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The Advanced Handbook of Methods in Evidence Based Healthcare

The Advanced Handbook of Methods in Evidence Based Healthcare

Edited by:

544 pages | SAGE Publications Ltd
'This handbook is an excellent reflection of the growing maturity and methodological sophistication of the field of Health Technology Assessment. The Handbook covers a spectrum of issues, from primary evidence (clinical trials) through reviews and meta-analysis, to identifying and filling gaps in the evidence. Up-to-date, clearly written, and well-edited, the handbook is a needed addition to any personal or professional library dealing with Health Technology Assessment.'

Professor David Banta, TNO Prevention and Health, The Netherlands

'This text presents the most advanced knowledge on methodology in health care research, and will form the backbone of many future studies' - Paula Roberts, Nurse Researcher

The `effectiveness revolution' both in research and clinical practice, has tested available methods for health services research to the extreme. How far can observational methods, routine data and qualitative methods be used in health care evaluation? What cost and outcome measures are appropriate, and how should data be gathered?

With the support of over two million pounds from the British Health Technology Assessment Research Programme, the research project for this Handbook has led to both a synthesis of all of the existing knowledge in these areas and an agenda for future debate and research.

The chapters and their authors have been selected through a careful process of peer review and provide a coherent and complete approach to the field. The handbook has been a unique collaboration between internationally regarded clinicians, statisticians, epidemiologists, social scientists, health economists and ethicists. It provides the most advanced thinking and the most authoritative resource for a state of the art review of methods of evaluating health care and will be required reading for anyone involved in health services research and management.

Methods in Evidence Based Healthcare and Health Technology Assessment - An Overview
Richard J Lilford and Andrew Stevens
Richard J Lilford, Sarah Edwards, David Braunholtz, Jennifer Jackson, Jim Thornton and Jenny Hewison
Ethical Issues in the Design and Conduct of Randomized Controlled Trials
Richard E Ashcroft
Ethics of Clinical Trials
Social, Cultural and Economic Factors

Sue Ross, Carl Counsell, William J Gillespie, Adrian Grant, Robin Prescrott, Ian Russell, Iain Colthart, Sandra Kiauka, Daphne Russell and Sue Shepard
Factors That Limit the Number, Progress and Quality of Randomized Controlled Trials
A Systematic Review

Dianne O'Connell, Paul P Glasziou, Suzanne Hill, Jasminka Sarunac, Julia Lowe and David Henry
Results of Clinical Trials and Systematic Reviews
To Whom Do They Apply?

Rosemary Crow, Heather Gage, Sarah E Hampson, Jo Hart, Alan C Kimber and Hilary Thomas
The Placebo Effect
Methodological Process and Implications of a Structured Review

Ray Fitzpatrick
Colin Sanderson, Martin McKee, Annie Britton, Nicholas Black, Klim McPherson and Chris Bain
Randomized and Non-Randomized Studies
Threats to Internal and External Validity

