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Shaping the Developing World

Shaping the Developing World
The West, the South, and the Natural World

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August 2013 | 424 pages | CQ Press
Why are some countries rich and others poor?

Shaping the Developing World explores the different theories that attempt to answer this thorny question. Interdisciplinary in his scope, Andy Baker adeptly uses a threefold framework of the West, the South, and the Natural World to categorize and analyze the factors that cause underdevelopment—from the consequences of colonialism, deficient domestic institutions, and gender inequality to the effects of globalization, geography, and environmental degradation. Students learn to think like social scientists while coming to understand the full breadth of influences on a nation’s political, economic, and social development.

Country case studies at the end of each chapter offer an ideal testing ground for the threefold framework, as they apply empirical data to the various explanations of underdevelopment. Critical thinking questions then encourage students to weigh the different theoretical arguments. A series of well-designed features develop students’ understanding of indicators of development concepts and highlight various kinds of aid organizations and opportunities for development work in the field. Shaping the Developing World presents high-quality academic analysis and the latest scholarship in a format that’s engaging, informative, and above all, accessible.
1. Underdevelopment and Diversity in the Global South
Defining the Developing World  
Naming the Developing World  
Delineating the Developing World  
Economic, Social, and Political Characteristics  
Economic Characteristics  
Social Characteristics  
Political Characteristics  
A Brief History of Economic Development  
The Pre-Industrial Eras  
The Industrial Revolution  
Modern Economic Growth in the Developing World  
Goals and Organization: Who or What Causes Global Poverty?  
Causes of Underdevelopment: A Framework  
Organization of the Book  
Case Study: Why Is the Democratic Republic of Congo the Poorest Country on Earth?  
The South: Kleptocracy and Cultural Fragmentation  
The West: Stolen Aid, Colonial Abuses, and Slavery  
The Natural World: Geography and the Resource Curse  
Thinking Critically about Development  
Key Terms  
Suggested Readings  
Web Resources  
2. Human Development and Underdevelopment
Defining Human Development  
The Human Development Approach  
The Complex Relationship between Economic and Human Development  
Health Snapshot: Description and Causes of the Developing World’s Shortcomings  
Key Health Indicators: Life Expectancy and Child Mortality  
The Immediate Cause of Poor Health Outcomes  
Health Trends: Tracking Improvements in LDCs through Time  
Longer Lives  
Causes of Convergence: The Declining Cost of Good Health  
Education Snapshot: The Nature and Causes of the Developing World’s Deficit  
Key Education Indicators: Attainment and Achievement  
The Immediate Causes of Poor Educational Outcomes  
Education Trends: Tracking Improvements in LDCs through Time  
Higher Enrollments and Better Quality  
Causes of Convergence: Better Government and Parental Commitment  
Case Study: What Are India’s Failures and Successes in Human Development?  
Health and Education Challenges  
Health and Education Successes  
Thinking Critically about Development  
Key Terms  
Suggested Readings  
Web Resources  
3. The Benefits and Costs of Economic Development
The Cultural Costs of Development  
The Cost: The Westernization and Homogenization of Cultures  
The Cost: Deteriorations in Social Connectedness and Personal Character  
The Response: Prosperity as a Universal Desire  
The Response: Minimal or Beneficial Cultural Change  
The Equity Costs of Development  
The Cost: Deepening Global Inequality  
The Cost: Deepening Domestic Inequalities  
The Response: The Complicated Relationship between Development and Inequality  
The Environmental Costs of Development  
The Cost: Environmental Degradation  
The Response: The Benefits of Development for the Environment  
The Psychological Costs of Development  
The Cost: Insecurity, Alienation, and Unhappiness  
The Response: Revisiting the Ethics and Evidence on Happiness  
Case Study: Has Economic Growth Brought Happiness to China?  
The Gains  
The Costs  
Thinking Critically about Development  
Key Terms  
Suggested Readings  
Web Resources  
4. Slavery and Colonialism
The Atlantic Slave Trade  
The Triangular Trade  
Features of the Trade in Africa  
Features of the Trade in Latin America  
Causes of Underdevelopment: The Long-Term Damage of Slavery  
Consequences for Africa  
Consequences for Latin America and the Caribbean  
