Pediatric and Developmental Pathology is the premier journal dealing with the pathology of disease from conception through adolescence. It covers the spectrum of disorders developing in-utero (including embryology, placentology, and teratology), gestational and perinatal diseases, and all disease of childhood. Studies may be in any field of experimental, anatomic, or clinical pathology, including molecular pathology. Case reports are published only if they provide new insights into disease mechanisms or new information.
Pediatric and Developmental Pathology is the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society.
This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
The Journal covers the spectrum of disorders of early development (including embryology, placentology, and teratology), gestational and perinatal diseases, and all diseases of childhood. Studies may be in any field of experimental, anatomic, or clinical pathology, including molecular pathology. Case reports are published only if they provide new insights into disease mechanisms or new information.
|Pierre Russo||Philadelphia, PA, USA|
|Rita Alaggio||Rome, Italy|
|Jason A. Jarzembowski||Milwaukee, WI, USA|
|Ronald R. de Krijger||Rotterdam, Netherlands|
|Raymond W. Redline||Cleveland, OH, USA|
|Sara Vargas||Boston, MA, USA|
|Raj Kapur||Seattle, WA, USA|
|Miguel Reyes-Mugica||UPMC Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, USA|
|Beverly B. Rogers||Atlanta, GA, USA|
|Don Singer||Madison, WI, USA|
|Michael A. Arnold||Aurora, CO, USA|
|Sanda Alexandrescu||Boston, MA, USA|
|Rebecca Baergen||New York, NY, USA|
|Jennifer Black||Aurora, CO, USA|
|Kevin Bove||Cincinnati, OH, USA|
|Theonia Boyd||Houston, TX, USA|
|Elisabeth Bruder||Basel, Switzerland|
|Jonathan W. Bush||Vancouver, Canada|
|Adrian Charles||Doha, Qatar|
|Karen M. Chisholm||Seattle, WA, USA|
|John K. Choi||Memphis, TN, USA|
|Pauline Chou||Chicago, IL, USA|
|Cheryl Coffin||Surry, ME, USA|
|Marta Cohen||Sheffield, UK|
|Sophie Collardeau-Frachon||Lyon, France|
|Margaret H. Collins||Cincinnati, OH, USA|
|Isabel Colmenero||Madrid, Spain|
|Aurore Coulomb||Paris, France|
|Monique De Paepe||Providence, RI, USA|
|Louis P. Dehner||St. Louis, MO, USA|
|Gail H. Deutsch||Seattle, WA, USA|
|Virginia E. Duncan||Birmingham, AL, USA|
|Linda Ernst||Chicago, IL, USA|
|Ona Marie Faye-Petersen||Birmingham, AL, USA|
|Jeanette Guarner||Atlanta, GA, USA|
|Philip Katzman||Rochester, NY, USA|
|Selene C. Koo||Columbus, OH, USA|
|Harry Kozakewich||Boston, MA, USA|
|Xiayuan Liang||Aurora, CO, USA|
|Rebecca L. Linn||Philadelphia, PA, USA|
|Jelena Martinovic||Paris, France|
|Hector Monforte-Munoz||St. Petersburg, Florida, USA|
|Raffaella Morotti||New Haven, CT, USA|
|Peter Nikkels||Utrecht, Netherlands|
|M. Cristina Pacheco||Seattle, WA, USA|
|Bruce Pawel||Philadelphia, PA, USA|
|Antonio Perez-Atayde||Boston, MA, USA|
|Halit Pinar||Providence, RI, USA|
|Jennifer Pogoriler||Philadelphia, PA, USA|
|Sarangarajan Ranganathan||Pittsburgh, PA, USA|
|Sanjita Ravishankar||Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, USA|
|Robyn C. Reed||Seattle, WA, USA|
|Eduardo Ruchelli||Philadelphia, PA, USA|
|Erin R. Rudzinski||Seattle, WA, USA|
|Maria Rita Santi||Philadelphia, PA, USA|
|Neil Sebire||London, UK|
|Gino R. Somers||Toronto, Canada|
|Lea F. Surrey||Philadelphia, PA, USA|
|Maria Tsokos||Boston, MA, USA|
|Christina Vogt||Trondheim, Norway|
|Christian Vokuhl||Bonn, Germany|
|Gordan Vujanic||Cardiff, UK|
Please read the guidelines below, then visit Pediatric and Developmental Pathology (PDP)’s submission site at https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/pedpath to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.
Sage Publishing disseminates high-quality research and engaged scholarship globally, and we are committed to diversity and inclusion in publishing. We encourage submissions from a diverse range of authors from across all countries and backgrounds.
Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of PDP will be reviewed.
As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that:
- you are submitting your original work
- you have the rights in the work
- you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal
- the work has not been published and is not being considered for publication elsewhere
- you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.
Please see our guidelines on prior publication and note that PDP may accept submissions of papers that have been posted on pre-print servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the journal's author archiving policy. If your paper is accepted, you must include a link on your preprint to the final version of your paper.
