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Teaching Science in Elementary and Middle School
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Teaching Science in Elementary and Middle School
A Cognitive and Cultural Approach

Second Edition
  • Cory A. Buxton - Oregon State University, USA, University of Georgia, Athens, USA, University of Miami, Coral Gables, USA, University of New Orleans, USA
  • Eugene F. Provenzo, Jr. - University of Miami, USA


July 2010 | 416 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Featuring an increased emphasis on the way today's changing science and technology is shaping our culture, this Second Edition of Teaching Science in Elementary and Middle School provides pre- and in-service teachers with an introduction to basic science concepts and methods of science instruction, as well as practical strategies for the classroom.

Throughout the book, the authors help readers learn to think like scientists and better understand the role of science in our day-to-day lives and in the history of Western culture. Part II features 100 key experiments that demonstrate the connection between content knowledge and effective inquiry-based pedagogy. The Second Edition is updated throughout and includes new coverage of applying multiple intelligences to the teaching and learning of science, creating safe spaces for scientific experimentation, using today's rapidly changing online technologies, and more.

New to This Edition:

- Links to national content standards for Mathematics, Language Arts, and Social Studies help readers plan for teaching across the content areas.

- Discussions of federal legislation, including No Child Left Behind and Race To The Top, demonstrate legislation's influence on classroom science teaching.

- New "Scientists Then and Now" biographies provide practical examples of how great scientists balance a focus on content knowledge with a focus on exploring new ways to ask and answer questions.

- Sixteen additional video demonstrations on the Instructor Teaching Site and Student Study Site illustrate how to arrange and implement selected experiments.

Visit www.sagepub.com/buxtontsem2e to access these valuable Instructor and Student resources:

- The password-protected Instructor Teaching Site includes video clips that illustrate selected experiments, PowerPoint® lecture slides, Electronic Test Bank, Teaching guides, and Web resources.

- The open-access Student Study Site includes tools to help students prepare for exams and succeed in the course: video clips that illustrate selected experiments, chapter summaries, flash cards, quizzes, helpful student guides links to state standards, licensure exams and PRAXIS resources, and Learning from SAGE Journal Articles.

 
Preface
 
Part I. Creating the Context for Science Education
 
1. The Nature of Science
What Is Science?

 
Theory Into Practice 1.1: Nature of Science Cards

 
What Science Is Not

 
How Science Is Done

 
Theory Into Practice 1.2: Hidden Shapes

 
Patterns That Connect

 
Qualities of Scientific Inquiry

 
Combining the Qualities of Scientific Inquiry to Address Scientific Questions

 
Theory Into Practice 1.3: The Hypothesis Box

 
Paradigms and Paradigm Shifts in the Nature of Science

 
Summary

 
Student Study Site

 
Reflections on Science

 
Learning Science On-Line: Researching Scientist Biographies

 
Internet Connections: Nature of Science Resources

 
References

 
 
2. Science Education in Social Context
The Historical Role of Science Education in Our Society

 
Theory Into Practice 2.1: What Would Life Be Like Without Certain Inventions?

 
Science Education Within Broader Educational Reforms

 
Theory Into Practice 2.2: Education Reform and You

 
The Contemporary Role of Science Education in Our Society and the Current Wave of Science Education Reform

 
Theory Into Practice 2.3: D efinitions of Scientific Literacy

 
Broader Education Reforms and Science Education

 
Learning to Speak the Language of Science

 
Theory Into Practice 2.4: Metaphors in Science

 
Ethics in Science and the Concept of Human Progress

 
Theory Into Practice 2.5: Ethics and the Humane Treatment of Experimental Animals

 
Summary

 
Student Study Site

 
Reflections on Science

 
Learning Science On-Line: Creating a Virtual Smithsonian Science Museum

 
Internet Connections: Science Museums on the Internet

 
References

 
 
3. Toward a Philosophy of Hands-On Inquiry-Based Science Education
Piagetian Constructivism and Learning Through Rediscovery

