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Qualitative Data Analysis

Qualitative Data Analysis
Practical Strategies

472 pages | SAGE Publications Ltd

Written by an experienced researcher in the field of qualitative methods, this dynamic new book provides a definitive introduction to analysing qualitative data.

It is a clear, accessible and practical guide to each stage of the process, including:

- Designing and managing qualitative data for analysis

- Working with data through interpretive, comparative, pattern and relational analyses

- Developing explanatory theory and coherent conclusions, based on qualitative data.

The book pairs theoretical discussion with practical advice using a host of examples from diverse projects across the social sciences. It describes data analysis strategies in actionable steps and helpfully links to the use of computer software where relevant.

This is an exciting new addition to the literature on qualitative data analysis and a must-read for anyone who has collected, or is preparing to collect, their own data.

Foundations for Thinking and Working Qualitatively
Thinking Qualitatively

Thinking Methods (and methodology)

Working Qualitatively

Working Qualitatively - Using Software

Foundations for Working Qualitatively

Working Qualitatively: Implications for Analysis

Writing About Foundations


Further Reading

Designing for Analysis
Design-giving Form to Ideas

Focusing the Study

Designing for Data That Can Be Analysed

Planning for Quality and Credibility of Conclusions

Putting It All Together

Writing About Design


Further reading

Managing and Preparing Data for Analysis
Before Data Collection

Keeping Organised, Available and Usable Data Records

Recording and Preparing Data for Analysis

The Importance of Context

Recording Sample Details for Analysis

Checks and Balances for Data

Managing Relationships in the Research Team

Writing About Data Management


Read, Reflect and Connect: Initial Explorations of Data
Read, and Read Again

Write As You Read

Purposeful Play-preliminary Explorations of Each Data Source

Explore the Storylines

Exploring Context

Identify Relevant Categories and Concepts

Involving Participants in Early Analysis

Re-focus, Ready For the Next Phase

Writing About Preliminary Analysis


Further reading

Codes and Coding: Principles and Practice
Using Codes to Work With Data

Practical Tools for Coding

Methods Decisions in Coding

Issues of Validity and Reliability in Coding

Managing the Process of Coding

A Final Reminder - Codes and Coding in Context

Writing About Coding Processes


Further reading

Naming, Organizing and Refining Codes
What's in a Name?

Naming Broad Topic Areas

Naming Codes to Capture Substance and Meaning

Automating Coding

Developing a Coding System

Reviewing and Refining Codes and the Coding Structure

Writing About Codes

Exercise - Generating Codes

Further Reading

Alternative Approaches to Breaking Open and Connecting Data
Building on Cases

Themes as an Alternative to Codes?

Focus on Interaction - Working With Focus Group Data

Focus on Stories and Accounts - Identifying Structure, Interpreting Meaning

Focus on Discourse - The Intersubjective Space

The Value of Case-based Approaches

Writing About Your Use of Case-based, Thematic and Narrative Methods


Further Reading

Describing, Evolving and Theorizing Concepts
Describing Categories and Concepts (or themes) as a Step in Analysis

Evolving Concepts with Analytic, Meta- or Pattern Codes

Theorising Concepts

Writing About Describing and Analysing Concepts


Further Reading

Comparative Analyses as a Means of Furthering Analysis
Why Compare?

The Comparative Process

Managing Data to Make Subgroup, Contextual or Case Comparisons

Comparing Concepts or Categories Across Groups or Situations

Comparing Cases

Interpreting Comparative Analyses

Writing About Comparisons


Further Reading

Relational Analyses
Coding and Connecting Working Together

Investigating Relational Patterns

Cross-case Analyses

Identifying Patterns of Association Between Sets of Related Phenomena, Using Coded Data

Relating Data to a Theoretical Model

Investigating Relationships Between Specific Categories and Concepts

Writing About Exploring and Testing Relationships in Data


Further Reading

If… Then… Is It Because? Developing Explanatory Models and Theories
Analytic Progression

Explanatory Theory as a Goal of Research

Foundations for Explanatory Theory

Logic-based Questioning - Finding the Major Premise

Puzzle-solving with "Conjectures and Refutations"

Case-based Strategies

Theoretical Development and Integration in Grounded Theory

Visual Tools for Theory-Building

Writing About Your Developing Theory

Further Reading

Developing Coherent Understanding
Coherent Understanding?

