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Preventing Prejudice

Preventing Prejudice
A Guide for Counselors, Educators, and Parents

Second Edition

July 2012 | 392 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
The Second Edition of Preventing Prejudice has been completely revised and expanded to provide the most up-to-date and extensive coverage of prejudice and racism currently available. The new edition of this book not only presents a comprehensive overview of prejudice and racism but also includes practical tools for combating prejudice development in children, adolescents and adults.

Key features:

- stresses the importance of criticalrRole models: the text emphasizes the critical role counselors, educators, and parents must play in the fight against prejudice and racism. Pragmatic in nature, the book includes strategies that can be used by parents, teachers, and counselors in working to reduce prejudice across the lifespan.

- encourages healthy identity development: the text reviews an extensive body of empirical research on the link between identity development, prejudice, and mental health. The book summarizes racial, biracial, multiracial, and gay and lesbian identity models. A major new theory highlights the link of multicultural personality development to prejudice-free attitudes and behavior as well as to quality of life.

- offers field-tested tools: provides concrete, easy to implement exercises on preventing prejudice and increasing multicultural awareness. In addition, the book includes a review of tests and instruments that measure prejudice and a list of films and books that serve as a resource guide for readers. The authors draw on theory and research in social, developmental, counselling and cross-cultural psychology as well as in sociology and education.

Foreword by James M. Jones
Part I. Prejudice and Racism: Prevalence and Consequences
1. Understanding Prejudice and Racism
The Problem of Hate  
Purpose and Focus of This Book  
Some Important Definitions  
Understanding Prejudice  
Understanding Racism  
Chapter Summary  
2. Some Historical Background on the Origins and Evolution of Racial Prejudice
Prehistoric Roots of Racial Prejudice  
Origins of Modern Racial Prejudice  
Evolution of Racial Prejudice  
Implications for Prejudice Reduction  
Chapter Summary  
3. Causes and Consequences of Racial Prejudice
Racism and White Americans  
Racism and the Black Experience  
Chapter Summary  
Part II. Racial, Biracial, Multiracial, and Lesbian and Gay Identity Development and the Multicultural Personality
4. Person of Color (Minority) Identity Development, Mental Health, and Prejudice
Erikson's and Marcia's Models of Identity Development  
Hardiman's Stages of Social Identity Development  
General Models of Minority Identity Development  
Race- and Ethnicity-Specific Models of Minority Identity Development  
Integration of Identity Models and Relationship to Mental Health and Prejudice  
Summary of Research Correlates of Identity Stages  
5. European American (White) Racial Identity Development, Mental Health, and Prejudice
Hardiman's White Identity Development Model  
Helms' White Racial Identity Model  
Ponterotto's White Racial Consciousness Development Model  
Rowe, Bennett, and Atkinson's White Racial Consciousness Model  
Integrative Models of White Racial Identity  
Why Is White Racial Identity Development Important? What Does the Research Say?  
6. Biracial, Multiracial, and Gay or Lesbian Identity Development
Biracial and Multiracial Identity Development  
Models of Biracial and Multiracial Identity Development  
Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Development  
Chapter Summary  
7. Multicultural Personality Development
What Is the Multicultural Personality?  
How Does the Multicultural Personality Relate to Broader Models of Personality?  
Chapter Summary  
Part III. Proactive Roles in Reducing Prejudice
8. Counselor Roles in Prejudice Reduction and Race Relations
Traditional Roles of the Counselor  
Counselor Skills and Prejudice Prevention Work  
Counselor Roles in Working With Prejudice  
Chapter Summary  
9. Teacher Roles in Prejudice Reduction
Teacher- and Student-Centered Strategies for Reducing Prejudice  
Using Curricula and Instructional Techniques to Reduce Prejudice  
Chapter Summary  
10. Parent Roles in Prejudice Reduction
Children and Prejudice  
Early Formation of Racial Attitudes and Preferences  
How Do Parents, Peers, and Personality Influence Prejudice Levels in Children?  
What Parents Can Do to Promote Tolerance in Their Children  
Chapter Summary  
Part IV. Practical Exercises for Multicultural Awareness and Prejudice Reduction
An Orientation to Practical Exercises for Multicultural Awareness and Prejudice Reduction  
11. Race Relations in Elementary and Middle Schools
Exercise 1: The Label Game  
Exercise 2: Patterns of Difference  
Exercise 3: Symbols of Our Culture  
Exercise 4: One Situation But Many Interpretations  
Chapter Summary  
12. Race Relations in High School
Exercise 5: Being Normal and Being Abnormal  
Exercise 6: Stereotypes  
Exercise 7: Personal Culture History  
Exercise 8: Predicting the Decision of a Resource Person From the Community  
Chapter Summary  
13. Race Relations on the College Campus
Exercise 9: A Classroom Debate  
Exercise 10: Analysis of a Newspaper Article Through Role Playing  
Exercise 11: Designing a Multiethinic Simulation  
Exercise 12: Lump Sum  
Chapter Summary  
14. Race Relations in the Community
Exercise 13: Critical Incidents  
Exercise 14: The Intrapersonal Cultural Grid  
Exercise 15: The Interpersonal Cultural Grid  
Exercise 16: Outside "Experts"  
Chapter Summary  
Part V. Instruments and Resources for Prejudice Prevention Work
15. Assessments of Prejudice, Cultural Competence, Stressful Effects of Racism, Racial and Ethnic Identity, and the Multicultural Personality
Measures of Racism, Prejudice, and Homophobia  
Measures of Multicultural Counseling Competence  
Measures of Teachers' Multicultural Competence  
Measures of the Stressful Effects of Racism  
Measures of Racial and Ethnic Identity Development  
Measures of the Multicultural Personality  
Guidelines for Selecting Multicultural Instruments  
16. A Race Awareness Resource Guide
National Organizations  
Films and Videos  
Popular Movies  
Working With Films and Books  
Chapter Summary  
Appendix I: The Quick Discrimination Index (QDI)
Appendix II: Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS)
Appendix III: Teacher Multicultural Attitude Survey (TMAS)
Appendix IV: Index of Race-Related Stress–Brief Version (IRRS-B)
Author Index
Subject Index
About the Authors