 
Learning Through Play

 
Theory Into Practice 3.1: Helping Students Make Meaning of Experience

 
Designing Experiments and Learning Through Project-Based Science

 
Theory Into Practice 3.2: Learning by Design

 
Sociocultural Theory and Learning Through Legitimate Peripheral Participation

 
Theory Into Practice 3.3: Learning Theories Textbook Review

 
On-Line Resources and the Changing Science Classroom

 
Summary

 
Student Study Site

 
Reflections on Science

 
Learning Science On-Line: Studying Natural Disasters

 
Internet Connections: Design-Based Learning

 
References

 
 
4. Diverse Learners in the Science Classroom
History of Diverse Learners in the Science Classroom

 
Theory Into Practice 4.1: Draw a Scientist

 
Current Science Education Reforms and Their Impact on Diverse Learners

 
Theory Into Practice 4.2: Mapping the Increasing Diversity in American Classrooms

 
Strategies for Working With Diverse Learners in the Science Classroom

 
Theory Into Practice 4.3: Two-Column Girls and Scientists Activity

 
Theory Into Practice 4.4: Modifying Lab Activities

 
Theory Into Practice 4.5: Sheltered Second- Language Activity

 
Theory Into Practice 4.6: Debating the “Fairness” of Gifted Education

 
Summary

 
Student Study Site

 
Reflections on Science

 
Learning Science On-Line: Auditory and Visual Learning in Science Education

 
Internet Connections: Science for Diverse Learners

 
References

 
 
5. Observing as a Scientist and as a Science Teacher
Scientific Observation

 
Theory Into Practice 5.1: Observation Experiment: Watching a Traffic Pattern

 
Observation in the Classroom

 
From Observation to Assessment of Science Learning

 
From Observation to Managing the Classroom to Enhance Science Learning

 
Creating a Safe Science Learning Environment

 
Field Experiences, Peer Teaching, and Other Opportunities to Practice the Craft of Science Teaching

 
Observational Forms

 
Theory Into Practice 5.2: Science Lesson Observation Form

 
Theory Into Practice 5.3: Observing in a Science Museum or Other Non-School Setting

 
Theory Into Practice 5.4: Interviewing a Teacher After Observing a Science Lesson

 
Beyond Observation: Other Science Inquiry Processes

 
Creating a Science Educator’s Portfolio

 
Theory Into Practice 5.5: Looking at Electronic Portfolios

 
Summary

 
Student Study Site

 
Reflections on Science

 
Learning Science On-Line: Combining Content with Field Experiences

 
Internet Connections: Scientific Observation

 
 
Part II. Teaching and Learning the Science Disciplines
 
6. Understanding and Teaching Earth and Space Sciences
Earth Scientists Then and Now: Mary Anning and Charles Keeling

 
The Place of Earth and Space Science in Science Education

 
Measuring and Estimating in Earth and Space Science

 
Experiment 1: Estimating the Number of Books in Your School Library

 
Experiment 2: Orienteering

 
Experiment 3: Geologic Time on a Football Field

 
The Cosmos: The Sun, Planets, Solar System, Stars, and Beyond

 
Experiment 4: Solar System Model

 
Experiment 5: Expanding Universe Model

 
Experiment 6: Hot Enough to Fry an Egg

 
Astronomy: Observing the Heavens From Earth in the Past and Present

 
Experiment 7: Modeling Phases of the Moon

 
Experiment 8: The Changing Seasons

 
Experiment 9: Changing Lengths of Shadows

 
Restless Earth: Earth’s Composition, Layers, Movements, and Impacts in Surface Features

 
Experiment 10: Convection Currents

 
Experiment 11: Mountain Building With Towels

 
Experiment 12: Earthquake-Resistant Structures

 
Rocks and Minerals: Formation, Identification, and Human Use of Common Rocks and Minerals

 
Experiment 13: Crystals in Your Kitchen

 
Experiment 14: Identifying Minerals

 
Experiment 15: Determining Soil Type

 
Earth Cycles: Many Processes on Earth Operate in Cycles

 
Experiment 16: Building an Aquifer Model

 
Experiment 17: Edible Rock Cycle

 
Experiment 18: Cloud in a Bottle

 
Weather and Climate: Weather Patterns, Climate Zones, and Climatic Change Over Time

 
Experiment 19: Tracking Rainfall

 
Experiment 20: Making an Anemometer

 
Experiment 21: Rainforest Terrarium

 
Atmosphere: Atmospheric Movement, Layers, Pressure and Cloud Formation, Smog and Pollution

 
Experiment 22: Why Are Clouds White?

