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Essentials of Social Statistics for a Diverse Society

Essentials of Social Statistics for a Diverse Society

Second Edition

October 2014 | 408 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Essentials of Social Statistics for a Diverse Society, Second Edition provides students with a briefer, less expensive version of the successful Social Statistics for a Diverse Society, now in its Seventh Edition. As in the parent text, this concise statistics text puts a strong emphasis on the theme of diversity, which is illustrated through the use of real data in examples from contemporary social issues. The book’s informational and inviting writing style, coupled with the use of real-world examples and data applications, makes the book a more accessible and engaging resource for students.

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CHAPTER 1: The What and the Why of Statistics
The Research Process

Asking Research Questions

The Role of Theory

Formulating the Hypotheses

Collecting Data

A Cautionary Note: Measurement Error

Analyzing Data and Evaluating the Hypotheses

Looking at Social Differences

CHAPTER 2: The Organization and Graphic Presentation of Data
Frequency Distributions

Proportions and Percentages

Percentage Distributions


Statistics in Practice: Labor Force Participation Among Foreign Born

The Construction of Frequency Distributions

Cumulative Distributions


Statistics in Practice: Civilian Labor Force Participation Rates Over Time

Reading the Research Literature: Statistical Tables

The Pie Chart: Race and Ethnicity of the Elderly

The Bar Graph: Marital Status of the Elderly

The Histogram

Statistics in Practice: Gender and Age

The Line Graph

Time-Series Charts

A Cautionary Note: Distortions in Graphs

Statistics in Practice: The Graphic Presentation of Education

CHAPTER 3: Measures of Central Tendency
The Mode

The Median

Statistics in Practice: Gendered Income Inequality

The Mean

Finding the Mean in a Frequency Distribution

The Shape of the Distribution: Television, Education, and Siblings

Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Central Tendency

A Cautionary Note: Representing Income

CHAPTER 4: Measures of Variability
The Importance of Measuring Variability

The Range

The Interquartile Range: Increases in Elderly Population

The Variance and the Standard Deviation: Changes in the Elderly Populations

Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Variation

Reading the Research Literature: Differences in College Aspirations and Expectations Among

CHAPTER 5: The Normal Distribution
Properties of the Normal Distribution

Standard (Z) Scores

The Standard Normal Distribution

The Standard Normal Table

Transforming Proportions (or Percentages) Into Z Scores

CHAPTER 6: Sampling and Sampling Distributions
The Concept of the Sampling Distribution

The Sampling Distribution of the Mean

The Central Limit Theorem

Statistics in Practice: The Central Limit Theorem

CHAPTER 7: Estimation
Estimation Defined

Procedures for Estimating Confidence Intervals for Means

Confidence Intervals for Proportions

Statistics in Practice: The 2012 Benghazi Terrorist Attack Investigation

A Cautionary Note: The Margin of Error

CHAPTER 8: Testing Hypotheses
Assumptions of Statistical Hypothesis Testing

Stating the Research and Null Hypotheses

Determining What Is Sufficiently Improbable: Probability Values and Alpha

The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary

Errors in Hypothesis Testing

Statistics in Practice: The Earnings of White Women

Testing Hypotheses About Two Samples

The Sampling Distribution of the Difference Between Means

Population Variances Are Assumed to Be Unequal

The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing About Difference Between Means: A Summary

Focus on Interpretation: Cigarette Use Among Teens

Testing the Significance of the Difference Between Two Sample Proportions

Statistics in Practice: Comparing First- and Second-Generation Hispanic Americans

Is There a Significant Difference?

Reading the Research Literature: Reporting the Results of Statistical Hypothesis Testing

CHAPTER 9: Bivariate Tables
Independent and Dependent Variables

How to Construct a Bivariate Table: Race and Home Ownership

How to Compute Percentages in a Bivariate Table

How to Deal With Ambiguous Relationships Between Variables

Reading the Research Literature: Place of Death in America

The Properties of a Bivariate Relationship


The Concept of Chi-Square as a Statistical Test

The Concept of Statistical Independence

The Structure of Hypothesis Testing With Chi-Square

Sample Size and Statistical Significance for Chi-Square

Focus on Interpretation: Education and Health Assessment

Proportional Reduction of Error: A Brief Introduction

What Is Strong? What Is Weak? A Guide to Interpretation

Lambda: A Measure of Association for Nominal Variables

Cramer’s V: A Chi-Square-Related Measure of Association for Nominal Variables

Focus on Interpretation: Gamma and Kendall’s Tau-b

Using Ordinal Measures With Dichotomous Variables

Focus on Interpretation: The Gender Gap in Gun Control

CHAPTER 10: Analysis of Variance
Understanding Analysis of Variance

The Structure of Hypothesis Testing With ANOVA

The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary

Assessing the Relationship Between Variables

Focus on Interpretation: Are Immigrants Good for America’s Economy?