Critique: Questioning the Magnitude of Slavery’s Effects  
Western Colonialism  
The Importance of the Western Colonial Era for the Contemporary South  
A Brief History of the Colonial Era  
Causes of Underdevelopment: Western Colonialism’s Consequences  
The Colonial Drain  
Colonialism’s Institutional Legacy  
Colonialism’s Cultural Legacy  
Critique of Colonial Legacy Arguments  
Case Study: Do Slavery and Colonialism Explain Nigeria’s Development Failure?  
The West: Slavery and Colonialism’s Consequences  
The South: Domestic Problems in Independent Nigeria  
The Natural World: The Burden of Geography and the Paradox of Oil Wealth  
Thinking Critically about Development  
Key Terms  
Suggested Readings  
Web Resources  
5. Globalization and Neocolonialism
From the First Global Century to Import Substitution  
The First Global Century  
The ISI Phase  
Export Promotion  
Causes of Underdevelopment: Dependency and Other Early Theories of Global Exploitation  
Latin American Structuralism  
Dependency Theory  
World Systems Theory  
Falling Behind in the First Global Century  
Critiques of Structuralism, Dependency Theory, and WST  
Reintegrating the Globe  
Trade Liberalization  
Capital Market Liberalization  
Changing Migration Flows  
Remaining Barriers  
Causes of Underdevelopment: Newer Concerns about Globalization  
Sweatshops and the Race to the Bottom  
Volatile Capital Flows  
Foreign Debt  
Brain Drain  
Critique: Defending Globalization  
The Benefits of Free Trade  
Labor Exploitation or Enrichment?  
The Nature of Foreign Debt  
Brain Gain  
Case Study: Is Neocolonialism Why Brazil Is Always the “Country of the Future”?  
The West: Failures of Openness  
The South: Shortcomings of Domestic Institutions  
The Natural World: The Illusion of Abundance  
Thinking Critically about Development  
Key Terms  
Suggested Readings  
Web Resources  
6. Foreign Aid and the Bretton Woods Institutions
Foreign Aid  
Understanding Key Concepts and Players in the Aid Regime  
A Brief History of Foreign Aid  
Causes of Underdevelopment: The Case for Aid Skepticism  
Donor Motives  
Donor Paternalism and Lack of Accountability  
Donor Fragmentation and Aid Volatility  
Recipient Absorptive Capacity and Governance  
Recipient Economic Problems  
Defending Foreign Aid and Its Record  
Theoretical Defenses  
Foreign Aid’s Many Successes  
The Aid Trickle  
Learning from Past Mistakes  
The Bretton Woods Institutions: The IMF and World Bank  
A Brief History of the IMF and World Bank  
Causes of Underdevelopment: Imposing Market Fundamentalism  
Foisting Capitalism on the Developing World  
Other Criticisms  
Critique: Defending the Bretton Woods Institutions  
Loans and Conditionalities as a Choice  
The Ethics of Conditionalities  
The Case for Market Policies  
Case Study: Has Foreign Aid Made Pakistan Poorer?  
The West: The Failures of Aid and the IMF  
The South: The Worst of Continuity and Change  
The Natural World: The Paradox of Flooding amidst Dryness  
Thinking Critically about Development  
Key Terms  
Suggested Readings  
Web Resources  
7. Culture and Identity
Understanding Culture and Social Identity  
Social Identity  
Other Cultural Traits  
Causes of Underdevelopment: The Culturalist School  
Max Weber and the Protestant Ethic  
Modernization Theory  
Social Capital and Trust  
Religion and Natural Culture  
Critique of Culturalist Claims  
Culture as Consequence, Not Cause  
Mischaracterizing Culture in LDCs  
Mixed Evidence  
Cultural Relativism  
Causes of Underdevelopment: The Costs of Cultural Diversity  
Underprovision of Public Goods and Fragmented Markets  
Poor Governance and Conflict  
Stereotype Threat  
Critique: Diversity as Consequence, Not Cause  
Case Study: Are Iraqis Poor Because of Islam and Its Ethnic Cleavages?  
The South: Islam and Sectarian Divisions  
The West: The British Mandate and War with the United States  
The Natural World: Oil and Sand  
Thinking Critically about Development  
Key Terms  
Suggested Readings  
Web Resources  
8. States, Markets, and Development Models
State-Led Development  
State-Led Development in Thought  
State-Led Development in Practice  
Causes of Underdevelopment: Failures of the State-Led Model  
Critique: Successes of State-Led Development  
Marxist Thought  
Socialism in Practice  
Causes of Underdevelopment: Failures of Socialism  
Critique: Socialism’s Successes  
The Market-Oriented Strategy  
Neoclassical Economic Thought  
The Market-Oriented Strategy in Practice  
Causes of Underdevelopment: Shortcomings of the Market-Oriented Strategy  
Disappointing Results  
State Capitalism  
Critique: Successes of the Washington Consensus  
Success Stories  
Debating State Capitalism  
Case Study: Did India’s Postcolonial Development Model Delay Its Economic Rise?  
The South: India’s State-Led Development Model  
