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Prosthetics and Orthotics International

Prosthetics and Orthotics International

2018 Impact Factor: 1.482
2018 Ranking: 50/76 in Orthopedics | 37/65 in Rehabilitation (SCIE)
Source: Journal Citation Reports (Web of Science Group, 2019)

eISSN: 17461553 | ISSN: 03093646 | Current volume: 44 | Current issue: 2 Frequency: Bi-monthly

Prosthetics and Orthotics International (POI) is the official journal of the International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics (ISPO).

POI is one of the major international scientific publications in the field of prosthetics and orthotics.

As an international, multidisciplinary journal for all professionals who have an interest in the medical, clinical, rehabilitation, technical, educational and research aspects of prosthetics, orthotics and rehabilitation engineering, as well as their related topics, the journal is free of charge to ISPO members.

Published six times a year by SAGE, POI contains review articles, experimental and clinical research papers, case studies, technical notes, reports on prosthetics, orthotics and rehabilitation engineering practice, and book reviews.

Occasionally special issues on specific themes of interest to the journal's readership, as well as information about ISPO activities and the outcomes of the ISPO consensus conferences and working groups are also published.

The POI Editors-in-Chief are Drs. Stefania Fatone from Northwestern University in the USA, Michael Dillon from La Trobe University in Australia, Brian Hafner from University of Washington in the USA, and Nerrolyn Ramstrand from Jönköping University in Sweden. As senior researchers and academics in the field of prosthetics and orthotics, they have extensive experience as authors, reviewers, associate editors and editorial board members.

For inquiries about Prosthetics and Orthotics International, please contact the Peer Review Associate (poi.pra@sagepub.com).

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Prosthetics and Orthotics International is a peer-reviewed international, multidisciplinary journal for all professionals who have an interest in the medical, clinical, rehabilitation, technical, educational and research aspects of prosthetics (artificial limbs), orthotics (braces) and rehabilitation engineering, as well as their related topics.

Our readership includes prosthetists, orthotists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, rehabilitation medicine physicians, kinesiologists, engineers, rehabilitation technicians, researchers, and educators. Authors interested in submitting articles to are encouraged to peruse articles published in past issues to assess whether their submission would align with the journal’s readership.

Editor
Stefania Fatone Northwestern University, Chicago, USA
Nerrolyn Ramstrand Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden
Brian J. Hafner University of Washington, Seattle, USA
Michael Dillon La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia
Associate Editor
Sarah Anderson La Trobe University, Australia
Jan Andrysek Bloorview Research Institute, Canada
Cleveland Barnett Nottingham Trent University, UK
Joshua Caputo HuMoTech, USA
Nachiappan Chockalingam University of Staffordshire, UK
Ambreen Chohan University of Central Lancashire, UK
Andrea Cutti INAIL Prosthetic Center, Italy
Joseph Czerniecki University of Washington, USA
Benjamin Darter Virginia Commonwealth University, USA
Goeran Fiedler University of Pittsburgh , USA
Fan Gao University of Kentucky, USA
Jacqueline Hebert University of Alberta, Canada
Toshiki Kobayashi Hokkaido University of Science, Japan
Cheryl Metcalf University of Southampton, UK
Laura Miller Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago and Northwestern University, USA
Daniel Norvell VA RRD CLiMB, Tacoma, USA
Samuel L Phillips James A. Haley Veterans Administration Medical Center, USA
David Rusaw Jönköping University, Sweden
Reza Safari University of Derby, UK
Andrew Sawers University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
Marietta van der Linden Queen Margaret University, UK
Christopher K. Wong Columbia University, USA
Shane Wurdeman University of Nebraska, USA
Sumiko Yamamoto International University of Health and Welfare, Otawara, Japan
Editorial Board
Elaine Ball University of Salford, UK
Robert Bowers National Centre for Prosthetics and Orthotics, University of Strathclyde, UK
Helena Burger University Rehabilitation Institute, Slovenia
Deidre Desmond National University of Ireland Maynooth, Ireland
Kerstin Hagberg Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden
Kenton Kaufman Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, USA
Rune Nielsen Sophies Minde Ortopedi AS, Norway
Jim Woodburn Glasgow Caledonian University, UK
  • BioEngineering Abstracts
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  • Manuscript Submission Guidelines: Prosthetics and Orthotics International

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.

