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Straightforward Statistics
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Straightforward Statistics

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608 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Straightforward Statistics is written in plain language and connects material in a clear, logical manner to help students across the social and behavioral sciences develop a “big picture” understanding of foundational statistics. Each new chapter is purposefully connected with the previous chapter for a gradual accrual of knowledge from simple to more complex concepts—this effective, cumulative approach to statistics through logical transitions eases students into statistics and prepares them for success in more advanced quantitative coursework and their own research.

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Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Author
 
Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics
What Is Statistics?

 
Population Versus Sample

 
Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics

 
Sampling a Population

 
Random Sampling Methods

 
Simple Random Sampling

 
Systematic Sampling

 
Stratified Sampling

 
Cluster Sampling

 
Scales of Measurement

 
Nominal Scale

 
Ordinal Scale

 
Interval Scale

 
Ratio Scale

 
Variable Classifications

 
Discrete Versus Continuous Variables

 
Independent Variables Versus Dependent Variables

 
Required Mathematical Skills for This Course

 
Statistical Notation

 
Exercise Problems

 
Solutions With EXCEL Step-by-Step Instructions When Needed

 
Chapter Resources

 
What You Learned

 
Key Words

 
Learning Assessment

 
 
Chapter 2: Summarizing and Organizing Data
What You Know and What Is New

 
Frequency Distribution Table

 
Organizing and Summarizing Categorical Variables

 
Organizing and Summarizing Numerical Variables

 
Graphs

 
Bar Graphs and Histograms

 
Pie Charts

 
Common Distribution Shapes

 
Uniform Distribution

 
Normal Distribution

 
Skewed Distribution

 
EXCEL Step-by-Step Instruction for Calculating ?X from Frequency Table and Constructing a Bar Graph

 
Exercise Problems

 
Solutions

 
Chapter Resources

 
What You Learned

 
Key Words

 
Learning Assessment

 
 
Chapter 3: Descriptive Statistics
What You Know and What Is New

 
Measures of Central Tendency

 
Mode

 
Median

 
Mean

 
Measures of Variability

 
Range

 
Variance and Standard Deviation for a Population

 
Variance and Standard Deviation for a Sample

 
Boxplot: 5-Number Summary

 
Exercise Problems

 
Solutions With EXCEL Step-by-Step Instructions

 
Chapter Resources

 
What You Learned

 
Key Words

 
Learning Assessment

 
 
Chapter 4: Standard Z Scores
What You Know and What Is New

 
Standard Z Scores

 
Z Scores for a Population

 
Z Scores for a Sample

 
Empirical Rule for Variables With a Normal Distribution

 
Exercise Problems

 
Solutions

 
Chapter Resources

 
What You Learned

 
Key Words

 
Learning Assessment

 
 
Chapter 5: Basic Principles of Probability
What You Know and What Is New

 
Basic Terms and Mathematical Operations in Probability

 
Basic Terms in Probability

 
Mathematical Operations for Probabilities

 
Binomial Probability Distribution

 
Practical Probability Application: Winning the Mega-Million Lottery

 
The Dice Game

 
Linkage Between Probability and Z Score in Normal Distribution

 
Probabilities, Z Scores, and Raw Scores

 
Exercise Problems

 
Solutions

 
Chapter Resources

 
What You Learned

 
Key Words

 
Learning Assessment

 
 
Chapter 6: The Central Limit Theorem
What You Know and What Is New

 
Sampling Error

 
Sampling Distribution of the Sample Means and the Central Limit Theorem

 
The Law of Large Numbers

 
Relationships Between Sample Means and the Population Mean

 
Exercise Problems

 
Solutions

 
Chapter Resources

 
What You Learned

 
Key Words

 
Learning Assessment

 
 
Chapter 7: Hypothesis Testing
What You Know and What Is New

 
Type I Error and Type II Error

 
The Four-Step Process to Conduct a Hypothesis Test

 
Step 1: Explicitly State the Pair of Hypotheses

 
Step 2: Identify the Rejection Zone for the Hypothesis Test

 
Step 3: Calculate the Test Statistic

 
Step 4: Make the Correct Conclusion

 
Examples of the Four-Step Hypothesis Test in Action

 
Directional Versus Non-Directional Hypothesis Testing

 
Exercise Problems

 
Solutions

 
Chapter Resources

 
What You Learned

 
Key Words

 
Learning Assessment

 
 
Chapter 8: One-Sample t Test When Sigma Is Unknown
What You Know and What Is New

 
The Unknown Sigma and Conducting the One-Sample t Test

 
The t-Distribution, a Specific Curve for Every Degree of Freedom

 
Confidence Intervals

 
Point Estimate

 
Interval Estimate

 
Exercise Problems

 
Solutions With EXCEL Step-by-Step Instructions

 
Chapter Resources

 
What You Learned

 
Key Words

 
Learning Assessment

 
 