The West: Exploiting the “Jewel in the British Crown”  
The Natural World: Topography and Transport Costs  
Thinking Critically about Development  
Key Terms  
Suggested Readings  
Web Resources  
9. Economic Institutions and Informality
Property Markets and Informal Ownership  
Urban Slums and Rural Land  
Causes of Property Informality  
Causes of Underdevelopment: Informal Property Markets  
New Institutional Economics and Property Rights  
Dead Capital  
Critique: Is Formality Worth It?  
Informal Work, Firms, and Finance  
Labor and Business Informality  
Financial Services  
Causes of Underdevelopment: Challenges of Informal Firms and Finance  
The Drawbacks of Informal Work  
Shortcomings of Informal Finance  
Critique: Formalization as a False Solution  
Case Study: Does Informality Explain Peru’s Delayed Development?  
The South: Informal Economic Activity  
The West: Spanish Colonialism and British Neocolonialism  
The Natural World: Pizarro Wins the Lottery  
Thinking Critically about Development  
Key Terms  
Suggested Readings  
Web Resources  
10. Political Institutions and Governance
Political Regimes  
Hybrid Regimes  
Political Instability and Regime Change  
The Relationship between Political Regimes and Prosperity  
Democracy’s Third Wave  
The Judiciary and the Bureaucracy  
Rule of Law  
State Capacity  
Judicial and Bureaucratic Quality around the World  
Causes of Underdevelopment: Bad Political Institutions  
Extractive Institutions  
Inclusive Institutions as the Solution  
Critique of NIE  
Economic Development First  
The Authoritarian Advantage  
Mixed Evidence  
Case Study: Does China’s Authoritarianism Explain Why It Is Poorer Than the West?  
The South: Serial Authoritarianism  
The West: A Century of Humiliation  
The Natural World: Inhospitable Terrain  
Thinking Critically about Development  
Key Terms  
Suggested Readings  
Web Resources  
11. Violence and State Failure
Political and Criminal Violence  
Political Violence  
Criminal Violence  
State Failure  
Causes of Underdevelopment: The Costs of Violence and State Failure  
The Costs of Armed Conflict  
The Price of Criminal Violence  
Critique: Reconsidering the Costs of Violence  
Case Study: Is Somalia Poor because of Civil War?  
The South: Civil War in the World’s Least Governed State  
The West: The Legacy of Foreign Intervention  
The Natural World: Climate and Nomadism  
Thinking Critically about Development  
Key Terms  
Suggested Readings  
Web Resources  
12. Gender Inequality
Female Empowerment  
The Gender Earnings Gap  
The Gender Gap in Education  
The Gender Gap in Political Empowerment  
Causes of Underdevelopment: Disempowered Women and Girls  
Critiques of the Instrumentalist View  
Female Health, Physical Security, and Fertility  
Excess Female Mortality and Missing Women  
Gender-Based Violence  
Reproduction and Fertility  
Causes of Underdevelopment: High Fertility  
Critique: Doubting the Costs of High Fertility  
Case: Is Afghanistan’s Treatment of Women the Cause of Its Poverty?  
The South: Mistreatment of Women and Girls  
The West: Legacy of a Global Pawn  
The Natural World: Dry, Mountainous, and Landlocked  
Thinking Critically about Development  
Key Terms  
Suggested Readings  
Web Resources  
13. Geography and Economic Prosperity
Geographic Commonalities of the Developing World  
The Tropics  
Other Commonalities  
Causes of Underdevelopment: Physical Geography and Climate  
The Tropical Disadvantage  
Guns, Germs, and Steel  
Natural Barriers to Economic Exchange  
Critique of Geographical Determinism  
Critique of Jeffrey Sachs  
Critique of Jared Diamond  
Overcoming Distance  
The Resource Curse  
Causes of Underdevelopment: Natural Resources  
Dutch Disease and a Lack of Industry  
Effects on Politics  
Critique: A Resource Blessing?  
Case Study: Is Geography Destiny in Mexico?  
The Natural World: Mexico’s Geographical Disadvantages  
The West: Colonial and Postcolonial Exploitation  
The South: Instability and Autocracy  
Thinking Critically about Development  
Key Terms  
Suggested Reading  
Web Resources  
14. Environmental Change and Development
Communal Environmental Problems  
Degradation of Natural Capital  
Why Community Environmental Problems Are Worse in LDCs  
Causes of Underdevelopment: A Malthusian Trap  
Critique: Recent History versus Neo-Malthusianism  
Climate Change and Development  
Causes of Underdevelopment: The Economic Burden of Climate Change  
Causes of Underdevelopment: The Economic Burden of Climate Change  
Case Study: Will Malthusian Traps End Indonesia’s Rise?  
The Natural World: Indonesia’s Malthusian Crisis?  
The South: Poor Government and Female Disempowerment  
The West: Pathologies of Globalization  
Thinking Critically about Development  
Key Terms  
Suggested Readings  
Web Resources  


