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Making Sense of Factor Analysis

Making Sense of Factor Analysis
The Use of Factor Analysis for Instrument Development in Health Care Research

March 2003 | 368 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Many health care practitioners and researchers are aware of the need to employ factor analysis in order to develop more sensitive instruments for data collection. Unfortunately, factor analysis is not a unidimensional approach that is easily understood by even the most experienced of researchers.

Making Sense of Factor Analysis: The Use of Factor Analysis for Instrument Development in Health Care Research presents a straightforward explanation of the complex statistical procedures involved in factor analysis. Authors Marjorie A Pett, Nancy M Lackey, and John J Sullivan provide a step-by-step approach to analyzing data using statistical computer packages like SPSS and SAS. Emphasizing the interrelationship between factor analysis and test construction, the authors examine numerous practical and theoretical decisions that must be made to efficiently run and accurately interpret the outcomes of these sophisticated computer programs.

Making Sense of Factor Analysis: The Use of Factor Analysis for Instrument Development in Health Care Research offers a practical method for developing tests, validating instruments and reporting outcomes through the use of factor analysis. To facilitate learning, the authors provide concrete testing examples, three appendices of additional information, and a glossary of key terms. Ideal for graduate level nursing students, this book is also an invaluable resource for health care researchers.

1. An Overview of Factor Analysis
Characteristics of Factor Analysis  
Exploratory Vs. Confirmatory Factor Analysis  
Assumptions of Exploratory Factor Analysis  
Historical Developments of Factor Analysis  
Uses of Factor Analysis in Health Care Research  
Decision-Making Process in Exploratory Factor Analysis  
2. Designing and Testing the Instrument
Types of Measurement and Frameworks  
The Use of Latent Variables in Instrument Development  
Identifying Empirical Indicators of Latent Variables  
Using Qualitative Research Methods to Identify Empirical Indicators  
Additional Qualitative Approaches to Identifying Empirical Indicators  
Development of the Instrument  
Scoring the Instrument  
Pilot Testing the Instrument  
Determining the Number of Subjects  
3. Assessing the Characteristics of Matrices
Characteristics and Types of Matrices  
Tests of Matrices  
Review of the Process  
4. Extracting the Initial Factors
Evaluating the Correlation Matrix  
Sources of Variance in Factor Analysis Models  
Determining the Factor Extraction Method  
Selecting the Number of Factors to Retain  
Comparing the Two-Factor Solution Using PCA and PAF  
5. Rotating the Factors
Achieving a Simple Structure  
Types of Rotations  
Mapping Factors in Geometric Space  
Orthogonal Rotations  
Oblique Rotations  
Comparing the Orthogonal and Oblique Solutions  
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Oblique Solution  
Choosing Between Orthogonal and Oblique Rotations  
Summary of the Process of Rotations  
6. Evaluating and Refining the Factors
Evaluating and Refining the Factors  
Assessing the Reliability of an Instrument  
Evaluating the Internal Consistency of an Instrument  
Estimating the Effects on Reliability of Increasing or Decreasing Items  
Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha  
Assessing Reliability Using Cronbach's Alpha: A Computer Example  
Two Additional Reliability Estimates: Temporal Stability and Equivalence  
7. Interpreting Factors and Generating Factor Scores
Interpreting the Factors  
Naming the Factors  
Interpreting and Naming the Four Factors on the CGTS Scale  
Determining Composite Factor Scores  
8. Reporting and Replicating the Results
When to Report the Results  
What to Include in the Report  
An Exemplar of a Published Report  
Replicating the Factors in Other Studies  
Appendix A: Concerns About Genetic Testing Scale
Appendix B: SAS Commands and Generate Output
Appendix C: Output for 20-item CGTS Scale
Appendix D: Tables for the Chi-Square and Normal Distributions
Appendix E: Unraveling the Mystery of Principal Component Extraction
About the Authors

an excellent and very useful book for anyone embarking on factor analysis

Ms Janas Harrington
Dept Epidemiology & Public Health, University College Cork (NUI)
February 10, 2010

Absolutely brilliant - descriptive, easily read and motivating. Good examples from health and particularly a good description of different rotations, why we do FA, explains the print outs. All my colleagues want to borrow it too!
Good for students doing questionnaires with a large number of participants.

Dr Sue Hacking
Nursing , Central Lancashire University
November 12, 2009

Sample Materials & Chapters

SPSS Data Set

Excel Data Set

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Marjorie A. Pett

Marjorie A. Pett, MStat, DSW, is a Research Professor in the College of Nursing at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, having been on the faculty since 1980. By her own admission, she is a “collector” of academic degrees: BA (Brown University), MS in sociology (University of Stockholm, Sweden), MSW (Smith College), DSW (University of Utah), and MStat (Biostatistics) (University of Utah). Dr. Pett has a strong commitment to facilitating the practical application of statistics in the social, behavioral, and biological sciences, especially among practitioners in health care settings. She has designed and taught graduate courses to... More About Author

Nancy R. Lackey

John Sullivan

Dr John Sullivan has been a professor of management for over 26 years at San Francisco State University. His specialty is HR strategy and designing world class HR systems and tools for Fortune 200 firms. He has worked with over 200 different businesses and organizations in more than 30 countries around the world as a speaker or advisor. ... More About Author

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