    Please read the Prosthetics and Orthotics International submission guidelines below, complete the manuscript submission checklist, and then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript and associated materials. Manuscripts that do not conform to the Prosthetics and Orthotics International submission guidelines will be returned to the authors. 

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this journal.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    1. What do we publish?
      1.1 Aims & Scope
      1.2 Article types
      1.3 Getting published
    2. Editorial policies
      2.1 Peer review
      2.2 Authorship
      2.3 Acknowledgements
      2.4 Funding
      2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
      2.6 Use of human participants and animal subjects in research
      2.7 Clinical trials
      2.8 Reporting guidelines
      2.9 Data Sharing
      2.10 Decision appeals
    3. Publishing policies
      3.1 Publication ethics
      3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
      3.3 Open access and author archiving
    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission
      4.1 Formatting
      4.2 Tables and Figures
      4.3 Supplementary material
      4.4 Reference style
      4.5 Person-first language
      4.6 English language editing services
    5. Submitting your manuscript
      5.1 ORCID
      5.2 Information required for completing your submission
      5.3 Permissions
    6. On acceptance and publication
      6.1 Production process
      6.2 Online First publication
      6.3 Access to your published article
      6.4 Promoting your article
    7. Further information

    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    Prosthetics and Orthotics International is a peer-reviewed international, multidisciplinary journal for all professionals who have an interest in the medical, clinical, rehabilitation, technical, educational and research aspects of prosthetics (artificial limbs), orthotics (braces) and rehabilitation engineering, as well as their related topics. Our readership includes prosthetists, orthotists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, rehabilitation medicine physicians, kinesiologists, engineers, rehabilitation technicians, researchers, and educators. Authors interested in submitting articles to are encouraged to peruse articles published in past issues to assess whether their submission would align with the journal’s readership.

    1.2 Article Types

    Prosthetics and Orthotics International accepts submissions of Original Research Reports; Qualitative Research Reports; Systematic, Scoping, and Narrative Reviews, Technical and Clinical Notes; Case Reports; Letters to the Editor; and Editorials. Other types of articles will only be accepted by invitation from the Editors-in-Chief.

    1.2.1 Original Research Report

    Original Research Reports present new clinical and experimental findings that advance the clinical and theoretical fields of orthotics, prosthetics, and related areas. Prosthetics and Orthotics International accepts a wide range of original research reports including experimental studies (e.g., clinical trials, crossover studies, before-and-after trials), observational studies (e.g., cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies), instrument development and validation efforts, prosthetic/orthotic device development studies, health economic evaluations, and quality improvement initiatives. Secondary analyses of data collected in other primary studies will be considered under this category of submission.

    1.2.2 Qualitative Research Report

    Qualitative research seeks to answer questions related to peoples’ experiences, behaviours and perspectives using research methods focused on systematically gathering, synthesising and interpreting data from a wide range of sources such as interviews, focus groups or text documents. Prosthetics and Orthotics International accepts a wide range of qualitative research including ethnographic, narrative enquiry, grounded theory or phenomenological studies. Mixed-methods studies will also be considered under this category of submission.

    1.2.3 Review

    Literature reviews synthesize knowledge from other, often primary, sources of evidence. Prosthetics and Orthotics International accepts several types of reviews, including systematic reviews, scoping reviews, and narrative reviews. Reviews are differentiated by the level of rigor used to identify pertinent literature, appraise the relevant studies, and the methods used to synthesize the results in an effort to achieve the goals of the review.

    • Systematic Reviews:  Systematic Reviews are comprehensive summaries of original research that are intended to answer a focused clinical question. The original research included in a systematic review is rigorously identified, critically appraised, and synthesized in order to address a focused clinical question. Systematic reviews may include a meta-analysis, or quantitative assessment of data extracted from the original research studies included in the review.
    • Scoping Reviews:  Scoping Reviews are reviews of original research that are intended to map key concepts, examine types of evidence, or identify gaps in research in a defined area of interest. Scoping reviews, like systematic reviews, involve a systematic search, review, and synthesis of evidence.
    • Narrative Reviews:  Narrative Reviews are descriptive summaries of original research. The original research included in a narrative review is typically selectively identified by the authors for the purpose of answering a clinical question.

