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Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy

Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy
An Integrative Approach

Second Edition
  • Elsie Jones-Smith - Diplomate in Counseling Psychology, American Board of Professional Psychology
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Other Titles in:
Counseling & Psychotherapy

November 2014 | 824 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

This breakthrough edition of Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: An Integrative Approach sets a new standard in counseling theories books. The Second Edition goes beyond expert coverage of traditional and social constructivist theories with coverage of more contemporary approaches to psychotherapy, including individual chapters on spirituality and psychotherapy, strengths-based therapy, neuroscience and neuropsychotherapy, motivational interviewing, and the expressive arts therapies. In every chapter, the case study of a preadolescent boy demonstrates how each theory can be applied in psychotherapy. Up to date and easy to read, the book engages readers with inner reflection questions that help them apply the theories to the lives of their clients and shows them how to develop their own integrative approach to psychotherapy.

Available with
Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy in Action Video Demonstrations-- available for only $15 when packaged with the text. Use bundle ISBN 978-1-50630-8371 to order the text and video package. Please email your SAGE sales representative for additional details.


Watch two sample clips from the series now:

Existential Approach

Multicultural Approach

About the Video Demonstrations:


In the Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy in Action Video Demonstrations, expert David Hutchinson demonstrates a range of established and newer techniques as he helps a single client—Tyler, a mixed-race adolescent who is facing various challenges. In addition, Dr. Hutchinson provides background and commentary on every approach to help students understand, interpret and reflect on each technique and its application to the client.


Demonstrations include role plays of the following approaches:


  • Person-Centered
  • Motivational Interviewing
  • Cognitive-Behavioral
  • Feminist
  • Existential
  • Multicultural
  • Strengths-Based
  • Neuroscience/Biological

David Hutchinson prepares both undergraduate and graduate students for careers in psychology and counseling. His areas of special focus are group work, addictions, and grieving. A former Peace Corps volunteer, David's priorities include travel and maintaining an international perspective in his life and work. He's trained counselors in Grenada and established sister school relationships between five schools in Vermont and Grenada. In Vermont, David continues his emphasis on intensive, process-oriented coursework with long weekend retreats at an off-campus lodge near Caspian Lake in the woods of the Northeast Kingdom. In 2006, David was honored with the Distinguished Faculty of the Year Award. He holds positions on the boards of the New England School of Addiction Studies and Northwest Counseling and Support Services in Franklin County, Vt. He received his doctoral degree from SUNY Buffalo.

Part I: The First Force in Psychotherapy
Chapter 1: Introduction
Goals of the Book

Organization of the Book

Definitions of Counseling and Psychotherapy

Choosing a Theoretical Orientation to Therapy

Integrative Psychotherapy: The Focus of This Text

Chapter 2: Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Theories
Major Contributor: Sigmund Freud

The Therapeutic Process


Therapy Techniques

Anna Freud

Erik Erikson

Object Relations School

Donald Winnicott

Self Psychology and Heinz Kohut

Comparison and Contrasting of Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Theories

Other Theoriests and Therapy Approaches

Carl Gustav Jung

Chapter 3: Adlerian Psychotherapy
Alfred Adler

Phases of Therapy

Multicultural Positives

Empirical Evidence

Part II: The Second Force in Psychotherapy
Chapter 4: Behavior Therapy and Psychopharmacology
Major Contributors

Key Concepts

Theory of Maladaptive Behavior

Therapeutic Process

Behavior Therapy Techniques

Current Trends in Behavior Therapy

Behavioral Assessment: The Functional Assessment Model

Multicultural Positives

Multicultural Blind Spots

Chapter 5: Cognitive Approaches to Therapy
Major Contributors

Key Concepts of REBT

Albert Bandura (1925- ): Social Modeling, Observational Learning, and Self-Efficacy

Aaron Beck (1921- ): Cognitive Therapy and Depression

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT)