Chapter 9: Independent Samples t Tests
What You Know and What Is New

 
Introducing Independent Samples and the Decision Rule on Equal Variances

 
Decision Rule for Equal Variances Assumed Versus Equal Variances Not Assumed

 
Equal Variances Assumed

 
Equal Variances Not Assumed

 
Using SPSS to Run Independent-Samples t Tests

 
Confidence Intervals of the Mean Difference

 
Effect Sizes

 
Exercise Problems

 
Solutions

 
Chapter Resources

 
What You Learned

 
Key Words

 
Learning Assessment

 
 
Chapter 10: Dependent-Sample t Test
What You Know and What Is New

 
Introducing Dependent-Sample t Tests

 
Calculations and the Hypothesis-Testing Process in Dependent-Sample t Tests

 
Mean, Standard Deviation, and Standard Error of the Differences

 
Hypothesis Testing for Dependent-Sample t Tests

 
Confidence Interval of the Differences

 
Effect Size for the Dependent-Sample t Test

 
Using SPSS to Run Dependent-Sample t Tests

 
Exercise Problems

 
Solutions

 
Chapter Resources

 
What You Learned

 
Key Words

 
Learning Assessment

 
 
Chapter 11: Correlation
What You Know and What Is New

 
Pearson’s Correlation

 
Pearson’s Correlation Formulas

 
Describing and Interpreting Pearson’s r

 
Showing the Pearson’s Correlation in Action

 
Hypothesis Testing for the Pearson’s Correlation

 
Interpretations and Assumptions of Pearson’s Correlation

 
Interpretations of Pearson’s Correlation

 
Assumptions of Pearson’s Correlation

 
Special Types of Correlation

 
Spearman’s Rank Correlation

 
Partial Correlation Formula

 
Point Biserial Correlation

 
EXCEL Step-by-Step Instruction for Constructing a Scatterplot

 
EXCEL Step-by-Step Instruction on Calculating Pearson’s r

 
Exercise Problems

 
Solutions

 
Chapter Resources

 
What You Learned

 
Key Words

 
Learning Assessment

 
 
Chapter 12: Simple Regression
What You Know and What Is New

 
Y-Intercept and Slope

 
Hypothesis Testing With Simple Regression

 
Standard Error of the Estimate

 
The Mathematical Relationship Between Pearson’s r and the Regression Slope, b

 
Assumptions for Simple Regression

 
Step-by-Step Instructions on SPSS

 
Exercise Problems

 
Solutions

 
Chapter Resources

 
What You Learned

 
Key Words

 
Learning Assessment

 
 
Chapter 13: One-Way Analysis of Variance
What You Know and What Is New

 
Introducing ANOVA

 
Between-Group Variance and Within-Group Variance

 
Sum of Squares Between

 
Sum of Squares Within

 
Degrees of Freedom for Between Groups (dfB) and Within Groups (dfW)

 
Hypothesis Testing With ANOVA

 
Post Hoc Comparisons

 
Statistical Assumptions of an ANOVA

 
Effect Size for One-Way ANOVA

 
Step-by-Step Instructions for Using SPSS to Run an ANOVA

 
Exercise Problems

 
Solutions

 
Chapter Resources

 
What You Learned

 
Key Words

 
Learning Assessment

 
 
Chapter 14: Chi-Square Tests for Goodness-of-Fit and Independence
What You Know and What Is New

 
The Chi-Square

 
Expected Frequency

 
Expected Frequency Under a One-Way Frequency Table

 
Expected Frequency Under a Two-Way Contingency Table

 
Goodness-of-Fit Tests

 
Hypothesis Testing With the Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test

 
Chi-Square for Independence

 
Hypothesis Testing With the Chi-Square Test for Independence

 
Exercise Problems

 
Solutions

 
Chapter Resources

 
What You Learned

 
Key Words

 
Learning Assessment

 
 
Appendix A. The Standard Normal Distribution Table (Z Table)
 
Appendix B. The t-Distribution Table (t Table)
 
Appendix C. The F Table
 
Appendix D. The Critical Values of Pearson's Correlation Table (r Table)
 
Appendix E. The Cirtical Values for Spearman's Rank Correlation Table (rS Table)
 
Appendix F. The Critical Values for the Point Biserial Correlation Table (rpbi Table)
 
Appendix G. The Critical Values of the Studentized Range Distribution Table (q Table)
 
Appendix H. The Critical Values for the Chi-Square Tests (Chi2 Table)
 
Answers to the Learning Assessments
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Index

Supplements

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“This book does an admirable job of presenting the rationale for the formulas, which should help the student understand the material more deeply. Additionally, the examples used by the author do a nice job of helping students walk through the process of applying the formulas to address research hypotheses.”

Arin M. Connell
Case Western Reserve University

“I have been impressed with the author’s ability to explain statistical constructs in a straightforward manner.”

James E. Lennon
New Jersey City University

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 7


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Chieh-Chen Bowen

Chieh-Chen Bowen is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at Cleveland State University. She received her Ph.D. in Industrial and Organizational Psychology and a doctoral minor in Statistics from Penn State. She teaches undergraduate and graduate level Statistics, Personnel Psychology, Job Analysis, and Performance Management. Her research interests are comparing cross-cultural management practices, investigating women’s issues in the workplace, and validating personality questionnaires for employee selection. When she is not teaching or doing research, she can be found providing expert witness consulting services to... More About Author

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