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The Neurohospitalist

The Neurohospitalist

Published in Association with The Neurohospitalist Society
Other Titles in:
Clinical Neuroscience | Neurology

eISSN: 19418752 | ISSN: 19418744 | Current volume: 13 | Current issue: 3 Frequency: Quarterly

The Neurohospitalist is a quarterly, international, peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the practice and performance of neurohospitalist medicine. NHOS offers comprehensive ground-breaking research focused on neurological diseases in the hospital setting, neurohospitalist centered systems-based practice, practice-based improvement, and inpatient quality metrics. The journal presents clinically oriented and evidence-based original research, topic reviews, real case studies, and clinical problem solving exercises.

The Neurohospitalist will address:

  • The diagnosis and treatment of inpatient neurological diseases and disorders
  • Neurocritical care and emergency neurology
  • Implementation of evidence-based practice
  • Validated approaches to healthcare quality, systems, and outcomes
  • Performance measures and patient safety
  • The challenges of maintaining a neurohospitalist program
  • Neurology residency and fellowship training; in-hospital team building and education
  • Medical-legal and ethical issues

Among the likely topics in forthcoming issues are:

  • Stroke and Cerebrovascular Neurology
  • Encephalopathy and Delirium
  • Healthcare Quality and Safety and Outcomes Research
  • Seizures and Status Epilepticus
  • Critical Care Neurology
  • Neurologic Emergencies
  • Neurological Complications of General Medical and Surgical Disease
  • Central Nervous System Infections
  • Neurological Complications of HIV Infection
  • Neurological Complications of Solid-Organ Transplantation
  • Neuromuscular Disease, (for example, Myasthenic Crisis, Guillain-Barre Syndrome and other acute neuropathies)
  • Brain Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury
  • Disorders of Intracranial Pressure
  • Headache (for example, Intractable Headache)
  • Nervous System Trauma
  • In-Hospital Procedures, such as Transcranial Doppler and Electroencephalography

This is a must-read journal for neurohospitalists, neurologists, neurointensivists, vascular neurologists, emergency physicians, internal medicine hospitalists, neurological medical residents, neurological nurses, and other medical professionals interested in inpatient neurological care.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

The Neurohospitalist will be the premier peer reviewed journal for providers caring for patients with neurological disorders in the hospital setting. NHOS publishes articles that address diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases as well as articles about healthcare quality, systems, and outcomes, especially as they relate to clinical neurology. The journal welcomes articles focused on general neurology, neurocritical care, vascular neurology, neurotrauma, movement disorders, neuromuscular diseases, neuroinfectious diseases, epilepsy and systemic illnesses affecting the central nervous system. Well written topic reviews and clinical problem solving exercises make the journal practical and clinically relevant. NHOS will be of interest to neurohospitalists, neurologists, neurointensivists, vascular neurologists, intensivists, emergency physicians, internal medicine hospitalists and other physicians with interest in inpatient neurological care.

