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Learning
Principles and Applications

Eighth Edition
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Learning

July 2018 | 528 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

Learning: Principles and Applications provides students a current, comprehensive, and engaging introduction to the psychology of learning. Praised for its easy-to-read style and presentation of important contributions of both human and nonhuman animal research, the text helps readers understand the process of learning with coverage of classic experiments, contemporary research, real-world examples, applications, chapter-opening vignettes, and critical thinking questions. The Eighth Edition features expanded sections on theories of conditioning, a streamlined organization through two separate chapters on memory storage and retrieval, and enhanced pedagogy to better connect the material to the everyday lives of students.


 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Author
 
Chapter 1. An Introduction to Learning
The Gift of Knowledge

 
A Definition of Learning

 
Functionalism

 
Behaviorism

 
Thorndike

 
Pavlov

 
Watson

 
The Ethics of Conducting Research

 
Critical Thinking Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
Chapter 2. The Modification of Instinctive Behavior
If Only This Time

 
The Instinctive Basis of Behavior

 
Habituation and Sensitization

 
Dishabituation

 
Learning in the Aplysia Californica

 
Opponent-Process Theory

 
The Addictive Process

 
Critical Thinking Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
Chapter 3. Principles and Applications of Pavlovian Conditioning
A Lingering Fear

 
Principles of Pavlovian Conditioning

 
Temporal Relationships Between the Conditioned Stimulus and the Unconditioned Stimulus

 
Conditions Affecting the Acquisition of a Conditioned Response

 
Extinction of the Conditioned Response

 
Other Inhibitory Processes

 
A Conditioned Response Without Conditioned Stimulus– Unconditioned Stimulus Pairings

 
Applications of Pavlovian Conditioning

 
Critical Thinking Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
Chapter 4. Theories of Pavlovian Conditioning
He Never Saw It Coming

 
The Nature of the Conditioned Response

 
Stimulus-Substitution Theory

 
The Conditioning of an Opponent Response

 
Sometimes-Opponent-Process Theory

 
The Nature of the Pavlovian Conditioning Process

 
Rescorla–Wagner Associative Model

 
The Unconditioned Stimulus Preexposure Effect

 
The Potentiation of a Conditioned Response

 
The Conditioned Stimulus Preexposure Effect

 
The Cue Deflation Effect

 
The Importance of Within-Compound Associations

 
A Comparator Theory of Pavlovian Conditioning

 
Mackintosh’s Attentional View

 
The Retrospective Processing View

 
Critical Thinking Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
Chapter 5. Principles and Applications of Appetitive Conditioning
A Loss of Control

 
The Legacy of B. F. Skinner

 
Instrumental and Operant Conditioning

 
Types of Reinforcement

 
Shaping

 
Schedules of Reinforcement

 
How Readily Is an Instrumental or Operant Response Learned?

 
Extinction of an Instrumental or Operant Response

 
Partial Reinforcement and Resistance to Extinction

 
Contingency Management

 
Critical Thinking Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
Chapter 6. Principles and Applications of Aversive Conditioning
A Good Spanking

 
Principles of Aversive Conditioning

 
Escape Conditioning

 
Vicious Circle Behavior

 
The Avoidance of Aversive Events

 
Punishment

 
Types of Punishment

 
The Effectiveness of Punishment

 
The Negative Consequences of Punishment

 
Applications of Aversive Conditioning

 
The Ethical Use of Punishment

 
Critical Thinking Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
Chapter 7. Theories of Appetitive and Aversive Conditioning
A Lack of Self-Control

 
The Nature of Reinforcement

 
Probability-Differential Theory

 
Application: The Use of Activity Reinforcement

 
Response Deprivation Theory

 
Principles of Behavioral Economics

 
The Pain of Failure

 
The Nature of Avoidance Learning

 
The Nature of Punishment

 
Critical Thinking Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
Chapter 8. Biological Influences on Learning
A Nauseating Experience

