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Essential Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences

Essential Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences

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January 2015 | 576 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Employing the hallmark pedagogical support of his successful comprehensive text, award-winning author, teacher, and advisor Gregory J. Privitera offers a brief and engaging introduction to the field with Essential Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. Practical examples, integrated SPSS® coverage and screenshots, and numerous learning tools make intimidating concepts accessible. Students will welcome Privitera's clear instruction, conversational voice, and application of statistics to current, real-life research problems.

This title is available on WebAssign, allowing instructors to produce and manage assignments with their students online using a grade book that allows them to track and monitor students' progress. Students receive unlimited practice using a combination of multiple choice and algorithmic questions, and are allowed unlimited access to this edition of the textbook in the same course at no additional cost. WebAssign provides instant feedback and links directly to the accompanying eBook section where the concept was covered, allowing students to find the correct solution.

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Part I: Introduction and Descriptive Statistics
Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics
The Use of Statistics in Science  
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics  
Research Methods and Statistics  
Scales of Measurement  
Types of Variables for Which Data are Measured  
Research in Focus: Evaluating Data and Scales of Measurement  
SPSS in Focus: Entering and Defining Variables  
Chapter 2: Summarizing Data: Frequency Distributions in Tables and Graphs
Why Summarize Data?  
Frequency Distributions for Grouped Data  
Identifying Percentile Points and Percentile Ranks  
SPSS in Focus: Frequency Distributions for Quantitative Data  
Frequency Distributions for Ungrouped Data  
Research in Focus: Summarizing Demographic Information  
SPSS in Focus: Frequency Distribution for Categorical Data  
Graphing Distributions: Continuous Data  
Graphing Distributions: Discrete and Categorical Data  
Research in Focus: Frequencies and Percents  
SPSS in Focus: Histograms, Bar Charts, and Pie Charts  
Chapter 3: Summarizing Data: Central Tendency
Introduction to Central Tendency  
Measures of Central Tendency  
Characteristics of the Mean  
Choosing an Appropriate Measure of Central Tendency  
Research in Focus: Describing Central Tendency  
SPSS in Focus: Mean, Median, and Mode  
Chapter 4: Summarizing Data: Variability
Measuring Variability  
Range and Interquartile Range  
Research in Focus: Reporting the Range  
The Variance  
Explaining Variance for Populations and Samples  
The Computational Formula for Variance  
The Standard Deviation  
What Does the Standard Deviation Tell Us?  
Characteristics of the Standard Deviation  
SPSS in Focus: Range, Variance, and Standard Deviation  
Part II: Probability and the Foundations of Inferential Statistics
Chapter 5: Probability, Normal Distribution, and z Scores
Introduction to Probability  
Calculating Probability  
Probability and the Normal Distribution  
Characteristics of the Normal Distribution  
Research in Focus: The Statistical Norm  
The Standard Normal Distribution and z Scores  
A Brief Introduction to the Unit Normal Table  
Locating Proportions  
Locating Scores  
SPSS in Focus: Converting Raw Scores to Standard z Scores  
Chapter 6: Characteristics of the Sample Mean
Selecting Samples From Populations  
Selecting a Sample: Who’s In and Who’s Out?  
Sampling Distributions: The Mean  
The Standard Error of the Mean  
Factors That Decrease Standard Error  
SPSS in Focus: Estimating the Standard Error of the Mean  
APA in Focus: Reporting the Standard Error  
Standard Normal Transformations With Sampling Distributions  
Chapter 7: Hypothesis Testing: Significance, Effect Size, and Power
Inferential Statistics and Hypothesis Testing  
Four Steps to Hypothesis Testing  
Hypothesis Testing and Sampling Distributions  
Making a Decision: Types of Error  
Testing Significance: Examples Using the z Test  
Research in Focus: Directional Versus Nondirectional Tests  
Measuring the Size of an Effect: Cohen’s d  
