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Language Testing

Language Testing

eISSN: 14770946 | ISSN: 02655322 | Current volume: 38 | Current issue: 1 Frequency: Quarterly

Listen to the official Language Testing podcast called Language Testing Bytes for free at

Language Testing is an international peer reviewed journal that publishes original research on foreign, second, additional, and bi-/multi-/trans-lingual (henceforth collectively called L2) language testing, assessment, and evaluation. Since 1984 it has featured high impact L2 testing papers covering theoretical issues, empirical studies, and reviews. The journal's scope encompasses the testing, assessment, and evaluation of spoken and signed languages being learned as L2s by children and adults, and the use of tests as research and evaluation tools that are used to provide information on the language knowledge and language performance abilities of L2 learners. Many articles also contribute to methodological innovation and the practical improvement of L2 testing internationally. In addition, the journal publishes submissions that deal with L2 testing policy issues, including the use of tests for making high-stakes decisions about L2 learners in fields as diverse as education, employment, and international mobility.

The journal welcomes the submission of papers that deal with ethical and philosophical issues in L2 testing, as well as issues centering on L2 test design, validation, and technical matters. Also of concern is research into the washback and impact of L2 language test use, the consequences of testing on L2 learner groups, and ground-breaking uses of assessments for L2 learning. Additionally, the journal wishes to publish replication studies that help to embed and extend knowledge of generalisable findings in the field. Language Testing is committed to encouraging interdisciplinary research, and is keen to receive submissions which draw on current theory and methodology from different areas within second language acquisition, applied linguistics, educational measurement, psycholinguistics, general education, psychology, cognitive science, language policy, and other relevant subdisciplines that interface with language testing and assessment. Authors are encouraged to adhere to Open Science Initiatives.

Language Testing is an international peer reviewed journal that publishes original research on foreign, second, additional, and bi-/multi-/trans-lingual (henceforth collectively called L2) language testing, assessment, and evaluation. The journal's scope encompasses the testing of L2s being learned by children and adults, and the use of tests as research and evaluation tools that are used to provide information on the knowledge and performance abilities of L2 learners.

In addition, the journal publishes submissions that deal with L2 testing policy issues, including the use of tests for making high-stakes decisions about L2 learners in fields as diverse as education, employment, and international mobility. The journal welcomes the submission of papers that deal with ethical and philosophical issues in L2 testing, as well as issues centering on L2 test design, validation, and technical matters. Primary studies, replication studies, and secondary analyses of pre-existing data are welcome. Authors are encouraged to adhere to Open Science Initiatives.

Luke Harding Lancaster University, UK
Paula Winke Michigan State University, USA
Podcast Editor
Glenn Fulcher University of Leicester, UK
Book Review Editor
Slobodanka Dimova University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Test Reviews Editor
Ute Knoch The University of Melbourne
Editorial Board
Vahid Aryadoust Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Khaled Barkaoui York University, UK
Aaron Olaf Batty Keio University, Japan
William Bonk Pearson, USA
Tineke Brunfaut Lancaster University, UK
Michelle Chalhoub-Deville University of North Carolina, USA
Carol Chapelle Iowa State University, USA
Inn-Chull Choi Korea University, South Korea
Thomas Eckes University of Bochum, Germany
Gudrun Erickson University of Gothenburg, Sweden
Jason Fan The University of Melbourne, Australia
Brian F. French Washington State University, USA
Anthony Green University of Bedfordshire, UK
Becky Huang University of Texas, San Antonio, USA
Ofra Inbar Tel-Aviv University, Israel
Talia Isaacs University College London, UK
Dan Isbell Cal Poly-San Luis Obispo, USA
Noriko Iwashita University of Queensland, Australia
Eunice Jang University of Toronto, Canada
Okim Kang University of Northern Arizona, USA
Rie Koizumi Juntendo University, Japan
Benjamin Kremmel University of Innsbruck, Austria
Hongli Li Georgia State University, USA
Zhi Li University of Saskatchewan, Canada
Susy MacQueen Australian National University, Australia
Fumiyo Nakatsuhara University of Bedfordshire, UK
Spiros Papageorgiou Educational Testing Service, USA
Lia Plakans University of Iowa, USA
Miyuki Sasaki Waseda University, Japan
Yasuyo Sawaki Waseda University, Japan
Jonathan Schmidgall Educational Testing Service, USA
Sun-young Shin Indiana University Bloomington, USA
Ruslan Suvorov University of Western Ontario, USA
Jonathan Trace Keio University, Japan
Elvis Wagner Temple University, USA
Jin Yan Shanghai Jiaotong University, China
Xun Yan University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Guoxing Yu University of Bristol, UK
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  • Manuscript Submission Guidelines: Language Testing

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Language Testing will be reviewed. Please note that this journal only publishes manuscripts in English.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this journal unless the author chooses the SAGE Choice open access option (please see section 3.3 for further information).

