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Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare

Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare

Published in Association with Singapore Health Services Pte Ltd

eISSN: 20592329 | ISSN: 20101058 | Current volume: 30 | Current issue: 3
- All APCs covered by SingHealth
- Unique forum for the dissemination of high quality content
- Global Free access to your article, with high online visibility for increased impact
- Reaches inter- professional audiences

Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare (PoSH) is a peer-reviewed open access journal which focuses on all aspects of healthcare and the biomedical sciences, with an emphasis on research of direct clinical relevance. Please see the Aims and Scope tab for further information.

This journal is published on behalf of SingHealth and is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Submission information
Submit your manuscript today at Please see the Submission Guidelines tab for more information on how to submit your article to the journal.

Open access article processing charge (APC) information
This journal is financially supported by SingHealth and therefore does not charge an article processing charge for open access publication.

Please direct any queries to

Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare is a peer-reviewed open access journal that publishes quality research on all aspects of healthcare and the biomedical sciences, with an emphasis on research of direct clinical relevance. Manuscripts dealing with (but not limited to) the following subject areas will be considered for publication:

  • Biomedical science and engineering
  • Clinical sciences
  • Epidemiology and public health
  • Healthcare management
  • Medical education
  • Nursing science
  • Experimental and clinical pharmacology
  • Translational research

The journal aims to be a forum that informs and stimulates discussion among health professionals, ultimately improving patient outcomes and care quality. While the journal is chiefly focused on healthcare and biomedical research within Southeast Asia, the research we publish is of global relevance and we welcome contributions from all parts of the world.

Siang Hui Lai Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
Swee Yaw Tan National Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore
Associate Editors
Thaschawee Arkachaisri KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore
Tar Choon Aw Changi General Hospital, Singapore
Joyce Suang Bee Koh Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
Nattharee Chancharoensook National Dental Centre Singapore, Singapore
Li Wei Cho Changi General Hospital, Singapore
Mun Hong Chow SingHealth Polyclinics, Singapore
Wai Leng Chow Ministry of Health, Singapore
Sandy Cook Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore
John Furler University of Melbourne, Australia
Lawrence Howard Greenblatt Duke University School of Medicine, USA
Hla Myint Htoon Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore
Michael Lucas James Duke University, USA
John Carson Allen Jr Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore
Ruth M. Kleinpell Rush University, USA
Yew Long Lo National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore
Matthew W. Luedke Duke Health, USA
Bernard F. Morrey Mayo Clinic, USA
Lit Soo Ng Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
Jeffrey Jing Hieng Ngu Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand
Thun How Ong Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
Yong Hao Pua Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
Terence Yi Shern Kee Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
Jie Lin Soong Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
William Stewart Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, UK
Anna Cheng Sim Tan National Eye Centre, Singapore
Ngiap Chuan Tan SingHealth Polyclinics, Singapore
Tong Khee Tan Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
Abebaw Yohannes Manchester Metropolitan University, UK
Wei Sean Yong National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Google Scholar: h-5 index - 11, h-5 median - 13
  • ProQuest
  • Manuscript Submission Guidelines: Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare

    1. Open Access
    2. Article processing charge (APC)
    3. Article Types
    4. Editorial policies
      4.1 Peer Review Policy
      4.2 Authorship
      4.3 Acknowledgements
      4.4 Funding
      4.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
      4.6 Research ethics and patient consent
      4.7 Clinical Trials
      4.8 Reporting guidelines
      4.9 Data
    5. Publishing policies
      5.1 Publication ethics
      5.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
    6. Preparing your manuscript
      6.1 Word processing formats
      6.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      6.3 Supplementary material
      6.4 Reference style
      6.5 English language editing services
    7. Submitting your manuscript
      7.1 ORCID
      7.2 Information required for completing your submission
      7.3 Corresponding author contact details
      7.4 Permissions
    8. On acceptance and publication
      8.1 SAGE Production
      8.2 Continuous publication
      8.3 Promoting your article
    9. Further information

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics

    This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare will be reviewed.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    1. Open Access

    Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. Each article accepted by peer review is made freely available online immediately upon publication, is published under a Creative Commons license and will be hosted online in perpetuity. Article Processing Charges (APCs) are covered by Singapore Health Services Pte Ltd, which means that authors are not required to pay any publication charges. There is no charge for submitting a paper to Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare.