    1.2.4 Clinical / Technical Note

    Technical and Clinical Notes are short articles that present innovative developments, techniques, or procedures. Although such articles are intended to present a succinct overview, wherever possible they should be based on existing evidence and cited appropriately.

    • Clinical Notes describe clinical developments, techniques, or procedures. Clinical Notes may present, for example, information about novel rehabilitation interventions, therapies, or programs. Clinical Notes may also present details of innovative diagnostic tests, assessment methods, or implementation efforts.
    • Technical Notes describe technological developments, techniques, or procedures. Technical Notes may present, for example, information about novel orthotic/prosthetic devices or technologies, manufacturing or fabrication techniques, testing methods or procedures, or experimental or computational approaches.

    1.2.5 Case Report

    Case Reports may present details of a Case Study (individual patient) or a Case Series (group of patients). They should be based on an intervention or interesting observation of a unique clinical case. Case report authors are required to ensure the anonymity of patients (i.e., names, uniquely identifying personal descriptors, detailed family trees, and geographic location should not be included) when presenting a case report.

    1.2.6 Letter to the Editor

    Letters to the Editor are short communications written by readers to express commentary, offer an alternative perspective, or provide constructive criticism of articles published in Prosthetics and Orthotics International. Letters to the Editors may also be used to convey other information that merits rapid dissemination. Letters to the Editor should be submitted via the SAGE Track system, and are managed similar to other manuscript submissions (i.e., assignment to editor, peer review, revision if necessary, copyediting, and author proof review). The Editors-in-Chief also reserve the right to solicit and publish responses from article authors or other stakeholders in order to promote academic discourse.

    1.2.7 Editorial

    Editorials are commentaries authored by the Editors-in-Chief or other individuals at the invitation of the Editors-in-Chief. Editorials are used to inform the readership about policies, procedures, or issues that may be relevant to them. Editorials are not formally peer reviewed, but are reviewed and approved by all Editors-in-Chief.

    1.3 Getting published

    The SAGE Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable

    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

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    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review

    Prosthetics and Orthotics International uses a double-blinded peer review process in which the author’s name is withheld from the reviewers, and the reviewers’ names are withheld from the author. All manuscripts are reviewed as rapidly as possible, and a decision is generally reached within 8 weeks of submission.

    2.2 Authorship

    Prosthetics and Orthotics International adheres to Authorship Criteria established by the International Committee for Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). These criteria stipulate that authorship should be limited to those who:

    1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data for the work, AND
    2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content, AND
    3. Approved the final version that is submitted for publication, AND
    4. Have agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

    Contributors who meet all of the criteria listed above should be designated as authors. Contributors who do not meet all of the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. For example, acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship. Manuscripts (or revised manuscripts) should only be submitted once all authors have reviewed and approved the version submitted in the SAGE Track system. Questions regarding authorship can be directed to the Prosthetics and Orthotics International Editorial Office at poi.pra@sagepub.com.

    Author Roles:  Authors are required to report roles of all authors to the work using the Contributors Roles Taxonomy (CRediT). CRediT associates each author with any of 14 roles (Table 1). The submitting author will be responsible for associating each author with their role(s) in the SAGE Track system at the time of submission. All contributors’ CRediT roles will be listed in the article, if it is accepted for publication. 

    Table 1. Contributor Roles Taxonomy (CRediT) contributor roles

    #

    Role

    Description

    1

    Conceptualization

    Ideas; formulation or evolution of overarching research goals and aims.

    2

    Data curation

    Management activities to annotate (produce metadata), scrub data and maintain research data (including software code, where it is necessary for interpreting the data itself) for initial use and later re-use.

    3

    Formal analysis

    Application of statistical, mathematical, computational, or other formal techniques to analyse or synthesize study data.

    4

    Funding acquisition

    Acquisition of the financial support for the project leading to this publication.

    5

    Investigation

    Conducting a research and investigation process, specifically performing the experiments, or data/evidence collection.

    6

    Methodology

    Development or design of methodology; creation of models.

    7

    Project administration

    Management and coordination responsibility for the research activity planning and execution.

    8

    Resources

    Provision of study materials, reagents, materials, patients, laboratory samples, animals, instrumentation, computing resources, or other analysis tools.

    9

    Software

    Programming, software development; designing computer programs; implementation of the computer code and supporting algorithms; testing of existing code components.

    10

    Supervision

    Oversight and leadership responsibility for the research activity planning and execution, including mentorship external to the core team.