Effect Size, Power, and Sample Size  
Additional Factors That Increase Power  
SPSS in Focus: A Preview for Chapters 8 to 14  
APA in Focus: Reporting the Test Statistic and Effect Size  
Part III: Making Inferences About One or Two Means
Chapter 8: Testing Means: One-Sample t Test With Confidence Intervals
Going From z to t  
The Degrees of Freedom  
Reading the t Table  
Computing the One–Sample t Test  
Effect Size for the One-Sample t Test  
Confidence Intervals for the One-Sample t Test  
Inferring Significance and Effect Size From a Confidence Interval  
SPSS in Focus: One–Sample t Test and Confidence Intervals  
APA in Focus: Reporting the t Statistic and Confidence Intervals  
Chapter 9: Testing Means: Two-Independent-Sample t Test With Confidence Intervals
Introduction to the Between-Subjects Design  
Selecting Samples for Comparing Two Groups  
Variability and Comparing Differences Between Two Groups  
Computing the Two-Independent–Sample t Test  
Effect Size for the Two-Independent-Sample t Test  
Confidence Intervals for the Two-Independent-Sample t Test  
Inferring Significance and Effect Size From a Confidence Interval  
SPSS in Focus: Two-Independent–Sample t Test and Confidence Intervals  
APA in Focus: Reporting the t Statistic and Confidence Intervals  
Chapter 10: Testing Means: Related-Samples t Test With Confidence Intervals
Related Samples Design  
Introduction to the Related-Samples t Test  
Computing the Related-Samples t Test  
Measuring Effect Size for the Related-Samples t Test  
Confidence Intervals for the Related-Samples t Test  
Inferring Significance and Effect Size From a Confidence Interval  
SPSS in Focus: Related-Samples t Test and Confidence Intervals  
APA in Focus: Reporting the t Statistic and Confidence Intervals  
Part IV: Making Inferences About The Variability of Two or More Means
Chapter 11: One-Way Analysis of Variance: Between-Subjects and Within-Subjects (Repeated-Measures) Designs
An Introduction to Analysis of Variance  
The Between-Subjects Design for Analysis of Variance  
Computing the One-Way Between-Subjects ANOVA  
Post Hoc Tests: An Example Using Tukey’s HSD  
SPSS in Focus: The One-Way Between-Subjects ANOVA  
The Within-Subjects Design for Analysis of Variance  
Computing the One-Way Within-Subjects ANOVA  
Post Hoc Tests for the Within-Subjects Design  
SPSS in Focus: The One-Way Within-Subjects ANOVA  
A Comparison of Within-Subjects and Between-Subjects Designs for ANOVA: Implications for Power  
APA in Focus: Reporting the Results of the One-Way ANOVAs  
Chapter 12: Two-Way Analysis of Variance: Between-Subjects Factorial Design
Introduction to Factorial Designs  
Structure and Notation for the Two-Way ANOVA  
Describing Variability: Main Effects and Interactions  
Computing the Two-Way Between-Subjects ANOVA  
Analyzing Main Effects and Interactions  
Measuring Effect Size for Main Effects and the Interaction  
SPSS in Focus: The Two-Way Between-Subjects ANOVA  
APA in Focus: Reporting the Results of the Two-Way ANOVAs  
Part V: Making Inferences About Patterns, Prediction, and Nonparametric Tests
Chapter 13: Correlation and Linear Regression
The Structure of Data Used for Identifying Patterns and Making Predictions  
Fundamentals of the Correlation  
The Pearson Correlation Coefficient  
SPSS in Focus: Pearson Correlation Coefficient  
Assumptions and Limitations for Linear Correlations  
Alternatives to Pearson: Spearman, Point-Biserial, and Phi  
SPSS in Focus; Computing the Alternatives to Pearson  
Fundamentals of Linear Regression  
Using the Method of Least Squares to Find the Regression Line  
Using Analysis of Regression to Determine Significance  
SPSS in Focus: Analysis of Regression  
A Look Ahead to Multiple Regression  
APA in Focus: Reporting Correlations and Linear Regression  
Chapter 14: Chi-Square Tests: Goodness-of-Fit and the Test for Independence
Distinguishing Parametric and Nonparametric Tests  
The Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test  
SPSS in Focus: The Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test  
Interpreting the Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test  
The Chi-Square Test for Independence  
Measures of Effect Size for the Chi-Square Test for Independence  
SPSS in Focus: The Chi-Square Test for Independence  
APA in Focus: Reporting the Chi-Square Tests  
Appendix A: Basic Math Review and Summation Notation  
Appendix B: Statistical Tables  
Appendix C: Chapter Solutions for Even-Numbered Problems  