Chapter 6: Reality/Choice Therapy
Key Concepts of Reality/Choice Theory

Reality Therapy/Choice Theory and Maladaptive Behavior

Total Behavior

ControlL A Key Component of Reality Therapy

The 10 Axoms of Choice Therapy

Seven Deadly Habits and Seven Caring Habits

Goals of Reality Choice Therapy

Reality/Choice Therapy and the Therapeutic Process

Reality Therapy Counseling Techniques

Reality/Choice Therapy and the Schools

Multicultural Positivism

Contributons and Criticisms of Reality Therapy

Part III: The Third Force in Psychotherapy
Chapter 7: Existential Therapy
The Contributions of Roll May (1904-1994): First Major American Existentialist

Victor Frankl (1905-1997) and Logotherapy

Existentialism and the Schools

Multicultural Positivism

Contributions and Criticisms of Existential Therapy

Chapter 8: Person Centered Therapy
Carl Rogers: Brief Historical Overview

The Person Centered View of Human Nature

Person-Centered Therapy and Personality Development

Healthy Psychological Development and the Fully Functioning Person

Maladaptive Behavior or Psychopathology

Person-Centered Therapy and the Therapeutic Process

Person-Centered Therapy Techniques

Person-Centered Counseling and the Schools

Multicultural Positives

Multicultural Blind Spots

Contributions and Criticisms of Person-Centered Therapy

Chapter 9: Gestalt Therapy
Philosophical Roots for Gestalt Therapy

Influence of Existentialism on Gestalt Therapy

Key Concepts of Gestalt Therapy

Personality Development: Healthy Development

Maladaptive Behavior or Psychopathology

Gestalt Therapy and the Therapeutic Process

The Therapeutic Relationship: Dialogues Between Therapist and Client

Gestalt Therapy Techniques: Exercises and Experiments

Multicultural Positives

Contributions and Criticisms of Gestalt Therapy

Chapter 10: Motivational INterviewing and the Stages of Change Theory
Brief Biography of William R. Miller

Stephen Rollnick

Key Concepts of Motivational Interviewing

Nine Strategies for Evoking Change Talk

Sample Motivational Interviewing (MI) Session

Key Concepts of the Transtheoretical Model of Change

Chapter 11: The Expressive Arts Therapies
Key Concepts in Expressive Arts Therapy

Art Therapy

Music Therapy

Play Therapy

Part IV: The Fourth Force
Chapter 12: Multicultural Psychotherapy Theories
Eurocentric Psychotherapy Theories and Western Values

What Is Multicultural Counseling?

Multicultural Counseling Theory: Five Emerging Theories

Ethnic Self-Schemas and Mental Health Issues

Multicultural Counseling Techniques

Contributions and Limitations of Multiculturalism

Chapter 13: Transcultural Psychotherapy
Commonalities Among Asian Theories of Personality and Psychotherapy

Japanese Approaches to Psychotherapy

Morita Therapy

Chinese Contributions to Psychotherapy: Mindfulness

African Approaches to Healing and Psychotherapy

Arab Approaches to Psychotherapy

Chapter 14: Feminist Therapy and Lesbian and Gay Therapy
Feminist Therapy

Gay and Lesbian Therapy

Chapter 15: Solution-Focused Therapy
Solution-Focused Therapy and Social Constructivism

Brief Therapy: Number of Sessions for Solution-Focused Therapy

Chapter 16: Narrative Therapy
Brief Overview: Narrative Therapy

Chapter 17: Integrating Religious/Spiritual Issues During Psychotherapy
Integration of Spirituality/Religion in Psychotherapeutic Approaches

Brief Historical Overview of Spirituality and Religion in Psychotherapy

Key Concepts in Spirituality/Religion

Spirituality and the Therapeutic Relationship

Spiritual Techniques

Chapter 18: Strengths-Based Therapy
The Strengths-Based Therapy Model (SBT): Elsie J. Smith

Core Concepts in the Strengths-Based Therapy Model

Strengths Development Theory

Phases of the Strengths-Based Therapy Model (SBT)

Chapter 19: Family Therapy Approaches
Definition and Function of a Family

Murray Bowen (1913–1990) and Multigenerational Family Therapy

The Experiential Family Therapists

Structural Family Therapy

Strategic Family Therapy

Part V: Neuroscience: The Fifth Force
Chapter 20: Neuroscience, Psychotherapy, and Neuropsychotherapy
Important Contributors Connecting Neuroscience and Psychotherapy