    11

    Validation

    Verification, whether as a part of the activity or separate, of the overall replication/reproducibility of results/experiments and other research outputs.

    12

    Visualization

    Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically visualization/data presentation.

    13

    Writing – original draft

    Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically writing the initial draft (including substantive translation).

    14

    Writing – review & editing

    Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work by those from the original research group, specifically critical review, commentary or revision – including pre- or post-publication stages.

     

    First Author (Primary Author):  The first author is generally the individual who authored the original draft of the submission (CRediT role #13). The first author often assumes other important roles, such as conceptualization, investigation, and/or visualization (CRediT roles #1, 5, and 12, respectively).

    Co-authors (Middle Authors):  Co-authors are generally those individuals who have made substantial contributions to the work, and have helped to author the manuscript by reviewing and editing (CRediT role #14). Co-authors, with the exception of the last author, should be listed in the order of their relative contributions to the submitted manuscript.

    Last Author (Senior Author):  The last author is generally the individual who is the principal investigator, laboratory director, supervisor, or mentor. The last author often has roles such as conceptualization, funding acquisition, project administration, and/or supervision (CRediT roles #1, 4, 7, and 10, respectively), in addition to reviewing and editing (CRediT role #14).

    Corresponding Author:  The corresponding author should be the author who agrees to take overall responsibility and accountability for the work described in the manuscript. The corresponding author is responsible for verifying that the roles of all authors and non-author contributors are accurately described, and will serve as the point-of-contact for the manuscript during the review process. The corresponding author will also serve as the primary contact for readers who have questions after the article is published.

    Submitting Author:  The submitting author should generally be the corresponding author, the author who assumed overall responsibility and accountability for the work described in the manuscript. However, the corresponding author may delegate submission authority to another author. The submitting author is responsible for submitting all required materials and information in the SAGE Track system.

    2.3 Acknowledgements

    Contributors to the work who do not meet the Authorship Criteria, including those who only provided technical or writing assistance, should be listed in the Acknowledgements section. The submitting author is responsible for providing names of individuals and reasons for acknowledgements in the SAGE Track system at the time of submission.

    2.4 Funding

    Authors are required to acknowledge any individuals, organizations, or companies that provided funding for the work described in the submission. Funding may include both direct (e.g., grants or contracts) and indirect (e.g., donations of equipment, supplies, or other resources) financial support provided to the authors. Authors are encouraged to use funding statements recommended by their sponsors (i.e., national agencies). Authors are also required to briefly describe each sponsor’s role in the design of the study, collection of data, analysis and interpretation of results, authoring or reviewing the manuscript, and decision to disseminate findings. 

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    Authors are required to disclose potential conflicts of interest (COI) associated with the work described in their manuscript. Disclosures should be made in accordance with the Prosthetics and Orthotics International (COI) Policy. The submitting author will be required to enter the declaration statement generated for each author by the International Committee for Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) COI Form into the SAGE Track system.

    2.6 Use of human participants and animal subjects in research

    Prosthetics and Orthotics International requires all submissions that include use of human participants to conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants. Manuscripts describing use of animal subjects should similarly adhere to Guidelines on Animal Ethics and Welfare posted by the International Association of Veterinary Editors (IAVE).

    Details of the ethics review and approval will be required for any manuscripts that describe studies with human participants/patients or animal subjects. Authors should indicate whether ethics review was required, and whether approval for the study procedures was obtained. If the study procedures were deemed to be exempt from ethics review, authors should describe how the exempt determination was made. The submitting author is responsible for providing details of the ethics review and approval in the SAGE Track system at the time of submission. These details are not required to be included in the manuscript body, but will be published along with the final article if it is accepted.

    In cases where informed consent was obtained, authors should indicate in the Methods whether participants/patients provided written or verbal consent. In cases where participants/patients include children or other protected individuals, authors should indicate how proxy (e.g., parental) consent was obtained, including whether participant/patient assent was obtained. Authors who include photographs of participants/patients must also state in the Methods section whether the individuals (or a legally authorized representative) reviewed and approved the images for publication.

    2.7 Clinical trials

    Prosthetics and Orthotics International requires that clinical trials (defined by the WHO as “any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes”) be registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient or participant enrollment. However, consistent with the AllTrials campaign, retrospectively registered trials will be considered.

