Addressing the key question `What is being affirmed through affirmative action?' the author seeks the answer along four lines:
- What is the religious component of such an affirmation, if any?
- Is there a moral principle (or principles) underlying this affirmation?
- Is this affirmation being advocated on ethical principles with which modern liberal thought is imbued?
- Are doctrines of human rights invoked in such an affirmation?