Editor in Chief
Joshua P. Klein, MD, PhD Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
Associate Editors
Shruti Agnihotri, MD University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
Christopher Doughty, MD Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Tarini Goyal, MD Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
Alexander E. Merkler, MD, MS Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA
Babak Navi, MD, MS Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA
Karen Orjuela, MD, MS University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA
Robert Regenhardt, MD, PhD Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Lucas Restrepo, MD, PhD University of California Los Angeles Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Sara K. Rostanski, MD Bellevue Hospital and NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
Sophie Ryan MD, MPH Mount Sinai Health System, New York, NY, USA
Brian Sauer, MD University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA
Kiran Thakur, MD Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
Natalie Weathered, MD University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
Craig Williamson, MD University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Andrew Wilner, MD University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA
Jana Wold, MD University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Section Editors: Clinical Pathological Conferences and Clinical Problem Solving
Sandeep Khot, MD, MPH University of Washington Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA
Section Editor: Images in Clinical Neurology
Jennifer Simpson, MD University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA
Editorial Board
Harold P. Adams, Jr., MD Professor Emeritus, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
Alpesh Amin, MD University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA
Kevin Barrett, MD Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL, USA
Hernan Bayona, MD Fundación de Santa Fe, Bogota, Colombia
John Betjemann, MD Kaiser Permanente, San Francisco, CA, USA
Pratik Bhattacharya, MD, MPH St. Joe's Health, Pontiac, MI, USA
Aaron Carlson, MD University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA
Jeremy A. Cholfin, MD, PhD Kaiser Permanente, Oxnard, CA, USA
Amar Dhand, MD, DPhil Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
Leana Doherty, MD Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
Muhammad Farooq, MD Hauenstein Neuroscience Center, Grand Rapids, MI, USA
Hamidreza Ghodsi, MD University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
Philip B. Gorelick, MD, MPH Hauenstein Neuroscience Center, Grand Rapids, MI, USA
James G. Greene, MD, PhD Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
Mounzer Kassab, MD, MA Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
Ulrike W. Kaunzner, MD, PhD Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA
Nerissa Ko, MD University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
Kathryn Kvam, MD Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA
Sara C. LaHue, MD University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
Joshua Levine, MD Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Mary Maher, MD Acumen Medical Imaging and Interventional, Pensacola, FL, USA
Edward M. Manno, MD, MS Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
Man Mohan Mehndiratta, MD BLK-Max Super Speciality Hospital, New Delhi, India
Rafid Mustafa, MD Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
Herbert B. Newton, MD Advent Health, Orlando, FL, USA
Srivastava M. V. Padma, MD All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
Francesca Pistoia MD, PhD University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy
Sharon Poisson, MD University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA
Sashank Prasad, MD Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
John Probasco, MD John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
Jeffrey Ralph, MD University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
David Rose, MD University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
Mark Rubin, MD Northwest Neurology, Lake Barrington, IL, USA
Alex Schneider, MD Mission Hospital, Asheville, NC, USA
Brian J. Scott, MD Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA
Saad Shafqat, MD, PhD Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
Maulik Shah, MD University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
Vishank A. Shah, MD University of Arkansas Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA
Sunil Sheth, MD, PhD University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA
Ashfaq Shuaib, MD University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
Isaac E. Silverman, MD University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Hartford, CT, USA
Guillermo Solorzano, MD, MSc University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA
Adam Strzelczyk, MD, MHBA Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany
Michel Toledano, MD Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
Georgios Tsivgoulis, MD, PhD National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Arun Varadhachary, MD, PhD Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA
Mauricio F. Villamar, MD The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA
Mohammad Wasay, MD Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
Maggie Waung, MD, PhD University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
Matthew West, MD University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA
Wendy Wright, MD, JM Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
Joseph Y. Yoon, MD, MSc, MAEd Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA
Margaret Yu, MD Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
  • Clarivate Analytics: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI)
  • ProQuest
  • PubMed Central (PMC)
  • Scopus
  • This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.

    This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the The Neurohospitalist (NHOS)'s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.

    Sage Publishing disseminates high-quality research and engaged scholarship globally, and we are committed to diversity and inclusion in publishing. We encourage submissions from a diverse range of authors from across all countries and backgrounds.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of NHOS will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this journal.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere. Please see our guidelines on prior publication and note that NHOS may accept submissions of papers that have been posted on pre-print servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the Journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the Journal's author archiving policy. If your paper is accepted, you must include a link on your preprint to the final version of your paper.


    1.1 Aims & Scope

    NHOS publishes articles that address diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases as well as articles about healthcare quality, systems, and outcomes, especially as they relate to inpatient clinical neurology. The Journal welcomes articles focused on general neurology, neurocritical care, vascular neurology, neurotrauma, movement disorders, neuromuscular diseases, neuroinfectious diseases, epilepsy and systemic illnesses affecting the central nervous system.  

    1.2 Article Types 

    NHOS accepts following types of articles: 

    Original Articles include original clinical investigations. The Journal publishes articles focused on general neurology, neurocritical care, vascular neurology, neurotrauma, movement disorders, neuromuscular diseases, neuroinfectious diseases, inflammatory conditions of the nervous system, epilepsy and systemic illnesses affecting the central nervous system. Investigations into healthcare quality, safety, processes and outcomes are especially encouraged and will be considered for the Improving Healthcare Quality section of the Journal. Articles describing a quality improvement intervention must conform to the SQUIRE Guidelines. We also welcome articles about medical education. Original articles should be no more than 3,000 words (abstract and references excluded) and may contain up to 5 figures and tables and 40 references.