    2.8 Reporting guidelines

    Prosthetics and Orthotics International requires that authors include all relevant information in their submission. To facilitate thorough and accurate reporting of research results, we recommend that authors consult the appropriate reporting guidelines for the work reported in the manuscript. The checklists provided with most reporting guidelines are useful tools for authors to use when drafting their manuscripts. Reporting guidelines for common types of submissions are listed below. Authors should visit the EQUATOR Network to locate reporting guidelines for other types of submissions.  

    Reporting standards for Original Research Reports

    Reporting standards for Qualitative Research Reports

    Reporting standards for Systematic (and Scoping) Reviews

    Reporting standards for Case Reports

    2.9 Data Sharing

    Prosthetics and Orthotics International acknowledges the importance of research data availability as an integral part of the research and verification process. Research data provided as part of the submission will be published on the Figshare repository platform with a CC BY license, which permits unrestricted use of the data. A link to the data will be placed alongside the accepted article online. Authors can also share data via a link to a public research data repository, such as Information describing access to data should include links to third-party data repositories or detailed contact information for third-party data sources. Authors are encouraged to include a data accessibility statement in the manuscript file if they are uploading their research data to a repository. Data available only on an author-maintained website must be submitted as an online supplement with the submission so that it can be uploaded to Figshare to ensure continuing accessibility. For more information about Data Sharing, please refer to SAGE’s Research Data Sharing Policies.

    2.10 Decision appeals

    Prosthetics and Orthotics International allows authors to dispute editorial decisions regarding a submission. Authors wishing to appeal a decision should refer to the Prosthetics and Orthotics International Appeal Process. The appeal procedure is intended to promote a transparent, fair, and consistent approach to managing disputes arising from the peer and/or editorial review process.

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    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    Prosthetics and Orthotics International is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view SAGE’s Ethics & Responsibility page.

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    Prosthetics and Orthotics International takes issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. All submitted articles will be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the authors’ institutions and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action. Readers or authors should contact the Prosthetics and Orthotics International Editorial Office (poi.pra@sagepub.com) if they have questions or concerns regarding issues of plagiarism in the journal.

    3.1.2 Prior publication

    Prosthetics and Orthotics International does not generally accept previously published materials for consideration. However, there are certain circumstances (e.g., theses or dissertations) where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to guidance on the SAGE Prior Publication page, or contact the Prosthetics and Orthotics International Editorial Office (poi.pra@sagepub.com) with questions about prior publication.

    3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication, SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. SAGE’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive license agreement that allows the authors to retain copyright to the work but grants SAGE the sole and exclusive right and license to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than SAGE. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the SAGE Contributor Agreement page.

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    Prosthetics and Orthotics International offers optional open access publishing via the SAGE Choice programme. For more information please visit the SAGE Choice website. Certain funding agencies require that articles be available via open access. It is the responsibility of the authors to ensure that they indicate such requirements appropriately in the SAGE Track system. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit the SAGE Publishing Policies page.

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    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    Prosthetics and Orthotics International submissions must adhere to the guidelines described below. In the event that journal and publisher submission guidelines differ, authors should adhere to the journal guidelines.

    Word, Reference, Figure, and Table Limits:  All submissions to Prosthetics and Orthotics International must adhere to specified word, reference, figure, and table limits (Table 2). Authors are required to report word counts and numbers of references, figures, and tables in the SAGE Track system, and below the relevant sections in their submission (i.e., after the Abstract and Main Body). Requests to exceed these limits should be conveyed, along with appropriate justification, in the submission cover letter. The decision to adjust word, reference, figure, and/or table limits are at the discretion of the Editors-in-Chief. Submissions that exceed the limits below and do not include a justifiable request for consideration may be un-submitted and returned to the authors for revision.

    Table 2. Prosthetics and Orthotics International word, reference, figure, and table limits.