Coherence Through Description

Theoretical Coherence

Coherence Through Display

A Collection of Tips and Tricks for Bringing it Together

Writing About Developing Coherence

Further Reading

Defending and Extending: Issues of Quality and Significance
The Issue of Quality

Generalisation / Transferability

Theoretical Extension

Audiences and Representation

A Final Reflection

Writing About Quality and Significance


Further Reading


Pat Bazeley has achieved the almost impossible task of preparing a text that is essential for both new and experienced qualitative researchers, and one that will challenge and enlighten both audiences. This remarkably comprehensive book will most certainly move qualitative inquiry forward.
Janice Morse
College Of Nursing, University of Utah

This is one of the most insightful books ever written on qualitative data analysis, and certainly the most detailed and comprehensive. Pat Bazeley has done a magnificent job of both covering recent developments, and providing a user-friendly presentation with numerous examples. This will be an indispensable resource for qualitative researchers.
Joseph Maxwell
Graduate School of Education, George Mason University

Pat Bazeley has produced what is sure to become a core text for those working with qualitative data. She covers the whole process from first ideas through to explanatory models and theories without restricting her coverage to just one software package. This excellent book is a thorough and entertaining resource that will be of use to both the novice and the more experienced researcher.
Richard Freeman
Doctoral School, Institute of Education, University of London


'Pat Bazeley's book advances the procedures of qualitative data coding and analysis. Her work provides a highly accessible framework for both new and seasoned researchers to consider in the analysis of interview, survey, photo and video data collected in qualitative studies. This text would be a great addition to a graduate level course in qualitative research. SAGE once again demonstrates it is a reliable source of academic and discipline-specific texts, as evidenced by Pat Bazeley’s newest work in the field'

Susan Zoll
Wheelock College, Boston, Massachusetts USA

This is an amazing contribution to qualitative data analysis, it is a very thorough and scholarly book. I use it as the course text for my teaching, and as I dip in and out of your book I continue to be impressed. I actually think it stands in its own right as the best, most comprehensive book on qualitative data analysis.

Delwyn Goodrick
Faculty Member of The Evaluator's Institute

Excellent resource to support dissertation students.

Sasha Pleasance
Teacher Training, South Devon College
March 26, 2015

I didn't teach the class...It was given to somebody else

Professor Roberto Bello
Marketing , University of Lethbridge
September 23, 2014

An excellent text book for undergraduate and postgraduate students offering a comprehensive guide to analysis of data

Ms Carole Smith
Department of Behavioural Sciences, Huddersfield University
August 12, 2014

Essential for Master students preparing their Master thesis. They use it on their own and selective. Their feedbacks are very good as they consider this even valuable for their time after the Master.

Mr Wolfgang Kotowski
Aberdeen Business School, Robert Gordon Univ.
July 10, 2014

This is a very comprehensive textbook covering all aspects of qualitative research with very helpful tables/figures and examples. The layout is conventional but this makes it easy to follow: Part 1 covers the preliminaries in terms of theory and planning; Part 2 covers initial data analysis; Part 3 higher level analysis; Part 4 synthesis and dissemination. It is a little too advanced for undergrads but excellent for Masters and beyond. I found it easy to read and a helpful standard textbook on qualitative research.

Ms Vanessa Abrahamson
Department of Allied Health Profession, Canterbury Christ Church University
May 5, 2014

Excellent book on the topic highly recommended

Mr Sean Flanagan
Computing, Runshaw College
March 20, 2014

Because of the width of the topics a little bit confusing, on the other hand it is very in-depth, so it is interesting specially in parts. And I think it would be better not to seperate data gathering and data analysis. Not ideal for my purposes as a textbook.

Professor Dieter Kulke
Fakultät Angewandte Sozialwissenschaften, Fachhochschule Würzburg-Schweinfurt
February 28, 2014

Pat Bazeley

Pat Bazeley provides research training and consulting to academics, graduate students, and practitioners from a wide range of disciplines and settings both locally and internationally. She has worked in community development, project consulting, and in academic research development. Pat helps researchers to design for and make sense of data generally, and to manage and analyse qualitative and mixed methods data in particular. She has published on qualitative and mixed methods analysis and on the career development and performance of researchers. More About Author