 
Generality of the Laws of Learning

 
A Behavior Systems Approach

 
Animal Misbehavior

 
Schedule-Induced Behavior

 
Flavor Aversion Learning

 
Flavor Preference Learning

 
Imprinting

 
The Avoidance of Aversive Events

 
The Biology of Reinforcement

 
Critical Thinking Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
Chapter 9. Traditional Learning Theories
The Oldies But Goodies

 
Traditional Learning Theories

 
Hull’s Associative Theory

 
An Evaluation of Associative Theory

 
Spence’s Acquired Motive Approach

 
Guthrie’s Contiguity View

 
An Evaluation of Contiguity Theory

 
Tolman’s Purposive Behaviorism

 
An Evaluation of Purposive Behaviorism

 
Critical Thinking Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
Chapter 10. Stimulus Control of Behavior
A Disappointing Review

 
The Stimulus Generalization Process

 
Discrimination Learning

 
Behavioral Contrast

 
Occasion Setting

 
Hull–Spence Theory of Discrimination Learning

 
Errorless Discrimination Training

 
The Transposition Effect

 
Sutherland and Mackintosh’s Attentional View

 
Continuity Versus Noncontinuity

 
Critical Thinking Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
Chapter 11. Cognitive Control of Behavior
The Insurmountable Barrier

 
Tolman’s Purposive Behaviorism

 
A Mental Representation of Events

 
The Importance of Habits

 
Learned Helplessness

 
Hopelessness Theory of Depression

 
The Neuroscience of Learned Helplessness

 
A Cognitive View of Phobic Behavior

 
Concept Learning

 
Critical Thinking Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
Chapter 12. The Storage of Our Experiences
A Fleeting Experience

 
Measures of Memory

 
A Three-Stage View of Memory Storage

 
Sensory Register

 
Short-Term Store

 
A Rehearsal Systems Approach

 
Long-Term Store

 
The Neuroscience of Memory Storage

 
Critical Thinking Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
Chapter 13. Memory Retrieval and Forgetting
A Look Into the Past

 
Memory Retrieval

 
How Quickly We Forget

 
Interference

 
Reconstruction of the Past

 
False Memory Syndrome

 
Motivated Forgetting

 
The Neuroscience of Memory Retrieval

 
Application: Mnemonics

 
Critical Thinking Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Author Index
 
Subject Index

Supplements

Instructor Resource Site
Instructors! Visit the companion website to access the free password-protected resources that accompany Learning: Principles and Applications, Eighth Edition.
  • Microsoft® Word test bank contains 60 multiple choice, 15 true/false questions, and 5 essay questions for every chapter. The test bank provides a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalized questions to assess students’ progress and understanding.

  • Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides highlight essential content and features and offer complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation.

  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts on a chapter-by-chapter basis to help prepare for lectures and class discussions.

  • Lively and stimulating class assignments apply to individual or group projects and can be used in class to reinforce active learning.

  • All figures and tables from the text are provided in JPG format for class presentations.

“The text is very strong with respect to presenting competing theories of learning phenomena. It is one of the best I’ve read in this regard.”

Thomas J. Faulkenberry
Tarleton State University

“This text allows students to continually build up a foundation/knowledge base to help reinforce and increase their own self-paced understanding of the material.”

Lorenz S. Neuwirth
SUNY Old Westbury

“The text provides a thorough overview of classical research and pivotal studies that lay the foundation of several important theories. Brief vignettes at the beginning of each chapter are helpful in setting the stage for the chapter’s discussion in a relevant and approachable way, while also presenting a forum to reference back to throughout the chapter as information is expanded upon.”

Christine Caldwell
Springfield College

Stephen B. Klein

Stephen B. Klein is professor in the psychology department at Mississippi State University. He received a B.S. degree in psychology in 1968 from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and a Ph.D. degree in psychology in 1971 from Rutgers University. Professor Klein taught at Old Dominion University for twelve years and at Fort Hays State University for seven years prior to coming to Mississippi State University in 1990. He also served as head of the psychology department at both Mississippi State University and Fort Hays State University. Professor Klein has written numerous articles for psychological journals in the area of the biological basis... More About Author

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ISBN: 9781544323664
$125.00