     

    Article Type

    Word Limit

    Number Limit

    Abstract

    Main Body

    References

    Figures

    Tables

    Original Research Report

    250

    3,000

    35

    5

    3

    Qualitative Research Report

    250

    5,000*

    35

    3

    5

    Review

    250

    5,000

    100

    7

    5

    Clinical / Technical Note

    250

    1,500

    15

    3

    2

    Case Report

    250

    1,500

    15

    2

    1

    Letter to the Editor

    N/A

    500

    5

    1

    1

     

    * inclusive of all in-text data, such as first-person quotes

    Submission structure and format:  When authoring a manuscript for publication in a journal, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through biomedical databases and search engines. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract, and select your keywords, please refer to this page on the SAGE Author Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

    • Title: Authors are required to provide a title that is no more than 50 words in length. The title should be descriptive and accurately describe the work presented in the manuscript.
    • AbstractAuthors are required to provide a structured abstract of no more than 250 words in length. The structured abstract should include the following subheadings: Background (or Case Description for Case Reports); Objective(s); Study Design; Methods (or Technique for Clinical/Technical Notes, Treatment for Case Reports); Results (or Outcomes for Case Reports); and Conclusions. Letters to the Editor do not require an abstract. 
    • KeywordsAuthors are required to provide a minimum of four and a maximum of eight keywords. Keywords are used to index and help readers locate an article. Authors are encouraged to include Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms among their selected keywords.
    • Main Body: Authors are required to structure the main body of the manuscript using sections determined by the article type. Subheadings may be used judiciously to improve the structure of the Main Body.
      • Original Research Reports, Qualitative Research Reports, and Reviews should include a Background, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, and References
      • Clinical Notes and Technical Notes should include a Background, Technique, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, and References.
      • Case Reports should include a Case Description, Treatment, Outcomes, Discussion, Conclusions, and References
      • Letters to the Editor and Editorials may use any structure that is appropriate for the content.

    4.1 Formatting

    Manuscript submissions, including text and tables, should be submitted as Microsoft DOC, DOCX, or RTF files. The text should be double-spaced throughout, with a minimum 3cm border on the right and left sides of the page, and 5cm on the top and bottom (i.e., head and foot). The font should be 10-point Times New Roman.

    • Line NumberingAuthors are required to number the lines of text in the Main Document (including Title Page, Abstract, Main Body, References, and List of Figures and Tables). Lines should be numbered continuously rather than restarted on each page.
    • BlindingAuthors are required to blind (i.e., remove identifiable information) from the Main Document in order to facilitate a double-blinded review. Authors should replace all identifiable information (e.g., names of institutions or recruitment sources) with “xxxx” (note, use of white font or a black electronic “highlighter” to blind content is not recommended). Identifiable information, such as declarations of funding, conflicting interests, ethics review and approval, author contributions, clinical trials registration, and any other details hidden by “xxxx” should be entered directly into the SAGE Track system at the time of submission, and should not be included in the Main Document.

    4.2 Tables and Figures

    Tables and figures included in submissions to Prosthetics and Orthotics International must adhere to the following specification:

    Tables:  Tables should be submitted as individual files, and adhere to the following guidelines: 

    • Format: tables should be supplied as Microsoft WORD tables, and not copied from Microsoft Excel or other spreadsheet program
    • Numbering: number tables consecutively in the order in which they are cited in the manuscript
    • Text spacing: table text should be single-spaced
    • Text formatting: table text should use Times New Roman font to best align with the article text
    • Emphasis: use of text emphasis, such as bold, underline, and italics should generally be avoided
    • Abbreviations and acronyms: abbreviations and acronyms should be defined in footnotes below the table
    • Gridlines: avoid use of internal horizontal and vertical gridlines, using lines only near the top and bottom of the table
    • Placement: use placeholders within the manuscript text (i.e., “[insert Table 1]”) to indicate desired table placement

    Authors are encouraged to review examples of tables published in Prosthetics and Orthotics International, and submit their tables in a similar format.

    Figures:  Illustrations, artwork, pictures and graphs should be supplied in an electronic format and in the highest quality possible. Figures should be submitted as individual files, and adhere to the following requirements:

    • Numbering: number figures consecutively, in the order in which they are cited in the manuscript
    • Format: figures should be supplied as TIFF, JPEG, or EPS files (EPS is the preferred format for graphs and line art as it retains quality when enlarging/zooming in)
    • Resolution: rasterized based files (i.e. with .tiff or .jpeg extension) require a resolution of at least 300 dpi (dots per inch). Line art should be supplied with a minimum resolution of 800 dpi.
    • Colour: Please note that images supplied in colour will be published in colour online and black and white in print (unless otherwise arranged). Therefore, it is important that you supply images that are comprehensible in black and white (e.g. fills that include a distinctive pattern, lines with distinct dashes, or data points formatted with different shapes).
    • Abbreviations and acronyms: abbreviations and acronyms should be defined in the figure caption
    • Text formatting: figure text should use Times New Roman font to best align with the article text
    • Placement: use placeholders within the manuscript text (i.e., “[insert Figure 1]”) to indicate desired figure placement

    Authors are encouraged to review examples of figures published in Prosthetics and Orthotics International, and submit their figures in a similar format. Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from SAGE after receipt of your accepted article.