An impressive, deliberate and problem-oriented Second Edition. Prejudice has no boundaries and spares no one. Preventing Prejudice offers hope and resources to all of us, counselors, educators, and parents. We are all agents of change.

Patricia Arredondo, Ed.D.
Arizona State Universityand President, American Counseling Association

Ponterotto and Pedersen’s original book was a primer embraced by professionals and parents alike. It was a call to action, pressing the reader to DO SOMETHING to effect change. The Second Edition, with Utsey as a powerful third voice, is truly a new book. The field has grown, the literature has exploded, yet racial and cultural prejudice still flourish. This new book expands our awareness of the problem. The section on the history and consequences of prejudice is thought-provoking. The introduction of the Multicultural Personality builds on literature from several fields. Finally, the authors prompt the reader to apply this new-found knowledge with age-specific exercises. With this exciting edition in hand there is no excuse to not DO SOMETHING to reduce or prevent prejudice.

Sharon H. Bowman, Ph.D.
Ball State University

Preventing Prejudice: A Guide for Counselors, Educators, and Parents, Second Edition is a unique and refreshing book that tackles two of the most interrelated and problematic issues in our society: prejudice and racism. The first edition was unanimously acclaimed as a major contribution to the field and this second edition is destined to be a classic. It represents one of the most clear, concise and honest looks at the origins, manifestations, dynamics and psychological costs of prejudice and racism written thus far. One of its major strengths is the authors’ ability to relate these topics to everyday life, to speak directly to counselors, educators, and parents in meaningful ways, to ground their concepts in the research and theories of the day, and to give an uplifting message about what can be done to combat these two evils. Toward this end they provide specific suggestions and exercises that can be used by readers to combat their own biases and to help others as well. Educators wishing to help their students begin the process of confronting their own biases, parents who desire to help their children become multicultural citizens of the world, and counselors who wish to become culturally competent will find much in this book. This is truly a superb book that makes a major contribution to the field and should be read by everyone.

Derald Wing Sue, Ph.D.
Teachers College, Columbia University

The distance between aspiring towards human affirmation on one hand, and legitimate change in the social climate of America on the other, is paved with the road called rhetoric. Like a forbidden relationship, rhetoric promises much but delivers very little. Politicians, educators, mental health professionals, and even parents use rhetoric because if protects our fragile sensibilities and disguises our prejudices, biases, and fears around issues of race, gender, class, sexual orientation, disability, and religion. Preventing Prejudice: A Guide for Counselors, Educators, and Parents, Second Edition, helps to close the gap between those two extremes, and equips us all with a valuable and precious tool for confronting the many prejudices we often find it difficult to engage, let alone admit to ourselves. Beyond rhetoric, this text is an authentic expression and plea that challenges each of us to build alliances across demographic boundaries in order to fight an insidious social disease. Drs. Ponterotto, Utsey, and Pedersen succeed in dislodging us from our comfortable categories of intellectual, emotional, behavioral, and spiritual apathy, and invites us to transcend the amount of social disappointment and despair and strive towards a more hopeful and optimistic future.

Thomas A. Parham, Ph.D.
Distinguished Psychologist, Association of Black Psychologists

Preventing Prejudice, Second Edition, is a critical resource book for educators, counselors, and parents to learn more about how to handle prejudice, and should be required reading for all of us who work with diverse populations. I was thrilled to see the second edition, and was most impressed with the authors’ blend of scholarship and practical applications. It is a powerful book that helps us to see that we can make a difference in fighting prejudice. The authors have significantly expanded on the excellent first edition in a practical and nonjudgmental way, and most importantly, provide a concrete and proactive approach to reducing prejudice. The authors hope that by providing individuals with more knowledge and an opportunity to practice prejudice reduction, we can indeed combat prejudice in its many forms. That hope is realized by this excellent book.