    The manuscript should be organized into a structured abstract of no more than 250 words, containing the following sections: Background and Purpose, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. The body should be divided into the following sections: introduction, methods, data analysis, results, and discussion. Additional requirements for specific types of articles are listed below.

    Short Reports should contain a review of the related literature and put observations in perspective. They can include case series, neuro-intervention reports, or reports of best practices, clinical practice models, or quality and safety initiatives. These latter would be considered for the Improving Healthcare Quality section of the Journal. The word limit for short reports is 1,500 words. Please limit references to 15 and figures/tables to three. Short reports should include an unstructured abstract of no more than 250 words, and introduction, methods if applicable, case description or results, and discussion.

    Clinical Problem Solving articles are descriptions of challenging cases designed to highlight the process of clinical reasoning.  Case information is presented in a stepwise fashion to an expert clinician, who describes their diagnostic reasoning as the case unfolds. This is followed by a general discussion of diagnosis and management of the condition.

    Clinical Pathologic Conferences are an alternative format in which to present challenging cases that usually involve pathology. The majority of the case is presented, but a crucial final diagnostic test result is withheld. An expert clinician then takes the reader through the differential diagnosis and the appropriate subsequent workup. This is followed by a discussion of the diagnostic test result, usually by a pathologist or geneticist, and finally a discussion of management by the clinician.  

    For both Clinical Problem Solving articles and Clinical Pathologic Conferences, the text should not exceed 2,000 words, with a limit of 15 references. Figures and tables are limited to five. Informed consent is not required for the publication of clinical problem solving and clinical pathologic conference articles unless personally identifying information is reported in the manuscript.

    Reviews are primarily solicited and invited by the editor in chief and associate editors from experts in the field. Clinicians and researches wishing to submit review articles are welcome to contact the editorial office. Reviews are limited to 4,000 words, 70 references, and five tables and/or figures. They should include an unstructured abstract of no more than 250 words.

    Letters to the Editor are invited in response to any article or editorial. Letters to the editor are limited to 500 words and 5 references. The first reference should be the article in question for correspondence.

    Images in Clinical Neurology are images of radiological studies or examination findings that have educational value. These might include classic images of common conditions, unusual presentations of common conditions, or classic images of rare conditions. Images should follow the guidelines for the submission of figures. They should be accompanied by a title and a caption of no more than 250 words. Informed consent is not required for the publication of images in clinical neurology unless personally identifying information is reported or shown in the manuscript.

    Case Reports should enhance understanding of a disease process, pathophysiology, neuroanatomy, diagnostic testing, or treatment. Case reports should include a review of the related literature. Word, reference, and figure/table limits are the same as for short reports. An unstructured abstract of no more than 250 words should be included and the manuscript should include the following sections: introduction, case description, and discussion. Case reports must be submitted with a CARE checklist (available at Informed consent is required for case reports.

    On Being a Neurohospitalist: Tales from the Trenches are brief stories and perspectives from neurohospitalists on the frontlines that can range from 500-1500 words.

    1.3 Writing Your Paper

    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

    1.3.1 Make Your Article Discoverable

    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online



    2.1 Peer Review Policy

    Sage does not permit the use of author-suggested (recommended) reviewers at any stage of the submission process, be that through the web-based submission system or other communication. Reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Our policy is that reviewers should not be assigned to a paper if:

    •  The reviewer is based at the same institution as any of the co-authors

    •  The reviewer is based at the funding body of the paper

    •  The author has recommended the reviewer

    •  The reviewer has provided a personal (e.g. Gmail/Yahoo/Hotmail) email account and an institutional email account cannot be found after performing a basic Google search (name, department and institution). 

    2.2 Authorship 

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors. 

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    (i) Made a substantial contribution to the concept and design, acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data,

    (ii) Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,

    (iii) Approved the version to be published.

    (iv) Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship. In addition, the corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and identify all individual authors as well as the group name. Other members of the group will be listed in the Acknowledgments.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.

    2.3 Acknowledgements 

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support. 

