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Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery

Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery


eISSN: 10976817 | ISSN: 01945998 | Current volume: 163 | Current issue: 4 Frequency: Monthly
Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery is the official peer-reviewed publication of the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. The mission of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery is to publish contemporary, ethical, clinically relevant information in otolaryngology, head and neck surgery (ear, nose, throat, head, and neck disorders) that can be used by otolaryngologists, clinicians, scientists, and specialists to improve patient care and public health.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery is the official peer-reviewed publication of the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. The mission of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery is to publish contemporary, ethical, clinically relevant information in otolaryngology, head and neck surgery (ear, nose, throat, head, and neck disorders) that can be used by otolaryngologists, clinicians, scientists, and specialists to improve patient care and public health.

Editor-in-Chief
John H. Krouse, MD, PhD, MBA School of Medicine, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX, USA
Deputy Editor
Jennifer J. Shin, MD, SM Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Allergy
J. Whit Mims, MD Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
Endocrine Surgery
Michael C. Singer, MD Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA
Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Babak Givi, MD New York, NY, USA
General Otolaryngology
Jennifer A. Villwock, MD Kansas City, KS, USA
General Otolaryngology and Case Reports
Sonya Malekzadeh, MD Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., USA
Head and Neck/Skull Base Surgery
Andrew M. Coughlin, MD University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA
Jeffrey C. Liu, MD Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Andrew G. Shuman, MD University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Health Policy, Patient Safety/Quality Improvement, and Case Reports
Michael J. Brenner, MD University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
International Liaison
J. Pablo Stolovitzky, MD ENT of Georgia, Atlanta, GA, USA
Laryngology/Neurolaryngology
Lee M. Akst, MD Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
Otology and Neurotology
Meredith E. Adams, MD University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
Thomas L. Eby, MD University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA
Philip D. Littlefield, MD Tripler Army Medical Center, Tripler AMC, HI, USA
Pediatric Otolaryngology
Sarah N. Bowe, MD Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, USA
Thomas Q. Gallagher, DO Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA
Romaine F. Johnson, MD, MPH Dallas, TX, USA
Sinonasal Disorders
Jivianne T. Lee, MD University of California - Los Angeles, Irvine, CA, USA
Sleep Medicine and Surgery
Ho-Sheng Lin, MD Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA
Editorial Board
Simon Ignacio Angeli, MD Miami, FL, USA
Cristina Cabrera-Muffly, MD Aurora, CO, USA
Raymond L. Chai, MD New York, NY, USA
Dana Crosby, MD Springfield, IL, USA
John P. Dahl, MD, PhD, MBA Seattle, WA, USA
Susan Garetz, MD Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Christine G. Gourin, MD Baltimore, MD, USA
Courtney A. Hill, MD Lebanon, NH, USA
Alexander T. Hillel, MD Baltimore, MD, USA
Jacob Hunter, MD Dallas, TX, USA
Chris Johnson, MD San Diego, CA, USA
Elliott D. Kozin, MD Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, USA
Miriam Lango, MD Philadelphia, PA, USA
Sean Massa, MD St. Louis, MO, USA
Richard K. McHugh, MD, PhD Sacramento, CA, USA
Chau T. Nguyen, MD Ventura, CA, USA
Brian D. Nicholas, MD Syracuse, NY, USA
Aru Panwar, MD Omaha, Nebraska, USA
Kourosh Parham, MD, PhD Farmington, CT, USA
Marisa A. Ryan, MD, MPH Baltimore, MD, USA
Ahmad R. Sedaghat, MD Cincinnati, OH, USA
Tristan Tham, MD New York, NY, USA
Lyndy Wilcox, MD Nashville, TN, USA
International Editorial Board
Ali S. Al-Qahtani, MD Abha, Saudi Arabia
Jacqui E. Allen, MBChB, FRACS Auckland, New Zealand
Petra Ambrosch, MD Kiel, Germany
Tomislav Baudoin, MD, PhD Zagreb, Croatia
Robert Berkowitz, MD, FRACS Parkville, Australia
Chih-Yen Chien, MD Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Carlos Chone, MD, PhD São Paulo, Brazil
M. Alamgir Chowdhury, MS, FRCS Dhaka, Bangladesh
Hector De la Garza Hesles, MD Huixquilucan, Mexico
Miguel Maldonado Fernandez, MD, PhD Mieres, Spain
Marco A. Figueroa, MD Mexico City, Mexico
Jacopo Galli, MD Rome, Italy
Mohammed Abdelmotaal Gomaa, MD Minia, Egypt
Sheng-Po Hao, MD, FACS, FICS Taipei, Taiwan
Shigao Huang, PhD Xi'an, China
Hoonyub Kim, PhD Seoul, Republic of Korea
Ming Yann Lim, MBBS, MRCS, DOHNS, MMed, FAMS Novena, Singapore
Hsin-Ching Lin, MD Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Prashant M. Naik, MS, DLO Nagpur, India
Sady Seleiman da Costa, MD, MSc, PhD Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Pongsakorn Tantilipikorn, MD, PhD Bangkok, Thailand
Norio Yamamoto, MD Kyoto, Japan
Shui Hong Zhou, PhD Hangzhou, China
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  • Introduction

    Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery is an international, peer-reviewed journal published 12 times per year by the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Journal editorial policy is independent of that of the Academy/Foundation.

    We invite submission of articles on topics pertaining to the science and art of medicine that help fulfill the journal’s mission of publishing contemporary, ethical, clinically relevant information in otolaryngology, head and neck surgery (ear, nose, throat, head, and neck disorders) that can be used by otolaryngologists, scientists, and clinicians to improve patient care and public health. Articles are published because of scientific merit and are not to be considered general practice standards.

    All manuscripts must be submitted online, via Editorial Manager (https://otohns.edmgr.com), to John H. Krouse, MD, PhD, MBA, Editor in Chief, Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Editorial communication should be addressed to the Editorial Office at otomanager@entnet.org.

    If you have any questions about publishing with SAGE, please visit the SAGE Journal Solutions Portal.

    Deadlines

    Submissions not in compliance with the following instructions will be returned to the author by the Editorial Office, and a corrected version must be resubmitted within 30 days. Papers not resubmitted within that time will be withdrawn from consideration.

    Revised manuscripts must follow the same instructions and should be submitted within 30 days of the revision letter date.

    Accepted manuscripts sent to the publisher (SAGE) will be typeset and proofs will then be sent electronically to the corresponding author. If proofs are not approved and received by SAGE within 30 days, the article will not be published.

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    Editorial Policies

    All manuscripts are first assessed by an Associate Editor, the Editor in Chief, or both. Manuscripts may be rejected at this stage without further peer review because of ethical concerns, serious design flaws, or inconsistency with the journal mission.

    Original Research and review articles are usually assessed by at least two peer reviewers. Shorter manuscripts, such as Case Reports and Commentaries, may be sent to one or more reviewers at the discretion of the editors. The journal uses single-blind peer reviewing. No attempt is made to mask authors’ identities from peer reviewers, but feedback to authors is anonymous unless the reviewer explicitly decides otherwise.

    Publication Criteria

    Peer reviewers are asked to consider explicitly the following 5 criteria when assessing the suitability of a manuscript for publication:

    1. Relevance to mission: Can the information in this manuscript be used to improve patient care and public health?
    2. Internal validity: Are the study design, conduct, and analysis described in a manner that is unbiased, appropriate, and reproducible?
    3. External validity: Was the study sample chosen appropriately and described in adequate detail for results to be generalized?
    4. Level of evidence: Does this manuscript significantly improve the knowledge base beyond what is already published on this topic?
    5. Ethical conduct: Is the manuscript original, approved by an institutional review board (if applicable), and unbiased with regards to conflicts of interest?

    Authors are provided with general and specific comments regarding their manuscript, from editorial and peer review. Based on these comments, plus personal review of the manuscript, the Editor in Chief renders an initial disposition of reject, minor revision, major revision, or accept.

    Rejection Appeals

    Authors have the right to appeal editorial decisions. Appeals should be sent via e-mail to the Editorial Office at otomanager@entnet.org with concise supporting arguments to substantiate the request. The Editor in Chief may reject the appeal or agree to further review the manuscript. Reject appeals are not permitted for Case Report and Clinical Photograph submissions. Appeal decisions are final.

    Transferring to OTO Open

    Authors whose manuscripts receive a Reject and Refer to OTO Open decision may transfer their manuscript to OTO Open: The Official Open Access Journal of the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation for further review and consideration. If the authors agree to the transfer, the manuscript will move to OTO Open's Editorial Manager Site. Authors will receive an email with instructions for resubmitting their manuscript. If accepted for publication, transferred manuscripts have the benefit of reduced article processing charges.

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    Article Categories

    Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery publishes the types of articles defined below. When submitting your manuscript, please follow the instructions relevant to the applicable article category. Please check the Manuscript Preparation section for further details.

