You are here

Missing Data

Missing Data

  • Paul D. Allison - University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania, USA

August 2001 | 104 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Sooner or later anyone who does statistical analysis runs into problems with missing data in which information for some variables is missing for some cases.

Why is this a problem? Because most statistical methods presume that every case has information on all the variables to be included in the analysis. Using numerous examples and practical tips, this book offers a non-technical explanation of the standard methods for missing data (such as listwise or casewise deletion) as well as two newer (and, better) methods, maximum likelihood and multiple imputation. Anyone who has been relying on ad-hoc methods that are statistically inefficient or biased will find this book a welcome and accessible solution to their problems with handling missing data.

Series Editor's Introduction
1. Introduction
2. Assumptions
Missing Completely at Random

Missing at Random



3. Conventional Methods
Listwise Deletion

Pairwise Deletion

Dummy Variable Adjustment



4. Maximum Likelihood
Review of Maximum Likelihood

ML With Missing Data

Contingency Table Data

Linear Models With Normally Distributed Data

The EM Algorithm

EM Example

Direct ML

Direct ML Example


5. Multiple Imputation: Bascis
Single Random Imputation

Multiple Random Imputation

Allowing for Random Variation in the Parameter Estimates

Multiple Imputation Under the Multivariate Normal Model

Data Augmentation for the Multivariate Normal Model

Convergence in Data Augmentation

Sequential Verses Parallel Chains of Data Augmentation

Using the Normal Model for Nonnormal or Categorical Data

Exploratory Analysis

MI Example 1

6. Multiple Imputation: Complications
Interactions and Nonlinearities in MI

Compatibility of the Imputation Model and the Analysis Model

Role of the Dependent Variable in Imputation

Using Additional Variables in the Imputation Process

Other Parametric Approaches to Multiple Imputation

Nonparametric and Partially Parametric Methods

Sequential Generalized Regression Models

Linear Hypothesis Tests and Likelihood Ratio Tests

MI Example 2

MI for Longitudinal and Other Clustered Data

MI Example 3

7. Nonignorable Missing Data
Two Classes of Models

Heckman's Model for Sample Selection Bias

ML Estimation With Pattern-Mixture Models

Multiple Imputation With Pattern-Mixture Models

8. Summary and Conclusion
About the Author

"…an excellent resource for researchers who are conducting multivariate statistical studies."

Richard A. Chechile
Journal of Mathematical Psychology

Paul D. Allison

Paul D. Allison, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology at the University of Pennsylvania where he teaches graduate courses in methods and statistics. He is also the founder and president of Statistical Horizons LLC which offers short courses on a wide variety of statistical topics.After completing his doctorate in sociology at the University of Wisconsin, he did postdoctoral study in statistics at the University of Chicago and the University of Pennsylvania. He has published eight books and more than 60 articles on topics that include linear regression, log-linear analysis, logistic regression, structural equation models, inequality measures,... More About Author

Purchasing options

Please select a format:

ISBN: 9780761916727

SAGE Research Methods is a research methods tool created to help researchers, faculty and students with their research projects. SAGE Research Methods links over 175,000 pages of SAGE’s renowned book, journal and reference content with truly advanced search and discovery tools. Researchers can explore methods concepts to help them design research projects, understand particular methods or identify a new method, conduct their research, and write up their findings. Since SAGE Research Methods focuses on methodology rather than disciplines, it can be used across the social sciences, health sciences, and more.