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Section 504 and the ADA

Section 504 and the ADA

September 2008 | 152 pages | Corwin
A concise legal desk reference to help educators support the rights of individuals with disabilities!This resource provides an expert review of the requirements of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) and their impact on educational opportunities and access for persons with disabilities. Ideal for administrators, counselors, teachers, and special educators, the book covers: Provisions of Section 504 and the ADA regarding students who participate in educational programs and services Requirements affecting students in public Kû12 schools, private schools, and post-secondary institutionsThe rights of employees with disabilitiesLegal considerations involving parents
About the Authors
1. Introduction: Education and the American Legal System
Key Concepts in This Chapter  
Sources of Law  
Statutes and Regulations  
Common Law  
Court Systems  
Finding Legal Materials  
Exclusionary Practices  
Civil Rights Movement  
Equal Educational Opportunity Movement  
A New Era for Students With Disabilities  
The Right to an Appropriate Education Delineated  
Landmark Litigation  
Other Significant Cases  
Legislative Response to PARC and Mills  
2. Anti-Discrimination Legislation: An Overview of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans With Disabilities Act
Key Concepts in This Chapter  
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act  
Individual With a Disability Defined  
Otherwise Qualified Explained  
Requirement to Provide Reasonable Accommodations  
Application of Section 504 to Parents and Others Who Access a School  
Americans With Disabilities Act  
ADA's Definition of Individual With a Disability  
Five Titles of the ADA  
Similarities Between Section 504 and the ADA  
3. Students
Key Concepts in This Chapter  
Students in Elementary and Secondary Schools  
Prohibition Against Discrimination  
Definition of Disability  
Otherwise Qualified Students With Disabilities  
Reasonable Accommodations  
Appropriate Education  
Testing Accommodations  
Undue Burden  
Section 504/ADA Service Plans  
Students in Non-Public Schools  
Admissions Examinations/Standards  
Students in Higher Education  
Discriminatory Practices Prohibited  
Otherwise Qualified Students With Disabilities  
Reasonable Accommodations  
Recommendations for Practice  
4. Employees
Key Concepts in This Chapter  
Discrimination Claims  
Differential Treatment  
Impairments Not Covered  
Mitigation of Impairments  
Disciplinary Action  
Otherwise Qualified Individuals With Disabilities  
Essential Job Functions  
Failure to Meet Prerequisite Requirements  
Poor Performance and Misconduct  
Reasonable Accommodations  
Accommodating Physical Challenges  
Accommodating Disease and Illness  
Relief Denied  
Recommendations for Practice  
5. Parents and the General Public
Key Concepts in This Chapter  
Applicable Provisions of Section 504 and the ADA  
Public Entities  
Public Accommodations  
Private Institutions  
General Public  
Recommendations for Practice  
6. Defenses, Immunities, and Remedies
Key Concepts in This Chapter  
Eleventh Amendment Immunity  
Sovereign Immunity Under Section 504  
Sovereign Immunity Under the ADA  
Effect on State Agencies and School Boards  
Individual Defendants  
Attorney Fees  
Exhaustion of IDEA Administrative Remedies  
Statute of Limitations  
Recommendations for Practice  
Appendix 1
Appendix 2

"How do you protect the rights of every person who walks into your building? You do it by buying this book and keeping it on your desk as a ready reference manual on how to implement major laws.”

Robert J. Safransky, Adjunct Professor of School Law and American Government
Nova Southeastern University

"Provides comprehensive guidance for administrators, policy makers, and educational officials. The encyclopedic treatment of disability law within the context of these statutes offers readers best practices for ensuring that their actions are consistent with the law, treating students and employees fairly and minimizing potential liability."

Terrence Leas, President
Riverland Community College

"Educators need a source that is written in an easy-to-understand format. This book offers many examples of case law that can be applied to educational settings. It is a wonderful resource that covers a range of topics pertinent to teachers and administrators."

Carol Shiffer, Assistant Principal and 504 Coordinator
Quincy Public Schools, MA

“The most complex civil rights questions of the twenty-first century are those surrounding persons with disabilities. This book simplifies those issues and serves as an excellent starting point for further research. It is essential tool for any school board or university attorney.”

William E. Thro, Former General Counsel
Christopher Newport University

Sample Materials & Chapters


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Charles J. Russo

Charles J. Russo, JD, EdD, is the Joseph Panzer Chair in Education in the School of Education and Allied Professions and adjunct professor in the School of Law at the University of Dayton. He was the 1998–1999 president of the Education Law Association and 2002 recipient of its McGhehey (Achievement) Award. He has authored or coauthored more than 200 articles in peer-reviewed journals; has authored, coauthored, edited, or coedited 40 books; and has in excess of 800 publications. Russo also speaks extensively on issues in education law in the United States and abroad.Along with having spoken in 33 states and 25 nations on 6 continents,... More About Author

Allan G. Osborne, Jr.

Allan G. Osborne, Jr. is the retired principal of the Snug Harbor Community School in Quincy, Massachusetts, a nationally recognized Blue Ribbon School of Excellence. During his 34 years in public education, he served as a special education teacher, a director of special education, an assistant principal, and a principal. He has also served as an adjunct professor of special education and education law at several colleges, including Bridgewater State University and American International University.Osborne earned an EdD in educational leadership from Boston College and an MEd in special education from Fitchburg State College (now Fitchburg... More About Author

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