    Original Research: Original, in-depth, clinical or basic science investigations that aim to change clinical practice or the understanding of a disease process. Article types include, but are not limited to, clinical trials, before-and-after studies, cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional surveys, and diagnostic test assessments. Components of original research are:

    • title page, including the manuscript title and all authors’ full names, academic degrees (no more than three), institutional affiliations, and locations. Designate ONE author as the corresponding author. (See the Authorship section, below.) Also indicate where the paper was presented, if applicable.
    • structured Abstract of up to 250 words with the headings: Objective, Study Design, Setting, Methods, Results, and Conclusion.
    • A brief Introduction outlining the wider context that generated the study and the specific issues or hypotheses the study addresses.
    • Methods section with enough detail to ensure reproducibility of the research, including statistical methods and sample size calculation.
    • Results section that uses appropriate descriptive and analytic statistics to summarize data. For all treatment or intervention studies, include a paragraph describing all harms and adverse events encountered (if none, so state).
    • Discussion section that summarizes key findings, highlights antecedent literature on the topic, explains what the current study adds to existing knowledge, and details the strengths and limitations of the current research.
    • Manuscript length of no more than 3,000 words (from Introduction through Conclusion) and a total of 10 figures or tables. There is no limit on references.
    • Adherence to the CONSORT statement when reporting a randomized trial, including a patient flow diagram.
    • Adherence to the AAO-HNS minimal reporting standards for studies reporting audiometric data in clinical research.
    • IRB approval or exemption is required.

    Patient Safety/Quality Improvement (PS/QI): Original research aimed to improve patient safety and the quality of otolaryngology care. Topics include but are not limited to: healthcare delivery, avoiding medial errors, quality of care, comparative effectiveness research, and patient/resident education. The components of a PS/QI article are:

    • title page, including the manuscript title and all authors’ full names, academic degrees (no more than three), institutional affiliations, and locations. Designate ONE author as the corresponding author. (See the Authorship section, below.) Also indicate where the paper was presented, if applicable. List PS/QI as one of the keywords.
    • structured Abstract of up to 250 words with the headings: Objective, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Implications for Practice.
    • An Introduction outlining the explicit clinical problem and the rationale for conducting the review.
    • Methods section outlining the study design. Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery recognizes the unique and often subjective nature of PS/QI research and requires PS/QI studies to adhere to the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE 2.0) Guidelines.
    • Results section to include the following items appropriate for the study: initial steps of intervention with evolution over time; details of process measures/outcomes; contextual elements that interacted with the intervention; observed association between outcomes, interventions and contextual elements; unintended consequences to include benefits, cost, and failures; and details of missing data.
    • Discussion section that summarizes key findings, highlights antecedent literature on the topic, explains what the current study adds to existing knowledge, and lists potential research biases.
    • An Implications for Practice section that clarifies clinical implications, areas for future research, and helps clinicians place the PS/QI findings in appropriate context.
    • Manuscript length of no more than 4,500 words (from Introduction through Implications of Practice) and a total of 15 figures or tables.
    • IRB approval or exemption is required.

    Systematic Reviews (including Meta-analyses): Critical assessments of literature and data sources on important clinical topics in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. Systematic reviews that reduce bias with explicit procedures to select, appraise, and analyze studies are highly preferred over traditional narrative reviews. The review may include a meta-analysis, or statistical synthesis of data from separate, but similar, studies leading to a quantitative summary of the pooled results. Systematic reviews may not be combined with case reports. The components of a systematic review are:

    • title page, including the manuscript title and all authors’ full names, academic degrees (no more than three), institutional affiliations, and locations. Designate ONE author as the corresponding author. (See the Authorship section, below.) Also indicate where the paper was presented, if applicable.
    • structured Abstract of up to 250 words with the headings: Objective, Data Sources, Review Methods, Results, and Conclusion.
    • An Introduction outlining the explicit clinical problem, rationale for the intervention (if applicable), and the rationale for conducting the review.
    • Methods section that specifies the information sources, search strategy, inclusion and exclusion criteria for articles, criteria and process used for validity assessment (if none, so state), process for data abstraction, and statistical methods for summarizing data.
    • Results section that describes study selection, study characteristics, and, when applicable, uses statistical methods to summarize data and to assess heterogeneity.
    • Discussion section that summarizes key findings, makes clinical inferences based on validity, interprets results in light of the total available evidence, and lists potential biases in the review process.
    • Manuscript length of no more than 4,500 words (from Introduction through Conclusion) and a total of 15 figures or tables. There is no limit on references.
    • Adherence to the PRISMA statement, including a flow chart of article selection.