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    Please see our guidelines on prior publication and note that Language Testing may accept submissions of papers that have been posted on pre-print servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the journal's author archiving policy.

    If your paper is accepted, you must include a link on your preprint to the final version of your paper.

    1. What do we publish?
      1.1 Aims & Scope
      1.2 Article types
      1.3 Writing your paper
    2. Editorial policies
      2.1 Peer review policy
      2.2 Authorship
      2.3 Notes
      2.4 Acknowledgements
      2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
      2.6 Funding
    3. Publishing policies
      3.1 Publication ethics
      3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
      3.3 Open access and author archiving
    4. Preparing your manuscript
      4.1 Formatting
      4.2 Anonymizing your manuscript
      4.3 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      4.4 Supplementary material
      4.5 Video abstracts
      4.6 Open Science Badges
      4.7 Reference style
      4.8 English language editing services
    5. Submitting your manuscript
      5.1 ORCID
      5.2 Information required for completing your submission
      5.3 Permissions
    6. On acceptance and publication
      6.1 SAGE Production
      6.2 Online First publication
      6.3 Access to your published article
      6.4 Promoting your article
    7. Further information

    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to Language Testing, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope

    1.2 Article Types

    Language Testing publishes the following article types:

    Original articles: Language Testing publishes Original articles (maximum 9,000 words all inclusive, except the 200-word abstract; see section 4). Original articles focus on the testing and assessment of language for a range of purposes, whether educational or professional, and in diverse contexts, including first language, second or foreign language, bilingual and/or multilingual situations. Equal preference is given to empirically based and theoretical articles. Empirical articles should report empirical research bearing upon theoretical issues. Theoretical articles should offer a critical review and analysis of a theoretical issue that is of current interest to the field. Alternatively, theoretical articles may discuss implications of theory or research for practical testing. Where possible and appropriate, authors should supply sufficient information, including test texts and items, to enable replication of investigations (see 4.3, Supplemental materials). Lack of statistically significant results, or difficulty in drawing clear conclusions, will not necessarily rule out publication of interesting contributions. Empirical papers that use significance testing should as a matter of course provide effect sizes and confidence intervals.

    Reviews: Language Testing publishes two types of reviews: Book Reviews (maximum 1,500 words all inclusive), and Test Reviews (maximum 4,000 words, all inclusive). These submissions are normally commissioned by the editors. Non-commissioned offers to review recent publications or assessments can be submitted, however, the offers should first be emailed to the editors for approval.

    The editors will send calls to welcome ideas and suggestions from potential guest editors for special issues of the journal that focus on topical themes (Special Issue Proposals). Calls will be sent out on language testing, educational measurement, and applied linguistics listservs. Calls will typically go out in January or February for special issues to be published two years later.

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The SAGE Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. If you are submitting a manuscript based on a dissertation or thesis, see these tips. Note: APA 7th updates are here.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable

    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

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    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy


    Language Testing is a fully peer reviewed international journal that publishes original research and review articles on Language Testing and assessment.

    In order to ensure the publication of only the highest quality articles and reviews an objective process of peer reviewed is rigorously applied. Together with the editors, the referees play a vitally important role in maintaining the exceptionally high standards of the journal.

    Review Procedures

    All manuscripts are reviewed initially by the editors and only those papers that meet the standards of the journal, and fit within its aims and scope, are sent for outside review. Upon initial review, if one of the editors feels that a manuscript does not meet the required standards, the co-editor is sent an anonymous copy of the submission and asked to confirm the decision. Should the editors concur, the decision not to send for external review is final. Submissions that are rejected at this stage may not fit with the aims and scope of the journal, may not be sufficiently original, may contain serious methodological flaws, be unintelligible, or draw unwarranted conclusions from data presented.

    If the editors decide that a submission be sent for external review, it will be sent to at least two reviewers, and normally three. All manuscripts are sent anonymously in order to ensure unbiased consideration by the referees. Any other indications of authorship are removed in order to ensure that publication is not dependent upon irrelevant factors such as race, gender, religion, ethnicity or political commitment.

    Submissions are normally reviewed within 2 months of submission, although due to the rigorous blind peer review system this sometimes takes longer. Authors should expect a decision on a submission within 3 months.

    Commissioned Papers

    From time to time the editors may commission papers for Language Testing, normally for anniversary or special issues. Commissioned papers are sent for review by two or three external reviewers, and the reviews evaluated by the editors in the same way as for all other submissions. A commission therefore does not imply that the submission will be published.

