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Research Methods, Statistics, and Applications

Research Methods, Statistics, and Applications

Third Edition

January 2022 | 696 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Research Methods, Statistics, and Applications by Kathrynn A. Adams and Eva K. McGuire is designed to give students the experience of being a researcher by combining the interrelated concepts of research methods and statistics to better explain how the research process incorporates both elements. Employing a conversational tone throughout, coupled with an emphasis on decision-making, this best-selling text will spark students’ interest in conducting research and improve their ability to critically analyze research in their daily lives.

The Third Edition includes a new chapter on measurement to better highlight its critical importance, updates for the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, new examples related to social justice, additional sections on qualitative research methods, and more thorough integration of research ethics information and tips throughout each chapter.

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Research Methods, Statistics, and Applications, Third Edition + Student Study Guide With IBM® SPSS® Workbook for Research Methods, Statistics, and Applications, Third Edition
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About the Authors
Chapter 1 • Thinking Like a Researcher
Learning Objectives

Critical Thinking

The Scientific Approach

Overview of the Research Process (a.k.a. The Scientific Method)

Thinking Critically About Ethics

The Big Picture: Proof and Progress in Science

Chapter Resources

Chapter 2 • Build a Solid Foundation for Your Study Based on Past Research
Learning Objectives

Types of Sources

Strategies to Identify and Find Past Research

Reading and Evaluating Primary Research Articles

Crediting Sources

The Big Picture: Use the Past to Inform the Present

Chapter Resources

Chapter 3 • Measuring Your Variables
Learning Objectives

Constructs and Operational Definitions

Four Scales of Measurement

Self-Report Measures

Behavioral and Physiological Measures

Archival Research

The Big Picture: How to Choose Measures For Your Study

Chapter Resources

Chapter 4 • The Cornerstones of Good Research: Reliability and Validity
Learning Objectives

Reliability and Validity Defined

Reliability and Validity of Measurement

Assessing Reliability of Measures

Assessing Validity of Measures

Reliability and Validity at the Study Level

The Big Picture: Consistency and Accuracy

Chapter Resources

Chapter 5 • Basics of Research Design: Description and Sampling
Learning Objectives

When is a Descriptive Study Appropriate?

Validity in Descriptive Studies

Defining the Population and Obtaining a Sample

Probability Sampling

Nonprobability Sampling

The Big Picture: Choosing a Sampling Method

Chapter Resources

Chapter 6 • Describing Your Sample
Learning Objectives

Ethical and Practical Issues in Describing Your Sample

Descriptive Statistics

Choosing the Appropriate Descriptive Statistics

Comparing Interval/Ratio Scores with z Scores and Percentiles

The Big Picture: Know Your Data and Your Sample

Chapter Resources

Chapter 7 • Beyond Descriptives: Making Inferences Based On Your Sample
Learning Objectives

Inferential Statistics

Hypothesis Testing

Errors in Hypothesis Testing

Effect Size, Confidence Intervals, and Practical Significance

The Big Picture: Making Sense of Results

Chapter Resources

Chapter 8 • Comparing Your Sample to a Known or Expected Score
Learning Objectives

Choosing the Appropriate Test

One-Sample t Tests

Calculating an Effect Size

Calculating a Confidence Interval

The Big Picture: Examining One Variable at a Time

Chapter Resources

Chapter 9 • Examining Relationships Among Your Variables: Correlational Design
Learning Objectives

Correlational Design

Basic Statistics to Evaluate Correlational Research


The Big Picture: Correlational Designs Versus Correlational Analyses

Chapter Resources

Chapter 10 • Examining Causality
Learning Objectives

Testing Cause and Effect

Eight Key Threats to Internal Validity

Basic Issues in Designing an Experiment

Validity in Experiments

The Big Picture: Benefits and Limits of Experimental Design

Chapter Resources

Chapter 11 • Independent-Groups Designs
Learning Objectives

Designs with Independent Groups

Designing a Simple Experiment

Analysis of Two Independent-Groups Designs

FORMULAS and CALCULATIONS: Independent-Samples t Test

Using a Data Analysis Program to Calculate Independent Samples t Tests

Designs with More than Two Independent Groups

Analysis of Multiple Independent-Groups Designs

Formulas and Calculations: One-Way Independent-Samples ANOVA

Using a Data Analysis Program to Calculate One-Way Independent-Samples ANOVAs

The Big Picture: Identifying and Analyzing Independent-Groups Designs

Chapter Resources

Chapter 12 • Dependent-Groups Designs
Learning Objectives

Designs with Dependent Groups

Designs with More than two Dependent Groups

Analysis of Dependent Multiple-Groups Designs

Formulas and Calculations: Within-Subjects ANOVA

The Big Picture: Selecting Analyses and Interpreting Results for Dependent-Groups Designs

Chapter Resources

Chapter 13 • Factorial Designs
Learning Objectives

Basic Concepts in Factorial Design

Rationale for Factorial Designs


Two-Way Between Subjects ANOVA

Beyond the 2 × 2 Independent-Groups Design

The Big Picture: Embracing Complexity

Chapter Resources

Chapter 14 • Nonparametric Statistics
Learning Objectives

Parametric Versus Nonparametric Statistics

Chi-Square Goodness of Fit

Chi-Square Test For Independence

Dependent-Groups Designs with Nominal Outcome Measures

Spearman’s Rho to Examine Relationships Between Ordinal (Ranked) Data

Nonparametric Statistics for Independent- and Dependent-Groups Designs with Ordinal Data