    State-of-the-Art Reviews: A narrative review article that (a) provides a comprehensive and scholarly overview of an important clinical subject, with a principal focus on developments in the past 5 years (or less), or (b) explains recent advances in science and technology that have influenced management of a condition in terms that teach relevant science to those who devote most of their time and effort to clinical endeavors, or (c) describes how the perception of an illness, diagnostic approach, or therapeutic intervention has evolved in recent years. State-of-the-art reviews may not be combined with case reports. The components of a state-of-the-art review are:

    • title page, including the manuscript title and all authors’ full names, academic degrees (no more than three), institutional affiliations, and locations. Designate ONE author as the corresponding author. (See the Authorship section, below.) Also indicate where the paper was presented, if applicable.
    • structured Abstract of up to 250 words with the headings: Objective, Data Sources, Review Methods, Conclusions, and Implications for Practice.
    • An Introduction outlining the explicit clinical problem and the rationale for conducting the review.
    • Methods section that briefly states how articles were identified, what data sources were used, and what criteria were applied (objective or subjective) to include or exclude articles.
    • Discussion section that summarizes key findings, organized preferably with one or more subheadings to facilitate reading.
    • An Implications for Practice section that clarifies clinical implications, areas for future research, and helps clinicians place the review findings in appropriate context.
    • Manuscript length of no more than 4,500 words (from Introduction through Conclusion) and a total of 15 figures or tables.

    History of Otolaryngology: Presentation of a historical piece about a leader, teacher, clinician, or event in otolaryngology that discusses how this person or event has shaped the specialty and created a legacy of excellence. History of Otolaryngology papers should contain a title page, unstructured abstract of up to 150 words, and a narrative discussing the person or event being featured. They may be authored by an individual, group, society, or committee with an important concern of interest to readers. Manuscript length: No more than 1,200 words (from Introduction through Conclusion), with up to 10 references, and a total of 3 figures or tables.

    Ethics in Practice: A case-based discussion of contemporary ethical issues arising in the field of otolaryngology. Submissions should include content relevant to otolaryngologists and highlight a topic or dilemma conducive to multiple perspectives or viewpoints. Suggested topics include (but are not limited to): conflicts among clinicians/disciplines; itinerant surgery; end of life care in head and neck cancer; discrimination in the workplace; research ethics; rationing/scarce resource utilization; billing/coding ethics; trainee selection and involvement in clinical care; clinical decision-making; doctor-patient relationships; the impaired clinician. The components of an Ethics in Practice article are:

    • Succinct case presentation/description that poses a specific question or dilemma (200 words maximum). Cases may involve a specific/individual patient example or be hypothetical. Reports of actual cases must be de-identified in a HIPAA-compliant manner, and IRB approval or exemption is required. Note in the case presentation whether the case is actual or hypothetical.
    • Point that provides a reasoned perspective taking a clear position on the issue posed (900 words maximum).
    • Counterpoint that provides a reasoned perspective taking an opposing position (900 words maximum).
    • Manuscript length: No more than 2000 words total (200 for case presentation, 900 for point, and 900 for counterpoint), with up to 10 references, 1 figure, and 1 table each for the Point and Counterpoint sections.

    Commentaries: Communication of a novel, scientifically based opinion or insight as an independent contribution, or regarding a manuscript published in the journal within the past 6 months. Commentaries should contain a title page, unstructured abstract of up to 150 words, and a main point and supporting discussion. They may be authored by an individual, group, society, or committee with an important concern of interest to readers. Manuscript length: No more than 900 words (from Introduction through Conclusion), with up to 10 references, and a total of 5 figures or tables.

    Short Scientific Communications: Quick communication of preliminary results (including small sample studies) or scientific research that is not yet ready for presentation in full form. Such research should have the potential to stimulate communications among researchers and clinicians that may lead to new concepts and supportive work. Submissions must have a title page and an unstructured abstract of up to 150 words. Manuscript length: No more than 900 words (from Introduction through Conclusion) and a total of 3 figures or tables. There is no limit on references. IRB approval or exemption is required.

    Clinical Techniques and Technology: A short report of unique or original methods for (1) surgical techniques or medical management, or (2) new devices or technology. CTT manuscripts cannot be only theoretical. They must include data on safety and outcomes in 3 or more subjects. Submissions must have a title page and an unstructured abstract of up to 150 words. Manuscript length: No more than 900 words (from Introduction through Conclusion), 5 references, and a total of 4 figures or tables. IRB approval or exemption is required.

