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Using IBM® SPSS® Statistics
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Using IBM® SPSS® Statistics
An Interactive Hands-On Approach

Second Edition


472 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
For those who have a basic understanding of statistics and want to learn SPSS on their own, this concise, practical guide can be used in conjunction with another text or as a self-instructional resource. With the assistance of ample screenshots, bullet points, and callouts, readers master SPSS by inputting and analyzing their own data, rather than simply opening existing databases. The Second Edition introduces advanced concepts such as Logistic Regression, Principal Components Factor Analysis, and more complex graphing methods. This edition is compatible with IBM SPSS versions through 23.
 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Authors
 
Chapter 1. First Encounters
1.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
1.2 Entering, Analyzing, and Graphing Data

 
1.3 Summary

 
1.4 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 2. Navigating in SPSS
2.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
2.2 SPSS Variable View Screen

 
2.3 SPSS Data View Screen

 
2.4 SPSS Main Menu

 
2.5 Data Editor Toolbar

 
2.6 Variable View Screen: A Closer Look

 
2.7 Summary

 
2.8 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 3. Getting Data In and Out of SPSS
3.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
3.2 Typing Data Using the Computer Keyboard

 
3.3 Saving Your SPSS Data Files

 
3.4 Saving Your SPSS Output Files

 
3.5 Opening Your Saved SPSS Files

 
3.6 Opening SPSS Sample Files

 
3.7 Copying and Pasting Data to Other Applications

 
3.8 Importing Files From Other Applications

 
3.9 Exporting SPSS Files to Other Applications

 
3.10 Summary

 
3.11 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 4. Levels of Measurement
4.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
4.2 Variable View Screen: Measure Column

 
4.3 Variables Measured at the Nominal Level

 
4.4 Variables Measured at the Ordinal Level

 
4.5 Variables Measured at the Scale Level

 
4.6 Using SPSS to Suggest Variable Measurement Levels

 
4.7 Summary

 
4.8 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 5. Entering Variables and Data and Validating Data
5.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
5.2 Entering Variables and Assigning Attributes (Properties)

 
5.3 Entering Data for Each Variable

 
5.4 Validating Data for Databases

 
5.5 Summary

 
5.6 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 6. Working With Data and Variables
6.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
6.2 Computing a New Variable

 
6.3 Recoding Scale Data Into a String Variable

 
6.4 Data Transformation

 
6.5 Split Cases for Independent Analysis

 
6.6 Inserting New Variables and Cases Into Existing Databases

 
6.7 Data View Page: Copy, Cut, and Paste Procedures

 
6.8 Summary

 
6.9 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 7. Using the SPSS Help Menu
7.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
7.2 Help Options

 
7.3 Using Help Topics

 
7.4 Using the Help Tutorial

 
7.5 Using Help Case Studies

 
7.6 Getting Help When Using Analyze on the Main Menu

 
7.7 Summary

 
7.8 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 8. Creating Graphs for Nominal and/or Ordinal Data
8.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
8.2 A Brief Introduction to the Chart Builder

 
8.3 Using the Chart Builder to Build a Simple 3-D Graph

 
8.4 Building a Population Pyramid

 
8.5 Summary

 
8.6 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 9. Graphs for Continuous Data
9.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
9.2 Creating a Histogram

 
9.3 Creating a Boxplot

 
9.4 Creating a Panel Graph

 
9.5 Summary

 
9.6 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 10. Printing Data View, Variable View, and Output Viewer Screens
10.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
10.2 Printing Data From the Variable View Screen

 
10.3 Printing Variable Information From the Output Viewer

 
10.4 Printing Tables From the Output Viewer

 
10.5 Summary

 
10.6 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 11. Basic Descriptive Statistics
11.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
11.2 Measures of Central Tendency

 
11.3 Measures of Dispersion

 
11.4 The Big Question: Are the Data Normally Distributed?

 
11.5 Descriptive Statistics for the Class Survey

 
11.6 Summary

 
11.7 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 12. One-Sample t Test and a Binomial Test of Equality
12.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
12.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection

 
12.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis

 
12.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output

 
12.5 Nonparametric Test: The Binomial Test of Equality

 
12.6 Summary

 
12.7 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 13. Independent-Samples t Test and Mann-Whitney U Test
13.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
13.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection

 
13.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis

 
13.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output

 
13.5 Nonparametric Test: Mann-Whitney U Test

 
13.6 Summary

 
13.7 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 14. Paired-Samples t Test and Wilcoxon Test
14.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
14.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection

 
14.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis

 
14.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output

 
14.5 Nonparametric Test: Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test

 
14.6 Summary

 
14.7 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 15. One-Way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis Test
15.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
15.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection

 
15.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis

 
15.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output

 
15.5 Nonparametric Test: Kruskal-Wallis Test

 
15.6 Summary

 
15.7 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 16. Two-Way (Factorial) ANOVA
16.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
16.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection

 
16.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis

 
16.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output

 
16.5 Summary

 
16.6 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 17. One-Way ANOVA Repeated Measures Test and Friedman Test
17.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
17.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection

 
17.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis

 
17.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output

 
17.5 Nonparametric Test: Friedman Test

 
17.6 Summary

 
17.7 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 18. Analysis of Covariance
18.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
18.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection

 
18.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis

 
18.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output

 
18.5 Summary

 
18.6 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 19. Pearson’s Correlation and Spearman’s Correlation
19.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
19.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection

 
19.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis

 
19.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output

 
19.5 Nonparametric Test: Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient

 
19.6 Summary

 
19.7 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 20. Single Linear Regression
20.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
20.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection

 
20.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis

 
20.4 Data Input

 
20.5 Data Assumptions (Normality)

 
20.6 Regression and Prediction

 
20.7 Interpretation of Output (Data Assumptions)

 
20.8 Interpretation of Output (Regression and Prediction)

 
20.9 Research Question Answered

 
20.10 Summary

 
20.11 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 21. Multiple Linear Regression
21.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
21.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection

 
21.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis

 
21.4 Data Input

 
21.5 Data Assumptions (Normality)

 
21.6 Regression and Prediction

 
21.7 Interpretation of Output (Data Assumptions)

 
21.8 Interpretation of Output (Regression and Prediction)

 
21.9 Research Question Answered

 
21.10 Summary

 
21.11 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 22. Logistic Regression
22.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
22.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection

 
22.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis

 
22.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output

 
22.5 Summary

 
22.6 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 23. Factor Analysis
23.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
23.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection

 
23.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis

 
23.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output

 
23.5 Summary

 
23.6 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 24. Chi-Square Goodness of Fit
24.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
24.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection: Legacy Dialogs

 
24.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis: Legacy Dialogs

 
24.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output: Legacy Dialogs

 
24.5 Research Scenario and Test Selection: One Sample

 
24.6 Research Question and Null Hypothesis: One Sample

 
24.7 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output: One Sample

 
24.8 Summary

 
24.9 Review Exercises

 
 
Chapter 25. Chi-Square Test of Independence
25.1 Introduction and Objectives

 
25.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection: Summarized Data

 
25.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis: Summarized Data

 
25.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output: Summarized Data

 
25.5 Research Scenario and Test Selection: Raw Data

 
25.6 Research Question and Null Hypothesis: Raw Data

 
25.7 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output: Raw Data

 
25.8 Summary

 
25.9 Review Exercises

 
 
Appendix A. Class Survey Database (Entered in Chapter 5)
Table A.1 Variables and Attributes for class_survey1.sav

 
Table A.2 Data for class_survey1.sav

 
 
Appendix B. Basic Inferential Statistics
B.1 Introduction

 
B.2 Populations and Samples

 
B.3 Sampling Procedures

 
B.4 Hypothesis Testing

 
B.5 Parametric Statistical Tests

 
B.6 Nonparametric Statistical Tests

 
B.7 Data Transformation

 
B.8 Type I and Type II Errors

 
B.9 Tests of Significance

 
B.10 Practical Significance Versus Statistical Significance

 
B.11 One- and Two-Tailed Tests

 
B.12 Degrees of Freedom

 
 
Appendix C. Answers to Review Exercises
 
Index

“The text is clearly written, concise, [and] well-organized, and I very much appreciated its interactive approach. The screenshots of SPSS utilized throughout make it especially user-friendly for students.”

Sally Dear-Healey, SUNY Cortland

“The book is a comprehensive, well-written SPSS resource. The authors provide readers clear step-by-step instructions on how to execute SPSS procedures.”

Richard Acton Rinaldo, Georgian College

“…[T]he book sticks to its purpose, which is to walk the students through SPSS and not teach them stats…It does its job well.”

Mark G. Harmon, Portland State University

“A current and easy-to-use guide to SPSS that can function as a primary or supplemental text…”

Geoffrey W. Sutton, Evangel University

“This book is useful for applied statistical courses where the students have an advanced background in their field but little or no statistical software knowledge.”

Susan Serrano, Florida Southern College

Previous Edition, Using SPSS: An Interactive Hands-On Approach

“I love this book… The structure, content and format are superior in every way to what I have been using, and will make my task easier and the students’ learning curve shorter.”

G.L. Forward, Point Loma Nazarene University

“Clearly presented and written. Even I learned something! I believe students will find this a valuable resource.”

Dr. Joann Keyton, North Carolina State University

Nice explanations and clear visuals. This book would serve as a good supplementary text for a general statistics course. I found the examples in "SPSS Statistics by Example" to be more substantively interesting.

Dr Stefanie A Wind
College Of Education, University Of Alabama
September 7, 2015

It is an excellent guide to the use of SPSS

Dr John Rossi
Division of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Florida Gulf Coast University
April 9, 2015

Preview this book

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 13

Chapter 23


James O. Aldrich

James O. Aldrich (Doctor of Public Administration, University of Laverne) is a retired lecturer on statistics and research methods at California State University, Northridge. He has also taught graduate level research courses for the University of La Verne. Dr. Aldrich held the appointment of Instructor in the Department of Pathology at the University of Southern California, School of Medicine where he served as the Principal Investigator and codirector of a National Cancer Institute research project. He has served on various committees for the Los Angeles chapter of the American Statistical Association and has also taught biostatistics,... More About Author

James B. Cunningham

James B. Cunningham (PhD in Science Education, Syracuse University) is Professor Emeritus of Science and Computer Education and former chair of the Department of Secondary Education at California State University, Northridge. Formerly chair of the Departments of Science and Mathematics in Washington State high schools, he is author of Teaching Metrics Simplified and co-author of BASIC for Teachers, Authoring Educational Software, Hands-On Physics Activities With Real-Life Applications, and Hands-On Chemistry Activities With Real-Life Applications. He used SPSS extensively during his tenure as director of the Credential Evaluation Unit in... More About Author

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