    For general information on open access at SAGE please visit the Open Access page or view our Open Access FAQs.

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    2. Article processing charge (APC)

    Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare does not charge publication fees. All publication costs are covered in full by Singapore Health Services Pte Ltd.

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    3. Article types

    Original Article

    1. This category is for full-length reports on original research on any aspect of clinical or biomedical sciences.
    2. Submissions should not exceed 3500 words (excluding Abstract and references).
    3. A structured abstract is required (Background, Objectives, Methods, Results, Conclusions).
    4. Manuscripts in this category should use the following structure: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion.
    5. Standard reporting guidelines should be followed (e.g. CONSORT for randomized trials, STROBE for observational studies).
    6. Please include the following statements after the Conclusions section: Acknowledgements, Funding, Availability of data and materials, Authors’ contributions, Conflict of interest, Informed consent, Ethical approval.
    7. No more than 75 references are to be cited.


    1. This category is for both synthetic and narrative reviews.
    2. Submissions should not exceed 4000 words (excluding Abstract and references).
    3. A structured abstract is required (Background, Objectives, Methods, Results, Conclusions).
    4. Please include the following statements after the Conclusions section: Acknowledgements, Funding, Availability of data and materials, Authors’ contributions, Conflict of interest, Informed consent, Ethical approval.
    5. At least 20 references are to be cited.

    Short communication

    1. This category is for case reports of educational value, brief narrative reviews and research reports.
    2. An unstructured abstract is required.
    3. Submissions should not exceed 1500 words (excluding Abstract and References).
    4. Case reports should use the following structure: Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, Conclusions.
    5. Submissions that are brief research reports should not follow the "IMRAD" (Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion) structure, but should use the following structure: Introduction, Text, Conclusions. Headings should not be used.
    6. No more than three figures and one table should be included.
    7. No more than five authors should be involved per submission.
    8. No more than 15 references are to be cited.


    1. This category is for commentary/opinions on topics of medical interest.
    2. Submissions are solicited by the Editors (unsolicited submissions in this category are generally not accepted).
    3. Abstract and keywords are not required.
    4. Submissions should not exceed 1000 words (excluding references).
    5. No more than 15 references are to be cited.


    1. This category is for comments and replies to comments on papers published in the Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare.
    2. Abstract and keywords are not required.
    3. All letters should start with "To the Editor" and must end with name, degree and location for each author.
    4. The article being commented on must be referenced in the first paragraph of the letter and the first listed in the list of references.
    5. Submissions should not exceed 600 words (excluding references).
    6. The author(s) of the paper being commented on are allowed one reply (which has to be returned two weeks after receipt of the original letter). Letters and their replies (if any) will be published simultaneously.
    7. No more than four authors should be involved per submission.
    8. No more than five references are to be cited.
    9. Letters are not peer-reviewed, but will be checked by the Editors for language and propriety.

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    4. Editorial policies

    4.1 Peer review policy

    The journal’s policy is to have manuscripts reviewed by two expert reviewers. Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare utilizes a double-blind peer review process in which the reviewer and author’s names and information are withheld from the other. All manuscripts are reviewed as rapidly as possible, while maintaining rigor. Reviewers make comments to the author and recommendations to the Editor-in-Chief who then makes the final decision.

    If you are asked to provide the names of a peer who could be called upon to review your manuscript, please note that reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Please be aware of any conflicts of interest when recommending reviewers. Examples of conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) the below: 

    • The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission
    • The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors
    • Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted

    Please note that the journal’s editors are not obliged to invite any recommended/opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript.

    4.1.1 Declarations

    **Please note that all manuscripts should be accompanied by a separate document entitled 'Declarations'.

    Please read the Declarations guidelines for authors, available herecarefully before submitting your Declarations document.

    This should be submitted under the file designation ‘Declarations’. This must include each of the below headings with the corresponding information. Please note that manuscripts which do not include these Declarations will be returned. These headings will be published at the end of every accepted manuscript, where one of these headings is not applicable please indicate as such under the heading.


    1. Conflicting interests

    2. Funding

    3. Informed consent

    4. Ethical approval

    5. Author contributions

    6. Acknowledgements

    7. Availability of data

    Example of a completed Declarations document:


    Conflicting interests: MS is an employee of XXX. BF has received grants from XXX.