    Case Reports: Report of a truly unique, highly relevant, and educationally valuable case. Submissions should have a title page, have no abstract, and include an Introduction and Discussion. Do not combine case reports with a review of the literature. Manuscript length: No more than 700 words (from Introduction through Discussion), 5 references, and a total of 2 figures or tables. Case reports must have no more than four authors. IRB approval or exemption is required.

    Clinical Photographs: Color photograph (not a picture of an x-ray) of a unique, relevant, and educationally valuable clinical entity with an accompanying discussion. The emphasis of the manuscript should clearly center on the photograph, not the case history or a literature review. Submissions must have a title page and no abstract. Manuscript length: No more than 300 words (from Introduction through Discussion), 2 figures, and 5 references. Clinical Photographs must have no more than two authors. IRB approval or exemption is required.

    Letters to the Editor: Letters to the Editor regarding published material or information of timely interest. If the letter is related to a previously published article, it must be submitted within 3 months of the original publication, and those authors will be invited to reply. The letter should be titled and double-spaced, include a title page, and follow all manuscript formatting guidelines (see Manuscript Preparation). It should be brief and to the point, with no more than 400 words, 5 references, and 1 figure or table.

    Supplements: Supplements to the journal are considered for publication on the basis of importance of topic, expertise of participants, and scientific quality of the articles presented. All supplements undergo peer review. Private funding for supplements is encouraged. Contact SAGE Publishing at reprint@sagepub.com for further information.

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    Manuscript Preparation

    The journal will not consider manuscripts for publication if authors do not comply with the following instructions.

    Correct preparation of the manuscript will expedite the review and publishing process. Manuscripts must conform to acceptable English usage. For further questions concerning style, consult a recent issue of this journal or the American Medical Association’s Manual of Style.

    Submitting a Manuscript Online
    Go to https://otohns.edmgr.com for directions on using Editorial Manager, the online submission and review system. We recommend using the most current version of Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, or Safari as browsers.

    To use Editorial Manager, you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader (a PDF reader) 5.0 or later installed on your system. If you need to install this software, you can download the free Adobe Acrobat Reader at https://get.adobe.com/reader/. If you experience difficulty installing or using this software, contact your IT department for assistance.

    Authors should first read the User Instructions available on the Editorial Manager homepage, and then, if a first-time user, register in Editorial Manager. Please contact the Editorial Office at otomanager@entnet.org if you have any questions about Editorial Manager.

    Necessary Forms
    Before a manuscript can be published, The Contributor’s Publishing Agreement must be submitted by the corresponding author. Please submit this form as part of the manuscript files.

    Title: Do not exceed 15 words. Identify all animal research as such in the title.

    Title Page: The title page should be submitted as the first page of the main manuscript. A title page must include the following:

    • Include the submission title and all authors’ full names, academic degrees, institutional affiliations, and locations along with the corresponding author’s contact information.
    • Designate ONE author as the corresponding author (refer to Authorship below), and provide their complete mailing address, email address, and phone/fax numbers. The corresponding author will receive all correspondence regarding the manuscript, as well as proof pages and reprint requests.
    • Disclose if the manuscript was previously presented, along with the month, day, and year of the presentation.
    • Include a brief list of keywords.
    • Report potential conflicts of interest that are upcoming or existed in the past 24 months (if none, state explicitly).
    • Identify each author’s role in creating the final version of the manuscript (e.g., design, conduct, analysis, or presentation of the research).
    • Record sponsor name or funding source; if not applicable write “none.”

    Abbreviations: Do not use abbreviations in the title or abstract. When using abbreviations in the text, indicate the abbreviation parenthetically after the first occurrence and use the abbreviation alone for all subsequent occurrences.

    Text: Do not use the “Track Changes” feature of any word processing program. If this feature has been used for any portion of the manuscript, all changes must be accepted before building a .pdf submission. Do not use “Endnotes” or similar programs for entering references. The Editorial Office will not edit or process submissions containing this formatting. When preparing the text:

    • See Article Categories for length requirements.
    • Number all pages, beginning with the title page as #1.
    • Include the Abstract as page #2.
    • Use continuous line numbering for both new and revised submissions.
    • Use only 12-point font in Arial, Times New Roman, or Century styles.
    • Double-space the manuscript (including references, figure legends, and tables) with minimum 1-inch margins.
    • Use generic drug and equipment names when possible; cite the proprietary names in parentheses after first mention, if desired. Identify equipment by manufacturer name and location.
    • State all measurements in metric units, and if desired, add English units in parentheses.
    • Begin each table on a separate page.
    • Begin references on a separate page after acknowledgments.
    • Revisions should be submitted with the edited text highlighted in yellow, using the “highlight” feature of your word processing program.