Reading the Research Literature: Stresses and Strains Among Grandmother Caregivers

CHAPTER 11: Regression and Correlation
The Scatter Diagram

Linear Relations and Prediction Rules

Statistics in Practice: Median Household Income and Criminal Behavior

Methods for Assessing the Accuracy of Predictions

Statistics in Practice: Teen Pregnancy and Social Inequality

Focus on Interpretation: The Marriage Penalty in Earnings

A Cautionary Note: Spurious Correlations and Confounding Effects

Appendix A. The Standard Normal Table
Appendix B. Distribution of t
Appendix C. Distribution of Chi-Square
Appendix D. Distribution of F
Appendix E. A Basic Math Review
Learning Check Solutions
Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises


Student Study Site

SAGE edge for students provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.

  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts.
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material.
  • A customized online action plan includes tips and feedback on progress through the course and materials, which allows students to individualize their learning experience.
  • Web exercises and meaningful web links facilitate student use of internet resources, further exploration of topics, and responses to critical thinking questions.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter.
  • Access to five new data sets including GSS 2010, HINTS 2012, MTF 2011, and Global 2013.
Instructors Resource Site

SAGE edge for instructors supports teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.

  • Test banks provide a diverse range of prewritten options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for structuring one’s course.
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia
    presentation for the course.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter to encourage students to think critically.
  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts by chapter to ease preparation for lectures and class discussions.
  • Lively and stimulating ideas for class activities that can be used in class to reinforce active learning.
  • Chapter-specific discussion questions help launch classroom interaction by prompting students to engage with the material and by reinforcing important content.
  • A course cartridge provides easy LMS integration.

This text provides concise explanations of statistics. Theory is explained clearly and would help any student understand the basic principles. The examples provided for each topic are beneficial and provides the reader with the opportunity to gain a deeper level of knowledge and understanding.

Miss Ella Malton
Department of Health & Social Studies, Grimsby Institute of HE And FE
January 16, 2018

Social Statistics for a Diverse Society is a good introduction for students who need to look at statistics. The information is clear and concise which makes it easier for students to follow and it is packed with relevant examples from real data collections of social issues which makes it relevant to students. This book also supports students with interpreting the data, focusing on the diverse society which enables them to identify key concepts.

Mrs Helen Clarke
Health, Salisbury College
March 5, 2018

This text offers students a one-stop shop for quantitative analysis. It provides clear instruction through quantitative analysis methods and uses contemporary and accessible data sets to enable readers to see the significance and relevance. An highly recommended text.

Mr Paul Matthews
School of Hospitality, Tourism & Events, University College Birmingham
June 22, 2016

Although an excellent and interesting read, the book was not suitable for the module I teach on. Excellent read though!

Miss Elizabeth Selina Green
Business and Law, University of the West Of England
June 9, 2015

Recommended resurce, and also shared with other faculty teaching stats and research methods.

Dr Mudita Rastogi
School Of Psych Behav Sci, Argosy University-Schaumburg
April 2, 2015

The technical information was clearly presented. I appreciated the critical stance on social science.

Ms Casadi Marino
Grad School Of Social Work, Portland State University
April 2, 2015

It is a more user-friendly stats book compared to Weinbach & Grinnell. The use of illustrations and layout increase the user-friendliness of the textbook.

Ms Beckie Child
Grad School Of Social Work, Portland State University
February 3, 2015

Seems straightforward and accessible. I appreciate the focus on diversity for the examples.

Sarah Carroll
Clinical Psychology, Wright Institute
January 5, 2015

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 1

Chapter 9

Anna Y. Leon-Guerrero

Anna Leon-Guerrero is Professor of Sociology at Pacific Lutheran University in Washington. She received her PhD in sociology from the University of California–Los Angeles. She was the recipient of the university’s Faculty Excellence Award and the K. T. Tang Award for Excellence. She is the author of and Social Problems: Community, Policy, and Social Action, 7th Edition, and co-author (with Chava Frankfort-Nachmias and Georgiann Davis) of Social Statistics for a Diverse Society, 10th Edition (both with Sage).  More About Author

Chava Frankfort-Nachmias

Chava Frankfort-Nachmias is an Emeritus Professor of Sociology at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. She is the coauthor of Research Methods in the Social Sciences (with David Nachmias), coeditor of Sappho in the Holy Land (with Erella Shadmi), and numerous publications on ethnicity and development, urban revitalization, science and gender, and women in Israel. She was the recipient of the University of Wisconsin System teaching improvement grant on integrating race, ethnicity, and gender into the social statistics and research methods curriculum. More About Author

Also available as a South Asia Edition.

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ISBN: 9781483359496