Toward a Theoretical Framework for Neuropsychotherapy

Two Cerebral Hemispheres: Right Brain and Left Brain Development

Mental Health from a Neuroscientific Perspective

Methods and Techniques for Neuropsychotherapy

Neuroscience and the DSM-5

Cultural Neuroscience and Multiculturalism

Chapter 21: Comparing and Contrasting the Theories of Psychotherapy
Worldviews of Theories of Psychotherapy

Key Concepts of Theories of Psychotherapy

Therapy Techniques

Forming a Multicultural Conceptualization of Clients

Future Outlook of Theoretical Approaches

Chapter 22: Integrative Psychotherapy
Brief Historical Overview of the Integrative Movement

Pathways to Psychotherapy Integration

Multitheoretical Approaches

Stages of Professional Development as a Therapist



Instructor Teaching Site

Password-protected Instructor Resources include the following:

  • A Microsoft® Word® test bank is available containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • A Respondus electronic test bank is available and can be used on PCs. The test bank contains multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter and provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding. Respondus is also compatible with many popular learning management systems so you can easily get your test questions into your online course.

  • Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course.

  • Instructor Resource Manual provides chapter-specific exercises, classroom activities, annotated bibliographies, and additional resources to enhance the learning experience.

  • Web resources are included for further research and insights.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides discussion questions to focus and guide your interpretation. 
Student Study Site

The open-access Student Study Site includes the following:

  • A Form Library provides an intake form, observation forms, and interview form for use in client assessments.
  • The Theoretical Orientation Scale developed by the author of the text helps students determine their own counseling orientations.
  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards reinforce understanding of key terms and concepts that have been outlined in the chapters.
  • Mobile-friendly web quizzes allow for independent assessment of progress made in learning course material.
  • Web resources are included for further research and insights.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides discussion questions to focus and guide your interpretation. 

"Realizing that counseling theory is not the easiest subject for students to grasp, nor the most fun for most students, I have searched for years for a textbook that communicates excitement for theory and also for the value of each theoretical approach for its time in the history of counseling and psychotherapy...In 2011, I found Elsie Jones-Smith’s (2011) Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: An Integrative Approach, and in using it with my students, it has really help bring counseling theories alive for my students. Jones-Smith has revised her textbook with a second edition, and I am even more excited by it than I was by the first edition. The text is both historical in helping students envision the evolution of counseling and psychotherapy, and foundational, for it grounds the reader in each of the recognized approaches to the subject matter...I believe that Jones-Smith’s (2014) Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: An Integrative Approach is the most exciting and engaging counseling theories text available today.  It is comprehensive in its coverage of the theories that master’s and doctoral level counselors, psychotherapists, and clinical and counseling psychologists should know and understand.  It is well written and easily read and assimilated by students.  It contains the powerful and engaging tool entitled 'Theoretical Orientation Scale' by Jones-Smith that, if used at the beginning of the theories course, moves students from apprehensive to excited and eager to learn about the theoretical orientations that seem to fit them and those that seem to fit their classmates."

Charles Timothy (Tim) Dickel, Ed.D.
Creighton University

Extremely detailed and makes learning about theories enjoyable

Dr Malik Raheem
Counseling/Special Ed Dept, California State Univ-Fresno
October 9, 2016

Aligns with course objectives; students like the text

Dr Susan Barclay
Leadership Studies, University Of Central Arkansas
February 5, 2015

Looking forward to reviewing the updated edition. My students liked this text last semester!!

Mr Eric Baltrinic
Department of School Psychology, Higher Education, & Counselor Education, University Of Toledo
December 13, 2014

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 10

Chapter 20

Preview this book

Elsie Jones-Smith

Dr. Elsie Jones-Smith  is a licensed psychologist, a certified school psychologist, and the President of the Strengths-Based Institute. She holds two Ph.D. degrees, one in clinical psychology from Michigan State University and the other in counselor education from the University at Buffalo.  She is a Fellow in two divisions of the American Psychological Association, Division 17, the Society of Counseling Psychology, and Division 45, the Society for the Psychological Study of Culture, Ethnicity, and Race. She is a Diplomate in counseling psychology (ABPP), a Fellow of the Academy of Counseling Psychology, and a prior Distinguished... More About Author

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