Instructor Resource Site
Password-protected INSTRUCTOR RESOURCES you’ll actually use!
Save time and ease class preparation with the additional guidance and tools, including:

  • A comprehensive test bank provides more than 700 multiple-choice, fill-in-the blank, and short- and long-essay questions, as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding. The test bank is available in Word and fully loaded in Respondus, a flexible and easy-to-use test-generation software that allows instructors to build, customize, and even integrate exams into course management systems.
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for the course.
  • A set of all the graphics from the text, including all of the maps, tables, and figures, in PowerPoint, .pdf, and .jpg formats for class presentations.

Excellent book which is useful to students and teachers. Very good internet guidance also

Department of Peace Studies, Bradford University
April 13, 2015

This was excellent when I used it last year

Department of Peace Studies, Bradford University
January 16, 2015

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Andy Baker

Andy Baker is Associate Professor of Political Science and Faculty Associate in the Institute of Behavioral Science at the University of Colorado Boulder. He teaches courses on comparative politics, political economy, global development, and African and Latin American politics. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 2001. Andy conducts research on Latin American politics, international political economy, and mass political behavior. In 2009, he published a book with Cambridge University Press, entitled The Market and the Masses in Latin America: Policy Reform and Consumption in Liberalizing Economies, on the... More About Author

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ISBN: 9781608718559