University of Connecticut, USA
Marie Wiberg Umeå University, Sweden
Ji Seung Yang University of Maryland, USA
Ke-Hai Yuan University of Notre Dame, USA
Susu Zhang University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Past Editors
Li Cai 2015–2019
Larry V. Hedges (1998–2001)
Lawrence J. Hubert (1980–1985)
Matthew Johnson (2011–2014)
Jan de Leeuw (1993–1997)
Daniel McCaffrey (2015–2019)
Melvin R. Novick Founding Editor (1976–1979)
David Rindskopf (2008–2010)
Juliet P. Shaffer (1986–1989)
Sandip Sinharay (2011–2014)
David Thissen (2005–2007)
Robert K. Tsutakawa (1990–1992)
Howard Wainer (2002–2004)
Management Committee
Betsy J. Becker (ASA) 2020–2022
Derek Briggs (AERA) 2019–2022
Thesia I. Garner (ASA) 2020–2022
Andrew Ho (AERA) 2018–2022
Publications Staff
Felice J. Levine AERA Executive Director
John Neikirk AERA Director of Publications
Audrey Poe AERA Publications Associate
  • Clarivate Analytics: Current Contents - Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences
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  • ERIC (Education Resources Information Center)
  • ProQuest Education Journals
  • PsycINFO
  • Scopus
  • Social SciSearch
  • Social Sciences Citation Index (Web of Science)
  • Wilson Education Index/Abstracts
  • All manuscripts should be submitted electronically via Manuscript submissions by e-mail will not be accepted.

    For questions or inquiries about manuscripts, email the editors. Authors are encouraged to read the new editors' editorial.

    Publication Standards

    Researchers submitting manuscripts should consult the Standards for Reporting on Research in AERA Publications and the Ethical Standards of the American Educational Research Association.

    Manuscript Style, Length, and Format

    The style guide for all AERA journals is the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2019, available from Order Department, American Psychological Association, P.O. Box 2710, Hyattsville, MD 20784.

    Manuscripts should not exceed 40 pages total, including all tables, appendixes, notes, and references. Pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the page after the title page. Manuscripts should be typed for 8½” x 11” paper, in upper and lower case, double-spaced, with 1-inch margins on all sides. The type size should be at least 12 point. Figures and tables are to be embedded in the text near where they are first referenced. Subheads should be placed at reasonable intervals to break the monotony of lengthy text.

    Sentence structure, not italics, should be used to create emphasis; words to be set in italics should be typed in italics, not underlined (contrary to the rule in the style manual). Abbreviations and acronyms should be spelled out at first mention unless they are found as entries in their abbreviated form in Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed., 2003 (e.g., “IQ” needs no explanation). Mathematical symbols and Greek letters should be precise and clear and should leave no question as to interpretation; they should be clearly marked to indicate italics, boldface, superscript, and subscript.

    Notes are for explanations or amplifications of textual material, not for reference information. They are distracting to readers and expensive to set and should be avoided whenever possible. They should be typed as normal text at the end of the text section of the manuscript rather than as part of the footnote or endnote feature of a computer program and should be numbered consecutively throughout the article.

    A reference list contains only references that are cited in the text. Its accuracy and completeness are the responsibility of the author(s). Reference each publicly available dataset with its title, author, date, and a persistent Web identifier such as a digital object identifier (DOI), a handle, or a uniform resource name (URN). If necessary, this last element may be replaced by a web address and an access date. Personal communications (letters, memos, telephone conversations) are cited in the text after the name with as exact a date as possible. Sample references in APA style are shown below:

    Bobrow, D. G., & Collins, A. M. (Eds.). (1975). Representation and understanding: Studies in cognitive science. New York: Academic Press.

    Crothers, E. (1972). Memory structure and the recall of discourse. In R. O. Freedle & J. B. Carroll (Eds.), Language comprehension and the acquisition of knowledge (pp. 201–238). Washington, DC: Winston.

    Frase, L. T. (1968). Questions as aids to reading: Some research and a theory. American Educational Research Journal, 5, 319–322.

    Figures and tables should present data to the reader in a clear and unambiguous manner. If illustration and text are redundant, eliminate the illustration or reduce the amount of detail provided in text. Figures and tables should be included in the text around where they are first referenced. Figure captions should be included with the figures following APA guidelines. Once papers are accepted for publication, tables and one high-quality electronic version of each figure will need to be submitted as separate files with captions on a separate page. However, for manuscripts under review, tables, figures, and their captions should be included in the body of the text and not held at the end of the manuscript.

    Submission Preparation Checklist

    As part of the submission process, please check off your submission’s compliance with the requirements listed below. If your submission does not meet these requirements, it may be returned to you.