    2.3.1 Third party submissions

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
    • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
    • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    2.3.2 Writing Assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance”).

    It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your references.

    2.4 Funding 

    NHOS requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

    2.5 Declaration of Conflicting Interests

    Conflicts of interest may arise when an author or author's employer has a financial interest in the subject matter being addressed in an article. Conflicts may also arise when a study is sponsored by an entity that has a financial stake in the results. It is the policy of NHOS to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles. 

    We require that each author fully disclose all financial relationships that might lead to a real or perceived conflict of interest with respect to the subject matter discussed in the article at the time of submission and in the manuscript. Financial relationships that should be disclosed include employment, consultancies, speakers bureaus, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants or patents, and royalties. If an author has nothing to disclose, this should be so stated. The submitting author must enter information about financial disclosures for all authors as well as funding for the manuscript at the time of submission, and an additional disclosure form is required if the article is accepted for publication. Penalties for non-disclosure of financial conflicts of interest or study funding sources may result in retraction of the article in question and/or prohibition of future submissions to NHOS.

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.

    For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here.

    2.6 Research Ethics and Patient Consent 

    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number. Authors must include a statement that their institutional review board approved the study in both the cover letter and the methods of the manuscript and the institutional review board study approval number must be included in the cover letter. 

    For research on human subjects a statement must be included in the methods section that informed consent was obtained from each subject or a waiver of informed consent was granted by the institutional review board. It must also be specified whether the consent was written or verbal.

    In terms of patient privacy, authors are required to follow the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants. Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that a patient who is identifiable be shown the manuscript to be published. A statement “The patient discussed in this article or their surrogate was shown the final version of the manuscript and consented to its publication” should be included in both the cover letter and the manuscript.

    For case reports, a statement should be provided in the cover letter and in the manuscript methods or acknowledgments that informed consent was obtained from the patient or a surrogate, or that they consented to participate in a study in which the publication of case reports was permitted.

    Images in clinical neurology, clinical pathological conferences and clinical problem solving articles do not require informed consent for publication as long as no personally identifying information is published. If personally identifying information other than age, sex, and race must be presented (e.g., a patient photograph) then informed consent must be obtained and documented in the manuscript.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants

    All research involving animals submitted for publication must be approved by an ethics committee with oversight of the facility in which the studies were conducted. The Journal has adopted the ARRIVE guidelines.

    2.7 Clinical Trials

    NHOS conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

    2.8 Reporting Guidelines

    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. Details can be found in the specific descriptions of each article type above.

    2.9 Research Data 

    The journal is committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research, and has the following research data sharing policy. For more information, including FAQs please visit the Sage Research Data policy pages.

    Subject to appropriate ethical and legal considerations, authors are encouraged to:

    • share your research data in a relevant public data repository
    • include a data availability statement linking to your data. If it is not possible to share your data, we encourage you to consider using the statement to explain why it cannot be shared.
    • cite this data in your research

    NHOS requests all authors submit any primary data used in their research articles if the articles are accepted to be published in the online version of the Journal, or provide detailed information in their articles on how the data can be obtained. This information should include links to third-party data repositories or detailed contact information for third-party data sources. Data available only on an author-maintained website will need to be loaded onto either the Journal’s platform or a third-party platform to ensure continuing accessibility. Examples of data types include but are not limited to statistical data files, replication code, text files, audio files, images, videos, appendices, and additional charts and graphs necessary to understand the original research. The editor may consider limited embargoes on proprietary data. The editor will also grant exceptions for data that cannot legally or ethically be released. All data submitted should comply with Institutional or Ethical Review Board requirements and applicable government regulations. For further information, please contact the editorial office at



    3.1 Publication ethics

    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    NHOS and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of articles published in the Journal. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the Journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked using duplication-checking software. Where an article is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article (removing it from the Journal); taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author’s institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; banning the author from publication in the Journal or all Sage journals, or appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior Publication 

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    The submitted manuscript should not be under consideration for simultaneous publication in another journal. If accepted for publication, the manuscript may not be submitted to any other journal or publication. Penalties for duplicate publication include retraction of the article in question and may include barring the article’s authors from future submissions to NHOS.