    Book and Test Reviews

    Book and Test Reviews are commissioned by the book and test review editor respectively. Reviews represent the considered professional view of the expert in question, and publication is dependent upon review by the relevant editor and the co-editors of Language Testing. Reviews are not normally subject to the multiple-blind peer review system that is operated for all other submissions.

    Selection of Reviewers and Timelines

    The editors of Language Testing select reviewers from the international Editorial Board, or from the international Language Testing community, on the grounds of their expertise to judge the suitability for publication of the submission concerned. All reviewers are qualified and experienced academics with the highest possible reputation in their field, including, in many cases, a history of publishing in Language Testing.

    Reviewers are normally asked to complete reviews within six weeks of receiving a manuscript, although this may be longer depending upon a reviewer’s other commitments.

    Reviewer Guidelines

    Reviewers are asked to judge the suitability of submissions on the following criteria:

    • Published articles, empirical or theoretical, must be original and must make a significant contribution to knowledge in the field of language testing.
    • An article should relate reported findings or proposed theoretical contribution to existing knowledge. This is generally to be accomplished through a competent and critical review of the relevant literature.
    • Research articles, whether quantitative or qualitative in approach, should be based on new data collected and analysed in a rigorous and well-designed investigation. Reanalyses of “old” data may be used to support theoretical contributions.

    Decision Making

    Reviewers make recommend that a submission be (a) rejected, (b) revised and resubmitted, (c) accepted for publication with minor amendments, or (d) accepted for publication forthwith. In the case of (c) the editors may ask one or more of the reviewers to ‘sign off’ on amendments, or undertake this task themselves. When manuscripts are revised and resubmitted the editors make every attempt to ask the original reviewers to consider the manuscript again and evaluate it against the specific recommendations made in the first review. If for any reason a reviewer declines to take part in a second review, the editors will attempt to find a replacement reviewer.

    The final decision to publish or reject remains with the editors.

    Conflict of Interest

    If one of the editors, colleague or a student of an editor submits a manuscript to Language Testing, the co-editor steers the manuscript through the review process and keeps the names of the reviewers from the other. No editor takes any decisions or responsibility for the review process of their own work, or the work of a close colleague, student or friend.

    If a reviewer recognizes the author of a paper as a colleague, student or friend, they refuse to take part in the review process.

    Feedback to Reviewers

    Under normal circumstances, anonymous copies of all reviews are circulated to the reviewers within one month of a decision being taken on a manuscript, together with an indication of the decision made. This maintains an open and transparent process, and helps newer reviewers to understand the review process.

    Copies of reviews are not always circulated to reviewers of commissioned papers.

    Feedback to Authors

    Authors are provided with a decision on their manuscript together with anonymous copies of the reviews, usually within two weeks of a decision being made. Where manuscripts are accepted for publication subject to amendments, a timeline for making the amendments is agreed.

    2.2 Authorship

    All parties who have made a substantive contribution to the article should be listed as authors. Principal authorship, authorship order, and other publication credits should be based on the relative scientific or professional contributions of the individuals involved, regardless of their status. A student is usually listed as principal author on any multiple-authored publication that substantially derives from the student’s dissertation or thesis.

    2.3 Notes

    Language Testing requires authors to manually enter Notes at the end of their manuscript as Notes (do not use Footnotes or Endnotes). Notes are optional, and should be economically used and as brief as possible. In text where you want to reference a Note, add in a superscript number. The Notes section should have the notes numerically listed. The Notes should appear at the end of the article, prior to the References.

    2.4 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    During initial manuscript submission, any Acknowledgements should appear at the bottom of your Title Page. After a manuscript is accepted for publication and authors are asked by the editor to un-blind the manuscript to prepare it for publication, authors should move the Acknowledgements from the Title Page to the Main Manuscript: After un-blinding, the Acknowledgments should appear at the end of the article after any Notes and before the References.

    2.4.1 Third party submissions

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
    • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
    • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, SAGE reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    Language Testing encourages authors to include a declaration of any conflicting interests and recommends you review the good practice guidelines on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway. In the online submission system, you will be asked, “Do you have any potential or perceived conflicts of interest?” and you must click “Yes” or “No.” If you select “Yes,” you will be prompted to enter information concerning these conflicts into a textbox.

    2.6 Funding

    Language Testing requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. In the online submission system, you will be asked, “Is there funding to report for this submission?” and you must click “Yes” or “No.” If you select “Yes,” you will be prompted to enter information on the funder (name of the funder; grant/award number). You may report multiple funders. Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

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    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway.

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    Language Testing and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication, SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. SAGE’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants SAGE the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than SAGE. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the SAGE Author Gateway.

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    Language Testing offers optional open access publishing via the SAGE Choice programme. For more information please visit the SAGE Choice website. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit SAGE Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.