 
Experiment 23: Why Is the Sky Blue?

 
Experiment 24: Smog in a Jar

 
Water and Oceans: Fresh Water/Salt Water Distribution, Interactions, and Contamination

 
Experiment 25: How Salty Is Too Salty?

 
Experiment 26: Mapping the Ocean Floor

 
Experiment 27: Oil Spill Clean-Up

 
Student Study Site

 
Reflections on Science

 
Internet Connections: Earth and Space Science

 
 
7. Understanding and Teaching Biology
Biologists Then and Now: Ernst Haeckel and Steven Jay Gould

 
The Place of Biology in Science Education

 
Measurement in Biology

 
Experiment 28: Measuring Peak Flow Rate

 
Experiment 29: Estimating Lengths of Very Small Objects

 
Experiment 30: Measuring Population Change

 
Classification

 
Experiment 31: Observation in the Bag

 
Experiment 32: Developing a System of Classification

 
Experiment 33: Classifying Different Animals

 
Plants

 
Experiment 34: Seed Germination

 
Experiment 35: Making a Plant Cell Model

 
Experiment 36: The Effect of Acid Rain on Plant Growth

 
Animals

 
Experiment 37: Owl Pellet Dissection

 
Experiment 38: Making an Animal Cell Model

 
Experiment 39: Conducting a Bird Census

 
Neither Plant nor Animal: Protista, Monera, Viruses, Bacteria, Fungi

 
Experiment 40: Exploring Pond Water

 
Experiment 41: The Power of Yeast

 
Experiment 42: Making Yogurt

 
Ladder of Life: The Building Blocks of Organisms

 
Experiment 43: Cell Packing

 
Experiment 44: Photosynthesis and Transpiration

 
Experiment 45: Minimal Surfaces in Natural and Biological Forms

 
Code of Life: All Life Is Based on the Same Genetic Code

 
Experiment 46: Making a Model of the DNA Double Helix

 
Experiment 47: Black Marker “Fingerprints”

 
Experiment 48: Hearing Loss Simulation

 
Evolution: Natural Selection and Evidence for Species Evolution

 
Experiment 49: Bird Beak Models

 
Experiment 50: Experimenting With Stereoscopic Vision

 
Experiment 51: Design-an-Organism

 
Biomes and Ecosystems: Interactions Between Plants, Animals, and the Non-Living World

 
Experiment 52: Tracing Food Webs

 
Experiment 53: Greenhouse Effect Model

 
Experiment 54: Unintended Consequences

 
The Human Body and Human Health

 
Experiment 55: You Are What You Eat

 
Experiment 56: Modeling the Human Arm

 
Experiment 57: Spreading Infectious Disease

 
Student Study Site

 
Reflections on Science

 
Internet Connections: Biology

 
References

 
 
8. Understanding and Teaching Chemistry
Chemists Then and Now: Marie Curie and Frank Sherwood Rowland

 
The Place of Chemistry in Science Education

 
Measurement in Chemistry

 
Experiment 58: Estimating Volume

 
Experiment 59: Making a Thermometer

 
Experiment 60: Serial Dilution of Colored Liquid

 
Atoms, Elements, and Molecules

 
Experiment 61: Marshmallow Molecule Models

 
Experiment 62: Evaporating Molecules

 
Experiment 63: Elements You Eat

 
Matter

 
Experiment 64: Hot Air Rises

 
Experiment 65: Densities of Liquids

 
Experiment 66: Making Salt Crystals

 
Experiment 67: Floating a Needle on Water

 
Experiment 68: Separating Mixtures

 
Experiment 69: Comparing Soaps

 
Temperature

 
Experiment 70: Evaporation of Alcohol and Water

 
Experiment 71: Hot and Cold Water Mixtures

 
Experiment 72: Making Ice Cream

 
Pressure

 
Experiment 73: Burning Candles

 
Experiment 74: Creating a Simple Vacuum

 
Experiment 75: Cartesian Diver

 
Fuels

 
Experiment 76: Building a Voltaic Pile

 
Experiment 77: Making a Solar Water Heater

 
Experiment 78: Peanut Power

 
Student Study Site

 
Reflections on Science

 
Internet Connections: Chemistry

 
References

 
 