    Authorship: Authorship credit should be based on criteria established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE): (1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) acknowledgement of drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; (3) final approval of the version to be published; and (4) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Each author must meet ALL FOUR conditions. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship. Contributors who do not qualify as authors should be listed in an Acknowledgments section, with their particular contribution described. Please refer to the ICMJE authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    • The corresponding author will confirm their authorship contributions, funding, and conflict(s) of interest as part of the submission process.
    • Coauthors will be required to confirm their authorship and potential conflicts of interest through a questionnaire sent by email.

    Acknowledgments: All papers prepared in consultation with a writer, statistician, or any other contributor who is not a coauthor must contain an acknowledgment, following the text, indicating full name(s), degrees, and explicit role(s) in the design, conduct, analysis, or presentation of the research. Deceased authors should be listed in this section, rather than the full author list.

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
    • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
    • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, SAGE reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    References: Authors are responsible for the completeness, accuracy, and format of their references.

    • References follow the American Medical Association’s Manual of Style, 10th Edition.
    • Double-space references throughout, number them in the sequence in which they appear in the text, and cite them in the text using superscript Arabic numerals.
    • Do not use “Endnotes” or similar programs for entering references.
    • List only the first 3 authors if there are more than 6 total, and add et al after the third author.
    • Abbreviate journal titles as shown in the Cumulative Index Medicus. Translate any article titles that are not in English.
    • Journal titles should be italicized.

    Examples of correct reference format:

    Journal
    Seluga KJ, Baker LL, Ojalvo IU. A parametric study of golf car and personal transport vehicle braking stability and their deficiencies. Accid Anal Prev. 2009;41:839-848.

    Book
    Dillon H. Hearing Aids. Sydney, Australia: Boomerang Press; 2001.

    Chapter
    Graney DO, Rice DH. Anatomy. In: Cummings CW, Fredrickson JM, Harker LA, et al, eds. Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. 3rd ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby; 1998:1059-1064.

    Internet
    Somers FL. National Golf Car Manufacturers Association issues statement following golf car safety studies (August 2008). http://www.prlog.org/10104352-national-golf-car-manufacturersassociation.... November 2, 2010.

    Tables: Data appearing in tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. Tables must be submitted in Excel or Word table format and not as images. Tables should contain at least 2 columns of data and should not list qualitative information or single-column numeric data that can be easily described in the Results section. Put tables on separate pages and number them in order of their mention in the text. Place tables before the figure legend page and after the list of references, and do not embed them throughout the text. Provide a brief title for each table (not a separate legend), and define any abbreviations in table footnotes. Tables must be no larger than 1 page (with 1-inch margins), using a minimum font size of 10. Tables larger than 1 page will count as multiple tables. Tables larger than 3 pages will be considered for publication as online-only appendices.

    Figures: Upload each figure as its own file in Editorial Manager. Provide a legend of no more than 30 words for each figure after your reference list. Because all figures will be printed in black and white unless selected by the Editor in Chief for color reproduction, please refrain from using color descriptors in the legend. Additional figure guidelines are as follows:

    • Acceptable file types: EPS, JPEG, PDF, and TIFF.
    • Supply the original version of graphs and diagrams. For example, if you created a graph in Word or Excel, supply the original Word or Excel file. Do not save the image in a different file format.
    • Color figures are encouraged whenever possible for contrast, though they may not necessarily be selected for publication. Color figures submitted with the manuscript may appear in black and white in print, unless selected by the Editor in Chief, but will appear on the website in color at no extra charge. When color images appear in print in black and white, the black and white contrast will diminish, so choose distinct color contrasts or patterns for best conversion to black and white images.
    • CMYK and grayscale rasterized images must be at least 300 dpi. Line art/bitmap images must be at least 1200 dpi.
    • Figures composed of multiple, separate images will be counted as multiple figures.