This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.
This journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).
There are no fees payable to submit to or publish in this journal.
If you have any questions about publishing with Sage, please visit the Sage Journal Solutions Portal.
- What do we publish?
1.1 Aims & scope
1.2 Article types
1.3 Writing your paper
1.3.1 Make your article discoverable
- Editorial policies
2.1 Peer review policy
2.3.1 Third party submissions
2.3.2 Writing assistance
2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
2.6 Research ethics and patient consent
2.7 Clinical trials
2.8 Reporting guidelines
2.9 Research data
- Publishing policies
3.1 Publication ethics
3.1.2 Prior publication
3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
3.3 Open access and author archiving
- Preparing your manuscript
4.1 Writing your paper
4.1.1 Make your article discoverable
4.3 Artwork, figures and other graphics
4.4 Supplemental material
4.5 Reference style
4.6 English language editing services
- Submitting your manuscript
5.2 Information required for completing your submission
- On acceptance and publication
6.1 Sage production
6.2 OnlineFirst publication
6.3 Access to your published article
6.4 Promoting your article
- Further information
7.1 Appealing the publication decision
Before submitting your manuscript to the Journal, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.
PDP covers the spectrum of disorders of early development (including embryology, placentology, and teratology), gestational and perinatal diseases, and all diseases of childhood. Studies may be in any field of experimental, anatomic, or clinical pathology, including molecular pathology. Case reports are published only if they provide new insights into disease or other new information.
Upon submission, authors will be asked to provide the word count (including body and references) and number of figures/tables in their manuscript. Manuscripts exceeding the word and/or figure count will need to be revised until they comply with the guidelines.
Manuscripts will generally be between 5,000-6,000 words, including references and legends. They must also include 4-5 keywords and a structured abstract of no more than 200 words. We recommend not exceeding 12 tables and figures.
Review articles should be accompanied by an email to the editorial office with reason for submission. Manuscripts will generally be between 5,000-6,000 words, including references and legends. They must also include 4-5 keywords and an unstructured abstract of no more than 200 words. We recommend not exceeding 12 tables and figures.
Manuscripts must be under 2,000 words, including references and legends. They must also include 4-5 keywords and an unstructured abstract of no more than 200 words. Up to 4 tables and figures are allowed.
Letter to the Editor
Letters must be no more than 500 words, including up to 5 references. No keywords or abstract required. A brief title should convey the subject of the letter. Only 1 table or figure is allowed.
Book reviews are by invitation only, or should be accompanied by an email to the editorial office with reason for submission. Manuscripts must be no more than 500 words, including up to 5 references. No keywords or abstract required. No tables or figures should be included.
Invited articles are by invitation only and should include the email from the editor who invited the authors to submit. Manuscripts will generally be between 5,000-6,000 words, including references and legends. They must also include 4-5 keywords and a structured abstract of no more than 200 words. We recommend not exceeding 12 tables and figures.
The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.
For information and guidance on how to make your article more discoverable, visit our Gateway page on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.
PDP operates a conventional single-anonymized reviewing policy in which the reviewer’s name is concealed from the submitting author.
All manuscripts are reviewed initially by the Editors and only those papers that meet the scientific and editorial standards of the journal, and fit within the aims and scope of the journal, will be sent for outside review.
Editors will usually seek advice from two or more expert reviewers about the scientific content and presentation of submitted articles. In some cases, an Associate Editor may serve as the second reviewer; the Editor in Chief maintains oversight in these instances.
In the event that the Editor or members of the Editorial Board submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the journal, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor/Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.
PDP is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer-review for your paper, and thus has partnered with Publons. Publons is a third party service that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for PDP can opt in to Publons in order to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and the content of the review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Publons website.
Sage does not permit the use of author-suggested (recommended) reviewers at any stage of the submission process, be that through the web-based submission system or other communication. Reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Our policy is that reviewers should not be assigned to a paper if:
• The reviewer is based at the same institution as any of the co-authors
• The reviewer is based at the funding body of the paper
• The author has recommended the reviewer
• The reviewer has provided a personal (e.g. Gmail/Yahoo/Hotmail) email account and an institutional email account cannot be found after performing a basic Google search (name, department and institution).
Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.
The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:
- Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
- Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
- Approved the version to be published,
- Have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.
Authors should meet all conditions described above. When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.
There should be no more than 6 authors on a Case Report or Letter to the Editor.
Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship. Contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section (see section 2.3). Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.
Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.
All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.
Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.
Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:
- Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
- Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
- Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.
Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.
2.3.2 Writing assistance
Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.
PDP requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: “This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.”
It is the policy of PDP to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles. Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations.
Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.
Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.
For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.
Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative. Please do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself breaches the patient’s confidentiality. The Journal requests that you confirm to us, in writing, that you have obtained written informed consent but the written consent itself should be held by the authors/investigators themselves, for example in a patient’s hospital record. The confirmatory letter may be uploaded with your submission as a separate file.
Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants.
All research involving animals submitted for publication must be approved by an ethics committee with oversight of the facility in which the studies were conducted. The Journal has adopted the ARRIVE guidelines.
PDP conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.
The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline. If your research involves animals, you will be asked to confirm that you have carefully read and adhered to the ARRIVE guidelines.
Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.
The journal is committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research, and has the following research data sharing policy. For more information, including FAQs please visit the Sage Research Data policy pages.
Subject to appropriate ethical and legal considerations, authors are encouraged to:
- share your research data in a relevant public data repository
- include a data availability statement linking to your data. If it is not possible to share your data, we encourage you to consider using the statement to explain why it cannot be shared.
- cite this data in your research
Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway.
PDP and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.
If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor.
Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway.
PDP offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.
The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources.
The preferred file format for your manuscript is Word. Prepare manuscripts according to the AMA Manual of Style 11th Edition. Double-space and left-align all material, including the abstract, endnotes, references, quotations, appendixes, and tables. Endnotes and references should follow the text. Each table should appear at the end of the document file; figures should be submitted as separate files.
Original Investigation papers should be structured in the following order: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if any), Declaration of Conflicting Interests, Funding, References.
Case Reports should be structured in the following order: Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if any), Declaration of Conflicting Interests, Funding, References.
For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines or see below.
Figures supplied in color will appear in color online.
Please note, multiple color images placed together on one plate and submitted as one file are considered one color image. Multiple color images submitted as multiple files are considered separately.
The manuscript submission system has maximum size limit 97.66 MB. Illustrations, pictures and graphs, should be supplied with the highest quality and in an electronic format that helps us to publish your article in the best way possible. Please follow the guidelines below to enable us to prepare your artwork for online publication.
- Format: TIFF, JPEG: Preferred format for pictures (containing no text or graphs).
EPS: Preferred format for graphs and line art (retains quality when enlarging/zooming in).
- Composite Images: Please use capital letters (A, B, C, D) to identify the separate images included. Captions should be included within the lower left portion of the frame.
- Placement: Tables created in MS Word should be included at the end of the document. Figures should be submitted as separate files.
Figures/tables and other files created outside Word (i.e. Excel, PowerPoint, JPG, TIFF, EPS, and PDF) should be submitted separately. Please add a placeholder note in the running text (i.e. “[insert Figure 1.]")
- Resolution: Rasterized based files (i.e. with .tiff or .jpeg extension) require a resolution of at least 300 dpi (dots per inch). Line art should be supplied with a minimum resolution of 800 dpi.
- Color: Please note that images supplied in color will be published in color online. Please refrain from using color descriptors in captions and figure legends.
- Figure Legends: Please provide an explanation for all labels, arrows, or other markers in the figure legend.
- Dimension: Check that the artworks supplied match or exceed the dimensions of the journal. Images cannot be scaled up after origination.
- Fonts: The lettering used in the artwork should not vary too much in size and type (usually sans serif font as a default).
- Identifiable Persons: For images featuring patients or other identifiable persons, permission is required for publication. Images that have been cropped to make a patient unidentifiable are acceptable so long as the condition discussed is clearly visible and necessary anatomic landmarks are displayed. No identifying information, such as surgical pathology numbers, patient medical record number, or date of study, is permitted in figures.
This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc.) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplemental files.
PDP adheres to the AMA reference style. View the guide here to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style. Ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa).
The AMA Style is included with the installation of EndNote. It can be located in EndNote under “JAMA” for the Journal of the American Medical Association.
The NEJM Style, as available in EndNote, is also acceptable.
Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.
PDP is hosted on Sage Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/pedpath to login and submit your article online.
If asked to complete a revision on your manuscript, please submit both a clean file and a track changes file for review.
IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created. For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.
As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.
We encourage all authors and co-authors to link their ORCIDs to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. We collect ORCID IDs during the manuscript submission process and your ORCID ID then becomes part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID ID is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.
You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).
Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway.
Before publication, authors should not disclose the fact that their manuscript has been accepted to anyone, except co-authors and contributors, without permission of the editor.
Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal Sage Edit or by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.
OnlineFirst allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite OnlineFirst articles.
Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.
Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.
Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the PDP editorial office as follows. Please note that your query is about PDP in the subject line and body of the email.
Editors have very broad discretion in determining whether an article is an appropriate fit for their journal. Many manuscripts are declined with a very general statement of the rejection decision. These decisions are not eligible for formal appeal unless the author believes the decision to reject the manuscript was based on an error in the review of the article, in which case the author may appeal the decision by providing the Editor with a detailed written description of the error they believe occurred.
If an author believes the decision regarding their manuscript was affected by a publication ethics breach, the author may contact the publisher with a detailed written description of their concern, and information supporting the concern, at email@example.com.