    1. The submission has not been previously published and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; or an explanation has been provided in the Cover Letter.
    2. THE MANUSCRIPT CONTAINS NO IDENTIFYING INFORMATION, EVEN ON THE TITLE PAGE. The author’s name has been removed from the document’s Properties, which in Microsoft Word is found in the File menu (select “File,” “Properties,” “Summary,” and remove the author’s name; select “OK” to save). Citations and references, even to self-cited works, should be complete, but there should be nothing obvious to tie the author to a self-cited work. For example, "As I wrote in Smith (2008)..." is unacceptable; it should instead be "As Smith (2008) wrote..." or "As was written in Smith (2008)..."
    3. The text conforms to APA style and the requirements stated above under “Manuscript Style, Length, and Format.”
    4. The submission is in LaTex or Microsoft Word (.docx – please use 2010 version or later). Any supplemental files are in Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, or PDF. If uploading a LaTeX file, please include a PDF file of the submission.
    5. All URL addresses in the manuscript (e.g., are activated and ready to click.
    6. An abstract of 100–120 words is included. Please also include a few keywords, the terms that researchers will use to find your article in indexes and databases. Such a term may contain more than one word. Articles in AERA journals typically list 3 to 5 keywords.
    7. All manuscripts should include a separate title page document (designated as Title Page) which includes: 1) title of the article; 2) corresponding author's full name, current position, affiliation, institutional and email address, telephone and fax numbers; 3) co-author(s)' full name(s) and affiliation(s); and 4) a short biographical note of each author in the format: AUTHOR NAME is a position title at Organization Name, Address, City, State Abbreviation Zip Code; e-mail: His/her research interests are such and such… .
    8. Manuscripts should be submitted electronically via For specific questions or inquiries, email the editors. Manuscripts may not be submitted by e-mail.

    Before submitting your manuscript, please ensure that all identifying information has been removed! If you have submitted a manuscript with identifying information, you will need to replace the submitted file with a new, anonymize copy before review of your submission can proceed.

    How to Get Help With the Quality of English in Your Submission

    Authors who want to refine the use of English in their manuscripts might consider using the services of SPi, a nonaffiliated company that offers professional editing services to authors of journal articles in science, technology, medicine, and the social sciences. SPi specializes in editing and correcting English-language manuscripts written by authors whose primary language is not English. Visit for more information about SPi’s services, pricing, and turnaround times; to obtain a free price quote; or to submit a manuscript for language polishing.

    Please be aware that Sage has no affiliation with SPi and makes no endorsement of the company. Your use of SPi’s services in no way guarantees that your submission will be accepted. Any arrangement that you enter into will be exclusively between you and SPi, and any costs incurred are your sole responsibility.

    Copyright Information

    No written or oral permission is necessary to reproduce a table, a figure, or an excerpt of fewer than 500 words from this journal, or to make photocopies for classroom use. Authors are granted permission, without fee, to photocopy their own material or make printouts from the final pdf of their article. Copies must include a full and accurate bibliographic citation and the following credit line: “Copyright [year] by the American Educational Research Association; reproduced with permission from the publisher.” Written permission must be obtained to reproduce or reprint material in circumstances other than those just described. Please direct all requests for permission or for further information on policies and fees to the journal’s Website at

    For authors who use figures or other material for which they do not own copyright:

    Authors who wish to use material, such as figures or tables, for which they do not own the copyright must obtain written permission from the copyright holder (usually the publisher) and submit it along with their manuscript. (However, no written or oral permission is necessary to reproduce a table, a figure, or an excerpt of fewer than 500 words from an AERA journal.)

    For authors of joint works (articles with more than one author):

    This journal uses a transfer of copyright agreement that requires just one author (the corresponding author) to sign on behalf of all authors. Please identify the corresponding author for your work when submitting your manuscript for review. The corresponding author will be responsible for the following:

    • Ensuring that all authors are identified on the copyright agreement, and notifying the editorial office of any changes in the authorship.
    • Securing written permission (by letter or e-mail) from each co-author to sign the copyright agreement on the co-author’s behalf.
    • Warranting and indemnifying the journal owner and publisher on behalf of all co-authors. Although such instances are very rare, you should be aware that in the event that a co-author has included content in his or her portion of the article that infringes the copyright of another or is otherwise in violation of any other warranty listed in the agreement, you will be the sole author indemnifying the publisher and the editor of the journal against such violation.

    Please contact AERA if you have questions or if you prefer to use a copyright agreement for all coauthors to sign.

    Privacy Statement

    The names and e-mail addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.


    The Publications Committee welcomes comments and suggestions from authors. Please send these to the Publications Committee in care of the AERA central office.

    Right of Reply

    The right of reply policy encourages comments on recently published articles in AERA publications. They are, of course, subject to the same editorial review and decision process as articles. If the comment is accepted for publication, the editor shall inform the author of the original article. If the author submits a reply to the comment, the reply is also subject to editorial review and decision. The editor may allot a specific amount of journal space for the comment (ordinarily about 1,500 words) and for the reply (ordinarily about 750 words). The reply may appear in the same issue as the comment or in a later issue (Council, June 1980).

    If an article is accepted for publication in an AERA journal that, in the judgment of the editor, has as its main theme or thrust a critique of a specific piece of work or a specific line of work associated with an individual or program of research, then the individual or representative of the research program whose work is critiqued should be notified in advance about the upcoming publication and given the opportunity to reply, ideally in the same issue. The author of the original article should also be notified. Normal guidelines for length and review of the reply and publication of a rejoinder by the original article’s author(s) should be followed. Articles in the format “an open letter to …” may constitute prototypical exemplars of the category defined here, but other formats may well be used, and would be included under the qualifications for response prescribed here (Council, January 2002).


    Authors who believe that their manuscripts were not reviewed in a careful or timely manner and in accordance with AERA procedures should call the matter to the attention of the Association’s executive officer or president.

    Sage Choice and Open Access

    If you or your funder wish your article to be freely available online to nonsubscribers immediately upon publication (gold open access), you can opt for it to be included in Sage Choice, subject to payment of a publication fee. The manuscript submission and peer review procedure is unchanged. On acceptance of your article, you will be asked to let Sage know directly if you are choosing Sage Choice. To check journal eligibility and the publication fee, please visit Sage Choice. For more information on open access options and compliance at Sage, including self author archiving deposits (green open access) visit Sage Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.

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