Barnaby Reeves, Rachel MacLehose, Ian Harvey, Trevor Sheldon, Ian Russell and Andrew McLaren Spiers Black
A Review of Observational, Quasi-Experimental and Randomized Study Designs for the Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Healthcare Interventions
James Raftery, Andrew Stevens and Paul Roderick
The Potential Use of Routine Data Sets in Health Technology Assessment
James Lewsey, Gordon Murray, Alastair H Leyland and Andrew Boddy
Using Routine Data to Complement and Enhance the Results of Randomized Controlled Trials
Elizabeth Murphy and Robert Dingwall
Qualitative Methods in Health Technology Assessment
John Brazier
Ray Fitzpatrick, Claire Davey, Martin Buxton and David Jones
Criteria for Assessing Patient-Based Outcome Measures for Use in Clinical Trials
John Brazier, Mark Deverill and Colin Green
The Use of Health Status Measures in Economic Evaluation
Katharine Johnstone, Martin Buxton, David Jones and Ray Fitzpatrick
Collecting Resource Use Data for Costing in Clinical Trials
John Cairns and Marjon van der Pol
Eliciting Time Preferences for Health
Elaine McColl, Ann Jacoby, Lois Thomas, Jennifer Soutter, Claire Bamford, Nick Steen, Roger Thomas, Emma Harvey, Andrew Garratt and John Bond
The Conduct and Design of Questionnaire Surveys in Healthcare Research
Keith R Abrams
David Spiegelhalter, Jonathan Myles, David Jones and Keith Abrams
Bayesian Methods
Martin Gulliford, Obioha C Ukoummunne, Susan Chinn, Jonathan Sterne, Peter Burney and Allan Donner
Methods for Evaluating Organization or Area-Based Health Interventions
Andrew Briggs and Alastair Gray
Handling Uncertainty in Economic Evaluation
Michael Campbell, Steven A Julious, Sarah Walker, Steve George and David Machin
A Review of the Use of the Main Quality of Life Measures, and Sample Size Determination for Quality of Life Measures, Particularly in Cancer Trials
Lucinda Billingham, Keith Abrams and David Jones
Simultaneous Assessment of Quality of Life and Survival Data
Andrew Stevens and Keith R Abrams
Fuijan Song, Alison Eastwood, Simon Gilbody, Lelia Buley and Alex Sutton
Publication and Related Biases
Alexander Sutton, David Jones, Keith Abrams, Trevor Sheldon and Fujian Song
Meta-Analysis in Health Technology Assessment
David Moher, Terry Klassen, Alison Jones Ba'Pham, Deborah Cook, Alejandro Jada, Peter Tugwell and Michael Moher
Assessing the Quality of Reports of Randomized Trials Included in Meta-Analyses
Attitudes, Practice, Evidence and Guides

Nick Black, Maggie Murphy, Donna Lamping, Martin McKee, Colin Sanderson, Janet Askham and Theresa Marteau
Consensus Development Methods, and Their Use in Creating Clinical Guidelines
Andrew Stevens
Glenn Robert, Andrew Stevens and John Gabbay
Identifying New Health Care Technologies
Graham Mowatt, Adrian Grant, D Jane Bower, John A Brebner, John Cairns and Lorna McKee
Timing of Assessment of Fast-Changing Health Technologies
Gareth Harper, Joy Townsend and Martin Buxton
Preliminary Economic Evaluation of Health Technologies

`As books go, this is a real heavyweight. It is physically big, with 27 chapters running to over 500 pages. It is expensive, coming in at £69. Yet it is heavyweight in another sense. Some of the chapter authors are heavyweights, leaders, in their fields and this shines through veryc learly in the text.

This book aims to provide readers with an insight into some of the most advanced methods involved in evidence based healthcare. Whey we see the word "advanced" we sometimes worry about things being set out in complex, convoluted, over-your-head, impenetrable, coded and cluttered language. Happily, most of this book is clear, comprehensive and concise. A few of the chapters are more challenging to read but they are certainly worth the extra effort.

The book has six sections covering 27 chapters… Inside each section lies between three-to-five chapters. Each chapter is clearly laid out and referenced.

While it is a methods book, the chapter authors sprinkle a good dose of real examples through the text to reinforce some of their points. This certainly helps to keep the writing fresh and engaging.

The book is essentially derived from a large collection of UK NHS Health Technology Assessment (HTA) reports, which are available free of charge from the HTA program. If you want a lot of material in one cover, and if you want to make real progress in understanding some of the latest developments and thinking in evidence based healthcare, this is the only book to buy' -British Journal of Clinical Governance

'Among the many features of the UK National Health Services Research & Development (NHS R&D) Programme that deserve admiration is its commitment to systematically evaluating which methods to use to obtain the best possible evidence for healthcare decisions. Reviews of a wide range of methodological issues relevant to health technology assessment have been commissioned by the NHS R&D Programme. Andrew Stevens and Ray Fitzpatrick have done an admirable job organising and editing this wealth of information. The Advanced Handbook of Methods in Evidence Based Health Care provides a unique and valuable reference for anyone wanting to make well informed decisions about methods of evaluating healthcare.'

Dr Andy Oxman, Director Health Services Research Unit National

Institute of Public Health Postboks 4404 Torshov 0403 Oslo NORWAY

'This book promises to become a standard work of reference for all those interested in the methods of HTA and their application. Each topic is introduced seductively through successive levels of detail, so that there is material here for a variety of readers having a variety of interests, from those who want merely to capture some of the jargon to those at the leading edge of methodological development. As a would-be multi-disciplinarian, I found enlightenment almost everywhere.'