    3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement

    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive license agreement, which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and license to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the Sage Journal Author Gateway

    3.3 Open access and author archiving 

    NHOS offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.



    4.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    4.2 Cover Letter

    The cover letter should include the title of the manuscript and the article type. It should state that the article has not been submitted for publication elsewhere, and that all authors have a) contributed substantively to the conception, design, or analysis and interpretation of the data, b) contributed substantively to the drafting of the manuscript or critical revision for important intellectual content, c) given final approval of the version to be published, and d) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. For research involving human or animal subjects, the cover letter should state that the local institutional review board approved the study and should include the institutional review board approval number. For case reports, the cover letter should state that informed consent was obtained from the patient or a surrogate, or that they consented to participate in a study in which the publication of case reports was permitted. If complete anonymity cannot be achieved in an article, the following statement must be included in the cover letter: “The patient discussed in this article or their surrogate was shown the final version of the manuscript and consented to its publication.”

    4.3 Title Page

    The first page of the manuscript should include the title (limit 20 words), a list of authors, abstract word count, word count (excluding abstract, references, tables, figures, acknowledgments and figure legends), number of tables, number of figures, and at least three keywords. A keyword list of MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms is provided on the submission website. The institution of each author should be specified, and contact information for the corresponding authors should be listed, including the complete mailing address, email address, telephone and fax number.

    4.4 Abstract

    Original articles require a structured abstract of no more than 250 words, containing the following sections: Background and Purpose, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Short Reports and Review articles require an unstructured abstract of no more than 250 words. If the article reports findings from a clinical trial, the trial registration number must be listed at the end of the abstract.

    4.5 Text

    Please see Manuscript Types for word limits and the general format for submissions. Manuscripts should be double spaced. Abbreviations should be defined when first used in the text, and again in each table or figure. Please use generic drug names and conventional units for all measurements.

    4.6 Tables

    Double space tables and place them, with a short title and footnotes, at the end of the manuscript text.

    4.7 Artwork, Figures and Other Graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines. Please include a short figure legend in the main body of the manuscript after the tables.

    Figures supplied in color will appear in color online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For specifically requested color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Sage after receipt of your accepted article.

    4.8 Supplemental material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplemental files, which can be found within our Manuscript Submission Guidelines

    4.9 Acknowledgments

    All individuals who contributed to the work but who do not meet requirements for authorship should be listed in the acknowledgments section. 

    4.10 Conflict of Interest Notification

    All potential conflicts of interest must be listed for each author (see Conflicts of Interest, Section 2.5, above). If an author has no conflicts of interest, write “Dr./Mr./Ms. X has nothing to disclose.”

    4.11 Funding Sources

    Identify all sources of funding for the study.

    4.12 Authorship Statements

    A statement listing the contribution of each author must be included in the cover letter but is not necessary to include in the manuscript (see Authorship, Section 2.2, above).

    4.13 Reference Style

    Accuracy of the references is the responsibility of the authors. References should be numbered sequentially using superscript as they appear in the manuscript and be included at the end of the manuscript. Reference numbers should always appear after punctuation marks and at the end of sentences. NHOS adheres to the AMA reference style. View the AMA guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    4.14 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the Journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information. Use of these services does not guarantee publication.  



    5.1 How to Submit Your Manuscript

    NHOS is hosted on Sage Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online. 

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the Journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    5.2 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID IDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID ID you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID ID will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID ID is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID ID please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    5.3 Information Required for Completing Your Submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.4 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway.



    6.1 Sage Production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal Sage Edit or by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.

    6.2 Online First publication 

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article 

    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.



    Current advertising rates and specifications may be obtained by contacting the advertising coordinator by sending an e-mail to Reprints may be ordered by using the special reprint order form that will accompany author proofs. If you need another copy of this order form please e-mail



    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the NHOS editorial office as follows:

    Individual Subscription - E-access

    Individual Subscription - Combined (Print & E-access)

    Institutional Subscription - E-access

    Institutional Subscription - Print Only

    Institutional Print subscription inclusive of free online access

    Individual - Single Print Issue

    Institutional - Single Print Issue

    Subscription Information


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