    Appendices and Supplemental Materials: Appendices and supplemental materials will only be published online, not in the print journal, and may include videos, audio files, and additional figures or tables that enhance the value of the manuscript. Appendices must be submitted online with the rest of the manuscript and labeled as such. All tables larger than 3 pages (with 1-inch margins) and questionnaires will be considered as Appendices. Please click here for more information on supplemental materials, including acceptable file types.

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    Ethical Concerns

    SAGE Publishing disseminates high-quality research and engaged scholarship globally, and we are committed to diversity and inclusion in publishing. We encourage submissions from a diverse range of authors from across all countries and backgrounds.

    Disclosure of Competing Interests, Financial, and Sponsor Information
    Competing interests exist when an author or the author’s institution has financial or personal relationships with other people or organizations that could influence (or bias) the author’s decisions, work, or manuscript. Sponsorships and funding sources must also be identified. Financial relationships are easily identifiable, but conflicts can also occur because of personal relationships, academic competition, or intellectual passion. Full disclosure of all such conflicts and relationships is required. Failure to disclose conflicts may lead to publication of a corrigendum. The editors may use disclosure information as a basis for editorial decisions.

    Patient Confidentiality
    For manuscripts containing photographs of a person, submit a permission to publish statement from the person or guardian, or submit a photograph that will not reveal the person’s identity (eye covers are inadequate to protect patient identity). The journal has no standard patient consent form, but the statement must grant the authors the right to publish the photograph both online and in print in a scientific medical journal. The statement must be in English or provided with an English translation.

    Using Previously Published Material and Illustrations
    For manuscripts containing tables, figures, direct quotations longer than 100 words, or other material reproduced from another source, permission from the copyright holder (often the illustrator or original publication source) must be obtained and submitted to the Editorial Office. The journal has no standard permission form, but the statement must grant the authors the right to publish the material both online and in print in a scientific medical journal. A description or copy of the material to be republished must be included in the statement. In addition, the copyright holder must be credited in the manuscript.

    Funding
    OTO requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading on the title page of their manuscript.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding. If no funding was secured, state the following: “This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.”

    Declaration of Conflicting Interests
    OTO policy requires a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a “Declaration of Conflicting Interests” statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that the following: “The author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest.” For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations.

    Prepint Policy
    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights to the work, that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal, and that the work is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere. Please see our guidelines on prior publication. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery will consider submissions of papers that have been posted on preprint servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the Journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may reuse their work according to the Journal’s author archiving policy. If your paper is accepted, you must include a link on your preprint to the final version of your paper.

    IRB Policy and Animal Studies
    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the Methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative. Please do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself breaches the patient’s confidentiality. The Journal requests that you confirm to us, in writing, that you have obtained written informed consent but the written consent itself should be held by the authors/investigators themselves—for example, in a patient’s hospital record. The confirmatory letter may be uploaded with your submission as a separate file.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants.

    All research involving animals submitted for publication must be approved by an ethics committee with oversight of the facility in which the studies were conducted. The Journal has adopted the Consensus Author Guidelines on Animal Ethics and Welfare for Veterinary Journals published by the International Association of Veterinary Editors. Additionally, you will be asked to confirm that you have carefully read and adhered to the ARRIVE guidelines.

    Clinical Trials
    OTO conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrollment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name—along with URL—and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

    Duplicate or Redundant Submission
    Manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously and are not under consideration by another publication. If the author would like the journal to consider a duplicate publication, he or she must submit the request, in writing, to the Editor in Chief with appropriate justification.

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    Required Submission

    All Scientific Oral Presentations at the AAO-HNSF Annual Meeting and all manuscripts resulting from Academy or Foundation-sponsored research or committee work must be submitted as full-length articles to Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, the official journal of the AAO-HNSF, for right of first refusal.

    Notice NIH Grant Recipients

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Policy on Enhancing Public Access to Archived Publications Resulting from NIH Funded Research (Public Access Policy) strongly encourages all investigators to make their NIH-funded peer-reviewed, author’s final manuscript available to other researchers and the public through the NIH National Library of Medicine’s (NLM) PubMed Central (PMC) database no later than twelve months after the date of publication. In support of this policy, we encourage authors of accepted manuscripts that describe original research funded entirely or in part by an NIH grant to submit their manuscript to the NIH grantee site at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/about/authorms/. The “author’s final manuscript” is the peer reviewed, pre-copyedited version of the article. Articles may be deposited with PubMedCentral at any time after publication in the journal (including as part of OnlineFirst); however, the article should not be made publicly available until twelve months after the date of initial publication. For more information on open access options and compliance at SAGE, including self author archiving deposits (green open access), visit SAGE Publishing Policies on their Journal Author Gateway.