    Funding: This work was supported by the Medical Research Council [grant number XXX] Informed consent: Written informed consent was obtained from the patient(s) for their anonymized information to be published in this article.

    Ethical approval: Ethical approval for this study was obtained from *NAME OF ETHICS COMMITTEE OR INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD (APPROVAL NUMBER/ID)*.

    Author contributions: BF and NP researched literature and conceived the study. MS was involved in protocol development, gaining ethical approval, patient recruitment and data analysis. BF wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors reviewed and edited the manuscript and approved the final version of the manuscript.

    Acknowledgements: We would like to thank XXX XXXX for his assistance and guidance in this research.

    Availability of data: The datasets generated and/or analysed during the current study are available from [e.g. repository or corresponding author].

    Please read the following information carefully for additional information regarding these declarations.


    4.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
    2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    3. Approved the version to be published,
    4. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    4.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    Please supply any personal acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    4.3.1 Third party submissions

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
    • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
    • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, SAGE reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    4.3.2 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.

    It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    4.4 Funding

    Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

    4.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.

    For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations.

    4.6 Research ethics and patient consent

    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants

    All research involving animals submitted for publication must be approved by an ethics committee with oversight of the facility in which the studies were conducted. The journal has adopted the Consensus Author Guidelines on Animal Ethics and Welfare for Veterinary Journals published by the International Association of Veterinary Editors.

    4.7 Clinical trials

    Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare endorses the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment. However, consistent with the AllTrials campaign, retrospectively registered trials will be considered if the justification for late registration is acceptable. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

    4.8 Reporting guidelines

    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.

    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives

    4.9 Data

    SAGE acknowledges the importance of research data availability as an integral part of the research and verification process for academic journal articles.

    Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare requests all authors submitting any primary data used in their research articles alongside their article submissions to be published in the online version of the journal, or provide detailed information in their articles on how the data can be obtained. This information should include links to third-party data repositories or detailed contact information for third-party data sources. Data available only on an author-maintained website will need to be loaded onto either the journal’s platform or a third-party platform to ensure continuing accessibility. Examples of data types include but are not limited to statistical data files, replication code, text files, audio files, images, videos, appendices, and additional charts and graphs necessary to understand the original research. The editor may consider limited embargoes on proprietary data. The editor can also grant exceptions for data that cannot legally or ethically be released. All data submitted should comply with Institutional or Ethical Review Board requirements and applicable government regulations. For further information, please contact the editorial office at

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    5. Publishing policies

    5.1 Publication ethics

    SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway.

    5.1.1 Plagiarism

    Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    5.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published, it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    5.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement.  Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare publishes manuscripts under Creative Commons licenses. The standard license for the journal is Creative Commons by Attribution Non-Commercial (CC BY-NC), which allows others to re-use the work without permission as long as the work is properly referenced and the use is non-commercial. For more information, you are advised to visit SAGE's OA licenses page

    Alternative license arrangements are available, for example, to meet particular funder mandates, made at the author’s request.

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    6. Preparing your manuscript

    6.1 Word processing formats

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    6.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines  

    Figures supplied in color will appear in color online.

    6.3 Supplementary material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files

    6.4 Reference style

    Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare adheres to the SAGE Vancouver reference style. Please review the guidelines on SAGE Vancouver to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the SAGE Vancouver output file here.

    6.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    7. Submitting your manuscript

    Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare is hosted on SAGE Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    7.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    7.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    7.3 Corresponding author contact details

    Provide full contact details for the corresponding author including email, mailing address and telephone numbers. Academic affiliations are required for all co-authors. These details should be presented separately to the main text of the article to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    7.4 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the SAGE Author Gateway.

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    8. On acceptance and publication

    If your paper is accepted for publication after peer review, you will first be asked to complete the contributor’s publishing agreement. Once the manuscript files have been received, your paper will be published on average within 25 days.

    8.1 SAGE Production

    Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal SAGE Edit, or by email to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly.  Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. Please note that if there are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to complete and sign a form authorizing the change.

    8.2 Online publication

    One of the many benefits of publishing your research in an open access journal is the speed to publication. With no page count constraints, your article will be published online in a fully citable form with a DOI number as soon as it has completed the production process. At this time it will be completely free to view and download for all.

    8.3 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice. 

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    9. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare editorial office as follows:

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