    4.3 Supplementary material

    Authors may provide additional materials as an online supplement to their submission. Supplementary materials may include but are not limited to text, audio, image, and video files that support or enhance the presentation of the submission. For a list of acceptable file types, please refer to SAGE’s Supplemental Material Guidelines.

    Authors are encouraged to submit primary data used in their research as an online supplement to their submission. Research data should generally be provided in a generic format suitable for secondary analysis (e.g., CSV, SAV, XLSX). Research data may also include statistical data files, software code, algorithms, models, or other materials necessary to analyze the data. For a list of acceptable file types, please refer to SAGE’s Supplemental Material Guidelines.

    4.4 Reference style

    Authors are required to format their references according to the SAGE Vancouver reference style. Authors who use EndNote to manage references can download the SAGE Vancouver EndNote output file.

    4.5 Person-first language

    Prosthetics and Orthotics International generally requires that authors use person-first language when authoring their manuscript. Person-first language emphasises the person, and not their disability.  For example, authors should use terms such as “person with an amputation” or “person who has diabetes”, instead of “amputee” or “diabetic.” Exceptions to this policy may be considered with appropriate justification.

    4.6 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services.

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    5. Submitting your manuscript

    Prosthetics and Orthotics International is hosted on SAGE Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Please consult the Prosthetics and Orthotics International Manuscript Submission Overview for details on submitting your manuscript. Visit https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/tpoi to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the SAGE Track system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created. For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help. The information below will describe the steps required to submit a manuscript for submission.

    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process, SAGE is a supporting member of the Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) organisation. ORCID provides a persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities ensuring that their work is recognised. We encourage all authors to add their ORCIDs to their SAGE Track accounts and include their ORCIDs as part of the submission process. Authors who do not have an ORCID can create one here.

    5.2 Information required for completing your submission

    Authors are required to warrant that (1) the submitted manuscript is original and represents work performed by the authors; (2) the submitted manuscript has been reviewed and approved by all authors; (3) the Prosthetics and Orthotics International submission checklist has been completed; (4) the manuscript has been submitted solely to this journal and is not published, in press, or submitted elsewhere; (5) they own or have obtained the necessary permissions required to publish all materials included in (or submitted with) the manuscript; (6) the work described in the manuscript adheres to ethical guidelines, including all legal requirements of the authors’ institutions, funding agencies, and countries; and (7) guidelines on patient/participant consent have been met, and details of obtaining informed consent are included in the manuscript.

    5.3 Permissions

    Prosthetics and Orthotics International requires authors to obtain the necessary permissions from copyright holders to reproduce any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information, including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page.

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 Production process

    Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your accepted article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Research Ethics and Consent statements, Funding statements, Acknowledgments, and Conflict of Interest statements are accurate. Please note that if there are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to authorise the change.

    6.2 Online First publication

    SAGE publishes articles accepted for publication in Prosthetics and Orthotics International online before they are placed into an issue of the journal. Final articles (i.e., articles that have been accepted, completed, and are awaiting assignment to an issue) will be published in OnlineFirst, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the SAGE OnlineFirst page for more details, including how to cite OnlineFirst articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    SAGE provides authors with online access to their final article. Authors will receive an email from SAGE with a link to their complimentary electronic copy. The final published PDF is for authors’ personal use and non-profit teaching purposes, and should not be posted online or otherwise distributed. Information on use and distribution of articles submitted to Prosthetics & Orthotics International may be found under Guidelines for Sage Authors

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! Authors can help disseminate their paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help promote published works. Visit the Promote Your Article page for tips and advice.

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    7. Further information

    Any queries, correspondence, or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission, review, or publication processes should be sent to the Prosthetics and Orthotics International Editorial Office at:

    poi.pra@sagepub.com

    Institutional Print subscription inclusive of free online access