Instructor Teaching Site

SAGE edge for Instructors, a password-protected instructor resource site, supports teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students. The following chapter-specific assets are available on the teaching site:

  • Test banks written by Greg Privitera provide a diverse range of questions as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding
  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts by chapter to assist in the preparation of lectures and class discussions
  • Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for structuring a course
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for the course
  • Answer keys for all problems featured in the book and in the SPSS Workbook assist in grading student work
  • Tables and figures from the book are provided for use in your course
  • Course cartridge for easy LMS integration is included
Student Study Site

SAGE edge for Students provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment. The open-access study site includes:


  • SPSS in Focus Screencasts that accompany each SPSS in Focus section from the book show you how to use SPSS step-by-step
  • A customized online action plan includes tips and feedback on progress through the course and materials, allowing students to individualize their learning experience
  • Learning objectives reinforce the most important material
  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts
  • Web resources are included for further research and insights.
  • Multimedia content includes audio and video resources that appeal to students with different learning styles
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter

“Nice breadth of material and broken down into manageable size chapters.”

Chiara Sabina, Penn State Harrisburg

“It is very easy to read and comprehend.”

Ray Garza, Texas A&M International University

“I like the dedication to SPSS and APA style.”

Amy Cota-McKinley, Worcester State University

“I was most impressed with the many pedagogical features that enhance student learning.”

Linda J. Palm, Coastal Carolina University

“I really want to commend the author for the learning objectives and end of chapter problems. Great stuff!

Melanie Tabak, Kent State University at Trumbull

“I really like the tables and figures in this textbook! They are the BEST among those used in the elementary statistics textbooks I know.”

May Takeuchi, University of North Alabama

great little book for beginers. Also great for self study.
only anoying point is there are only answers to the even numbered questions in the book.
good review questions though.

Dr Katherine Elizabeth Bruns
Psychology, Fachhochschule des Mittelstands (FHM)
March 2, 2018

I like the text; however, I have chose to adopt "Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences 2nd Ed." and the SPSS workbook that goes with it instead.

Dr George Edward Humes
Psychology Dept, Kean University
November 13, 2016

I'm not in a position to adopt this semester. I'm reviewing this textbook for Q&A items to test out with my current Elementary Statistics students. I will continue reviewing for a Fall2016 decision. Thank you

Dr Anne Marie S. Marshall
School Of Math Natural Science, Berry College
October 30, 2015

This book is user friendly and integrates in a clear and strait forward presentation the statistical concepts any student of Social
Sciences will see throughout their undergraduate and graduate formation.

Professor Irmannette Torres-Lugo
Social Sciences, University of Puerto Rico at Cayey
July 9, 2015

Sample Materials & Chapters

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Gregory J. Privitera

Gregory J. Privitera is an associate professor of psychology at St. Bonaventure University. Dr. Privitera received his PhD in behavioral neuroscience in the field of psychology at the State University of New York at Buffalo. He went on to complete postdoctoral research at Arizona State University before beginning his tenure at St. Bonaventure University. He is an author of multiple books on statistics, research methods, and the psychology of eating, in addition to authoring over two-dozen peer-reviewed scientific articles aimed at advancing our understanding of health and promoting the intake of healthier diets for children and adults. He... More About Author

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ISBN: 9781483353005