The Big Picture: Selecting Parametric Versus Nonparametric Tests

Chapter Resources

Chapter 15 • Focusing on the Individual: Case Studies and Single N Designs
Learning Objectives

Samples Versus Individuals

The Case Study

Qualitative Analyses

Single N Designs

The Big Picture: Choosing Between a Sample, Case Study, or Single N Design

Chapter Resources

Chapter 16 • How to Decide? Choosing a Research Design and Selecting the Correct Analysis
Learning Objectives

Choosing a Research Design

Selecting Your Statistical Analyses

The Big Picture: Beyond This Class

Chapter Resources

Appendix A • Answers to Practice Questions
Appendix B • APA Style and Format Guidelines
Appendix C • Statistical Tables
Appendix D • Statistical Formulas


Instructor Site
Online resources included with this text

The online resources for your text are available via the password-protected Instructor Resource Site, which offers access to all text-specific resources, including a test bank, editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides, lecture notes, downloadable datasets for accompanying material in the book, and answers to end of chapter statistics exercises.
Student Site
The open-access Student Study Site offers datasets for accompanying material in the book are available for download.

Unfortunately, I did not receive a copy of the book Research Methods, Statistics and Applications
Third Edition by
Adams. Kathrynn
McGuire (aka: Lawrence) Eva

Dr Heather Allison
Department of Education, London Metropolitan University
October 28, 2023

Focus on practical applications.

Dr Mark Fulford
School Of Business/Economics, Campbellsville University
August 29, 2022
Key features
  • A new chapter on measurement tackles this critical topic with more depth so students can conduct precise research.
  • APA Style Manual 7th Edition updates provide students with guidance on proper citation style, bias-free language, and report writing.
  • Additional sections on qualitative research emphasize case study research and other methods to help students complete their picture of research methods.
  • An updated SAGE companion website provides practice datasets, lecture slides, homework assignments, answers to statistics exercises, and test banks for instructors.
  • New examples from the current research literature from psychology, criminal justice, politics, and education build on the currency of the text.
  • Current examples relating to social justice, more inclusive language in line with new APA guidelines, and integrated ethics tips within the chapters enhance the book’s hallmark sustained focus on ethics.
  • Thorough integration of research methods and statistics helps students gain a full picture of the research process.
  • Examples from current research literature provide a real-life context for understanding methods and statistics and demonstrate how a research topic can be examined in multiple ways.
  • Directions for calculating statistics using formulas, as well as data analysis programs (SPSS, with jamovi available online), enhance student understanding of analyses.
  • Ethics coverage throughout the book—with tips for how to conduct ethical research in every chapter—reinforces its importance in all stages of the research process.
  • Practice boxes in every chapter and end-of-chapter reviews of key concepts provide repeated exposure to important ideas, as well as opportunities to apply concepts soon after learning about them.
  • A final “putting it all together” chapter provides a summary of the major questions to answer when designing and carrying out research.
  • A focus on academic honesty is woven throughout the book and reinforced in an APA-style research paper and published manuscript in the appendix.

 We used the first and second editions in our own research methods and analysis courses for several years and with great success. Our students appreciated the conversational tone of the writing, the practice opportunities, and the applications of key concepts. Other professors who adopted or reviewed the previous editions commented positively about the writing style and organization, and the integration of current research. Many mentioned that they found the final “putting it all together” chapter to be a unique and important feature of the text. In writing this third edition, we aimed to build on and strengthen those aspects that students and professors found most useful.

The third edition includes new examples from the current research literature from psychology, criminal justice, politics, and education. We updated our citation and reference guidelines based on the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2020). We provide an annotated APA-style research paper and published manuscript in the Appendix that we updated with the 7th edition guidelines for this edition. A unique feature of the book continues to be a sustained focus on ethics, and as such we updated the language to be more inclusive and in line with new APA guidelines, added current examples relating to social justice, and integrated ethics tips within the chapter. Because measurement is such a critical part of research design, we reorganized material in the book and added a full chapter devoted to this topic. Although we continue to focus on quantitative analyses, we added a section on qualitative analyses as they relate to the case study. We also rearranged some chapters to improve the flow, updated the illustrations, and made a stronger connection with the companion Student Study Guide and IBM® SPSS® Workbook. For professors who are using jamovi instead, we created an alternative workbook for jamovi that is available on the instructor resource site.

Kathrynn Ann Adams

Kathrynn (Kathy) A. Adams earned her PhD in general experimental psychology from the University of Alabama in 1977. She was a Charles A. Dana Professor of Psychology at Guilford College when she retired in 2017 after 37 years of teaching. Her professional interests include gender issues, relationships, and teaching pedagogy. She worked with the Preparing Future Faculty Program for 20 years and helped establish the Early College at Guilford, a nationally ranked high school. In her spare time, she spends as much time as possible outdoors, practices yoga, and bakes chocolate desserts. More About Author

Eva K. McGuire

Eva K. McGuire earned her PhD in clinical psychology from Virginia Commonwealth University in 2002. She is a Charles A. Dana Professor of Psychology at Guilford College, where she has taught since 2003. Her research interests include environmental psychology and computer-mediated communication. Eva enjoys walking, yoga, and bike riding, and she loves to listen to live music. More About Author