9. Understanding and Teaching Physics
Physicists Then and Now: Michael Faraday and Stephen W. Hawking

 
The Place of Physics in Science Education

 
Measurement in Physics

 
Experiment 79: Using Standard and Nonstandard Units of Length

 
Experiment 80: Determining Relative and Absolute Weights Using a Pan Balance

 
Experiment 81: Using a Stopwatch to Measure Time

 
Force: Gravity, Velocity, Acceleration, Newton’s Laws

 
Experiment 82: Flipping a Card off Your Finger While Leaving a Quarter in Place

 
Experiment 83: Swinging a Bucket of Water in a Circle Without Getting Wet

 
Experiment 84: Demonstrating “Lift” with a Ping-Pong Ball and Straw

 
Forms of Energy

 
Experiment 85: Bouncing Superballs

 
Experiment 86: Modeling Nuclear Half-Life

 
Experiment 87: Creating an Electroscope to Detect Static Electricity

 
Simple Machines

 
Experiment 88: Experimenting With Pulleys

 
Experiment 89: Experimenting With Ramps

 
Experiment 90: Experimenting With Levers

 
Sound

 
Experiment 91: Demonstrating the Conduction of Sound

 
Experiment 92: Experimenting With Harmonic Sound

 
Experiment 93: Experimenting With Resonance

 
Light and Color

 
Experiment 94: Making a Thaumatrope

 
Experiment 95: Color Blending

 
Experiment 96: Bending Light

 
Electricity and Magnetism

 
Experiment 97: Observing Magnetic Fields

 
Experiment 98: Making a Simple Circuit

 
Experiment 99: Making an Electromagnet

 
Student Study Site

 
Reflections on Science

 
Experiment 100: Design Your Own Experiment

 
Internet Connections: Physics

 
References

 
 
Part III. Making the Transition From Preservice Teacher to Inservice Teacher
 
10. Teacher Professional Development: Growing as a Teacher of Science
History of Teacher Professional Development

 
The Current State of Teacher Professional Development

 
Theory Into Practice 10.1: Recertification Requirements Across States

 
Action Research: From Research “On” to Research “With”

 
Lesson Study

 
Theory Into Practice 10.2: The TIMMS Video Project

 
Parental Involvement and Parental Engagement

 
Theory Into Practice 10.3: Parent Interview

 
Professional Organizations: NSTA

 
Advanced Study

 
Theory Into Practice 10.4: Interviewing an NBCT in Your School District

 
Applying for Grants

 
Theory Into Practice 10.5: If I Had $500

 
Summary

 
Student Study Site

 
Reflections on Science

 
Learning Science On-Line: On-Line Resources for Science Teaching

 
References

 
 
Appendix. The National Science Education Standards for Science Content
 
Glossary
 
Index
 
About the Authors

Excellent science methods book and it explains theory and strategies for use in the classroom.

Mr Willis Lewis
Elementary Education, Indian Bible College
September 27, 2015

I love how the book pays attention to cultural historical and diversity issues of science and science education.

Mrs Sanaz Farhangi
teaching and learning, New York University
February 4, 2013

Great combination of theory, practice, and historical context.

Dr Kimberly Lanier
School of Education, University of Miami
October 22, 2010

Cory A. Buxton

Eugene F. Provenzo, Jr.

Gene Provenzo is one of the nation’s leading scholars in the foundations of education. He holds the rank of full professor at the University of Miami. He has won numerous awards throughout his career in both teaching and research and sits on many editorial boards. He has authored over ten books and has contributed chapters to many more. He has authored scores of articles in a wide range of areas in education. His recent projects include Teaching, Learning, and Schooling (Allyn & Bacon, 2002), a critically-oriented introduction to the foundations of education textbook, and the forthcoming Readings in Educational Thought (SAGE, 2005). More About Author

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ISBN: 9781412979917
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