Professor Tony Culyer, Professor of Economics and Head of the Department of Economics and Related Studies, University of York

'This handbook is an excellent reflection of the growing maturity and methodological sophistication of the field of Health Technology Assessment. The handbook covers a spectrum of issues, from primary evidence (clinical trials) through reviews and meta-analysis, to identifying and filling gaps in the evidence. Up-to-date, clearly written, and well-edited, the handbook is a needed addition to any personal or professional library dealing with Health Technology Assessment.'

Professor David Banta, TNO Prevention and Health, The Netherlands

'It is very heartening to see so much of the methodological work that the HTA programme has commissioned brought together in one volume, a volume that is technical and authoritative but also readable and accessible. As NICE gets into full swing as the key national body with responsibility for promoting clinical excellence and cost-effective care within the NHS, it is particularly timely that these groundbreaking pieces of work should be published. Clearly much remains to be done. Nevertheless, this handbook will set new standards for those undertaking health technology assessments as well as map out the next generation of methodological challenges.'

Dr Ruairidh Milne, Scientific Director, National Co-ordinating Centre for Health Technology Assessment

'Health care research is expanding rapidly, aided by the fruitful interaction of a range of academic disciplines. Since its inception in 1993, the NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme has had two distinctive themes, a multi-disciplinary approach and a strategy to develop the methodological basis for HTA. This timely volume brings together a wide range of work commissioned by the Programme on methodology. Contributions from a diverse group of active health service researchers - statisticians, health economists, clinicians, sociologists and others - give a wide ranging overview of assessment strategies in health care. The scope includes quantitative and qualitative methods, randomised and non-randomised designs and the measurement of costs and benefits in health economic analysis. A number of active themes in statistical analysis, research synthesis and horizon scanning are considered. The volume will be of value to researchers wishing to keep abreast of methodological developments across the wide field of health care. For those who plan, provide or use health services it will provide a unique insight into the development of the knowledge base upon which modern health care rests.'

Professor Kent Woods, Director NHS HTA Programme

'The impact of clinical trials on health policy development is almost as great as the impact on clinical practice. Around the world many agencies are now struggling to make the best use of data from clinical trials, experimental studies and observational studies in order to make the best decisions about what technology to subsidise and at what price. This book covers a very wide field of technical issues regarding the appropriate use of data in health technology assessment. Undoubtedly it will become a major resource for everyone working in this field.'

Professor David Henry, Professor of Clinical Pharmacology, Head of Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, the University of Newcastle, Australia

'This text presents the most advanced knowledge on methodology in health care research, and will form the backbone of many future studies' - Paula Roberts, Nurse Researcher

Andrew J Stevens

Andrew Stevens is Professor of Public Health and former Head of Department and Division (of Primary Care, Public and Occupational Health). Andrew is interested in Health Services Research including health care needs assessment, health technology assessment and horizon scanning. He has edited the 4 volume Health Care Needs Assessment Series, and the Advanced Handbook of Methods in Evidence Based Healthcare. Andrew has had a close involvement with the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) since its establishment in 2000, and has been Chairman of one of its Appraisal Committees for 6 years. More About Author

Keith R Abrams

Porf. Adrams' research includes: The development and application of Bayesian methods in healthcare evaluation, systematic reviews and meta-analysis and The joint modelling of longitudinal and time-to-event data. He has considerable experience of undertaking pradmatic TCT's and systematic reviews in a variety of settings, including cardiology, gastroenology, oncology and reproductive medicine. More About Author

John Brazier

John Brazier is Professor of Health Economics at the Health Economics and Decision Science section of the School of Health and Related Research at the University of Sheffield. He has more than 20 years’ experience of conducting economic evaluations of health care interventions for policy makers. He has also undertaken numerous economic evaluations alongside clinical trials and decision analytic models. He has a particular interest in the measurement and valuation of health for economic evaluation where he has published widely. He is perhaps best known for his work in developing a preference-based measure of health for the SF-36, but more... More About Author

Ray Fitzpatrick

Richard J Lilford

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