Nadya A. Fouad, Ph.D.
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

In our culturally diverse society, educational and helping service professionals have a need to understand the complex nature of prejudice and what may contribute to the prevention or maintenance of such beliefs. This book provides invaluable information on the historical and theoretical context for the development of prejudice, and offers key insights to help professionals understand counselor, educator and parental roles in the prevention of prejudice. Furthermore, professionals will find the descriptive information on exercises, measures, and other resources (e.g., books, videos/films, organizations) essential tools in their efforts to educate and sensitize others about the varied ways in which prejudice affects our lives.

Alan W. Burkard, Ph.D.
Marquette University

Preventing Prejudice, Second Edition, is a tour de force in understanding the harmful effects of prejudice and racism on intergroup relations. Thoroughly researched and comprehensive in scope, this book offers state of the art information on the causes and consequences of racial prejudice. The authors move beyond analysis to offer practical solutions for reducing prejudice. One of the book’s unique contributions to the multicultural literature lies in the authors’ ability to simultaneously address both professional (e.g., educators and counselors) and lay (e.g., parents) audiences. Without a doubt this book is one of the most important resources that advocates for social justice and human rights can own. Preventing Prejudice should be required reading for all counselors, educators, and mental health professionals.

Kevin O. Cokley, Ph.D.
University of Missouri, Columbia

I did not think it was possible, but the Second Edition of Preventing Prejudice is even better than the first! The authors have blessed us with a volume filled with relevant information about the causes and consequences of prejudice and discrimination, along with proactive strategies for reducing and ameliorating prejudice. Not only must individuals who are serious about preventing and eradicating prejudice read this book, but they also should ensure that it is a treasured work in their collection! The Second Edition of Preventing Prejudice is destined to be on everyone’s all-time top ten list of books in the area of prejudice reduction and social justice action.

Madonna G. Constantine, Ph.D.
Teachers College, Columbia University

Preventing Prejudice: A Guide for Counselors, Educators, and Parents, Second Edition, is must reading for anyone who is interested in better understanding what they can do to address the complex forms of prejudice, racism, and other forms of cultural oppression that continue to exist in our contemporary society. Ponterotto, Utsey, and Pedersen have truly produced a masterpiece that highlights many practical strategies counselors, educators, and parents can do to foster a greater level of social justice and mental health in our 21st-century, culturally- and racially-diverse society. If I had to recommend one book for counselors, educators, and parents to read this year that addresses these issues, this would be it!

Michael D’Andrea
University of Hawaii and Executive Director of the National Institute for Multicultural Counseling

This book is an essential reference for people working in the fields of multiculturalism, counseling, and education. The model of prejudice that this book uses reflects the most recent scholarship on the psychological impact of race and racism. This perspective considers prejudice not as an abhorrent isolated act or tendency, but as an expression of an individual’s level of racial identity in the context of societal racism. This holistic point of view locates the individual within cultural and societal systems of which he or she is a part. Individual prejudice and societal racism are considered together, as are the cost to both to people of color and to Whites (the latter is frequently ignored). One especially valuable feature of this new edition is the emphasis on parents and educators. It opens the book to new audiences, particularly teachers and parents who have tremendous influence on the formation of the next generation. It gives added teeth to the word "preventing" in the title. To the extend that anti-racism education can be made a regular feature of elementary and high school curricula, this book may help a student address very serious issues before they become entrenched in his or her personality. So often, anti-prejudice training is remedial; this book is extraordinary because it truly focuses on prevention. In academia, we frequently lament the gap between theory, research, and practice. These authors suggest that the ideas put forward are in fact amenable to practical application and empirical validation and, in each case, they provide the means to do so.

George V. Gushue, Ph.D.
Teachers College, Columbia University

Sample Materials & Chapters

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Chapter 5

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Joseph G. Ponterotto

Joe Ponterotto is Professor and Coordinator of the Counseling Psychology Program at Fordham University’s Graduate School of Education. Prior to his arrival at Fordham in 1987, he was Assistant Professor at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Active in APA and ACA, Joe is also the author of numerous journal articles and books and coeditor of Sage’s Handbook of Multicultural Counseling. More About Author

Shawn O. Utsey

Shawn O. Utsey, new to the author team on this edition, is the Chair of the department of African American Studies, director of the Institute for African American Mental Health Research and Training, an editor of the Journal of Black Psychology, and an associate professor at Virginia Commonwealth University and is the Editor of the Journal of Black Psychology. More About Author

Paul B. Pedersen

Paul B. Pedersen is a visiting professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Hawaii and professor emeritus at Syracuse University. He has taught at the University of Minnesota, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and for six years at universities in Taiwan, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Pedersen was also on the summer school faculty at Harvard University, 1984-988 and the University of Pittsburgh “semester at sea” voyage around the world, spring 1992. International experience includes numerous consulting experiences in Asia, Australia, Africa, South America and Europe, and a Senior Fulbright award teaching at National Taiwan... More About Author

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