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    Publish Ahead of Print with OnlineFirst

    OnlineFirst is a feature in which completed articles are published online prior to their inclusion in a print issue, offering authors the advantage of making their research accessible to the public in a more timely manner. Only online subscribers can view these PDFs, but abstracts are available to the public to view for free. OnlineFirst articles are fed to search engines and citation and content repositories, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, CrossRef, and Google Scholar, and therefore are available to be accessed and cited. Each OnlineFirst manuscript is citable by the publication date of the manuscript’s first online posting and the Digital Object Identifier (DOI), providing a persistent, permanent way to identify manuscripts published in the online environment. You can cite OnlineFirst articles as follows:

    Author’s last name, first initials. Article title. Journal title. Prepublished month day, year; DOI: 10.1177/ 0123456789123456

    Once your article has completed the production process and before it is published in a print issue, it will be posted online. You can access OTO OnlineFirst articles on the Web at https://journals.sagepub.com/toc/oto/0/0. Once posted online, articles may not be retracted or edited. If your article is not completed prior to its publication date, it will not go on OnlineFirst but will be posted online with the issue in which it is published.

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    Editing Services

    Authors who wish to improve the grammar and spelling in their articles may wish to consult a professional service. Here are a few of the many available services:

     

    Reporting Hearing Outcomes

    The journal requires that authors use the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery minimal reporting standard for reporting audiometric data in clinical research. While authors are welcome to interpret their data in any way they find interesting and informative, to facilitate comparison among studies results must include the minimal data set in the standardized AAO-HNS scattergram reporting format.

    To create the required scattergrams, go to https://hearingoutcomes.stanford.edu. There you will find instructions on uploading your data and using the online tool to generate your scattergrams. The scattergrams must be uploaded as figures when you submit your manuscript to the journal.

    Videos

    This journal videocast, filmed at the 2012 AAO-HNSF Annual Meeting & OTO EXPOSM, is a panel discussion with tips for authors on how to get articles published. Watch then Editor in Chief Richard M. Rosenfeld, MD, MPH, then Associate Editor for Otology and Neurotology Brian Blakley, MD, and then Associate Editor for General Otolaryngology and Case Reports Julie L. Wei, MD, provide their advice on the peer review process.

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    Submission Checklist

    • Assure compliance with the detailed instructions above.
    • Include a title page as the first page of your complete manuscript file. The title page must indicate all authors’ complete names (given name followed by surname name), academic degrees, affiliated institutions. The corresponding author’s contact information (mailing and email addresses), funding and conflict of interest statements, authorship contributions, previous presentations, and a list of keywords must also be indicated on this page.
    • ’If applicable, provide an abstract in Editorial Manager and after your title page in your Complete Manuscript file. The abstract must be the same in Editorial Manager and your manuscript and structured according to the type of manuscript you are submitting (refer to the Article Categories section above).
    • If applicable, note formal institutional review board or ethics committee approval or exemption in the body of your manuscript, including the specific name of the board or committee and affiliated institution. Approval or exemption is required for all manuscripts involving human subjects, including case reports and where required by regulation.
    • Double-space the manuscript.
    • Cite references using superscript numerals.
    • Upload each figure as its own file in EPS, JPEG, PDF, or TIFF format. Do not paste figures into the Complete Manuscript file.
    • Create tables in Microsoft Word. Each table should appear on its own page after the reference list in the Complete Manuscript file. Do not paste tables into Microsoft Word as images. Tables must use a minimum font size of 10.
    • Confirm the accuracy of reference information, and format the references list according to Journal style (refer to the References section above).
    • Number manuscript pages; turn on continuous line numbering.
    • Submit the Contributor’s Publishing Agreement.

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    The Submission Not in Compliance Letter

    The most common reasons your submission is returned without review

    • Incomplete or incorrect Authorship, Sponsorship, and Conflict of Interest Disclosure statements on the title page.
    • Invalid email addresses for coauthors listed in Editorial Manager.
    • Incomplete title page: incomplete author affiliations, no keywords, missing presentation information.
    • Abstract missing from the Word file or not properly structured.
    • Missing line numbers.
    • Manuscript not consistently double-spaced.
    • Methods section does not mention IRB approval.
    • References not cited in numerical order.
    • Figures not uploaded separately, not cited in text, no legends provided.

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    Individual Subscription - Print Only

    Institutional Print subscription inclusive of free online access