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    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    Manuscripts should include at a minimum a title page and a separate main manuscript. The title page should contain all author details, ORCID ID (see section 5.1), and affiliations, as well as any acknowledgements. The manuscript should be fully anonymized (blinded) as outlined in section 4.2.

    Original submissions should be 9,000 words maximum in length, inclusive of Notes (see 2.3), MS Word formatted Figures or Tables (see 4.2), and References (see 4.7). The abstract should be no more than 200 words, and is entered separately in the online submission system into a textbox entitled “Abstract.” The abstract thus does not count toward the 9,000-word limit.

    Your affiliation in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was carried out, and that address must be retained as the main affiliation address. If you have changed affiliation since completing the research, your new affiliation will be indicated as a footnote to your name in an Author Note section. Changes to affiliation after submitting your manuscript to LT should be considered as exceptional circumstances on an ad hoc basis and only if approved by the journal Editors and by the Publisher. Changes to affiliation cannot normally be made after the article is accepted. Changes to affiliation cannot be made after publication of the article in an issue of the journal.

    If you are in doubt about your affiliation, please contact LT editorial office at: Dylan Burton


    4.1 Formatting

    Microsoft Word is the preferred word processor for your manuscript. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    Avoid unnecessary formatting and use a standard font for your text. Times New Roman/Times and Arial are preferred. Refer to the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) for information on preparing the manuscript and for writing style guidelines.

    The text of the manuscript must be “left-aligned, double-spaced paragraphs, with the first line of each paragraph indented by one tab key” (0.5 inches, or one centimeter), as described in the 7th edition (2020) Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), on page 39. The Notes and reference list should be double-spaced as well.

    Please see Chapter 2 of the APA guidelines 7th edition (2020) for more information on how to format other aspects of your paper, including organizational features such as headings.

    4.2 Anonymizing your manuscript

    Language Testing uses a double-blind peer review system, and it is therefore important that manuscripts are free of any information that might identify an author. To anonymize your manuscript, please check the following:

    1. Acknowledgements and (grant/award) Funding information should not be included in the main document. The Acknowledgements should be added to the Title Page (see 2.4). Authors will be prompted to enter a funding declaration in the online submission system (see 2.6). These will be added at the time the manuscript is sent into production.
    2. Self-citations and external reference to your own research should be minimized. If you wish to refer to methodological tools or instruments you developed which are published in another study, please upload these as supplementary material for peer-review only. At the end of the peer-review process you may remove these supplementary materials and add in citations to your own published work.
    3. If it is necessary to explicitly refer to your previously published work, please ensure that it is blinded; that is, made completely anonymous with no identifiable information included. For the reference section and parenthetical citations, refer to your work as "Author. (Year)." For multiple references, you may use "Year 1", "Year 2", etc. Please ensure that these blinded references are in alphabetical order in the reference section; in other words, "Author" should be in the "A" section or alternatively at the top of the reference list. Do not place your reference in the order your name would usually appear in. Please ensure that your and your co-author's name(s), year of publication, title of publication, and all other accompanying information are removed or anonymized. For in-text citations, e.g., "Jones (2016) argued …", you may change these to "Author (Year) argued". References should similarly be "Author(s) (Year)" or "Author and Co-Author (Year)".
    4. Any other information that could reveal the authors or their participants should be blinded. For example, instead of writing, "The data were collected at Georgetown University," for the purposes of a blind review, the authors should write, "The data were collected at X University" or "The data were collected at a large/national university in [Country name]."

    4.3 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of the manuscript, including the formatting of Figures and Tables, please use the guidelines in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA). However, be aware that in the online submission form, Figures and Tables originally made outside of Microsoft (MS) Word should be uploaded to the system as separate files (as described below). Figures or Tables made in MS Word should appear at the end of manuscript, as shown in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA).

    Please follow the guidelines below to enable us to prepare your artwork for the printed issue as well as the online version.

    Placement of Figures or Tables created in MS Word: Figures or Tables created in MS Word should be included at the end of the manuscript (after the References and any Appendices), ideally one Figure or Table per page, as indicated in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA). Please add a placeholder note in the running text (i.e., “[Insert Figure 1.]”) indicating where, approximately, the Figure or Table should appear after typesetting. Enter the text to be displayed with the Figure or Table (i.e., the title or a note) on the page with the Figure or Table, as indicated in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA).

    Uploading of Figures or Tables created outside of Word: Figures or Tables created outside of MS Word (i.e., TIFF, JPEG, JPG, EPS, PDF, Excel, PowerPoint) should be submitted separately under “File Upload” in the online submission system, one file for each Figure or Table. Add a placeholder note in the running text (i.e., “[Insert Figure 1.]”) indicating where, approximately, the Figure or Table should appear after typesetting. For each Figure or Table that you separately upload, you should enter the caption or legend (text displayed with the image; usually a brief description) into the “Caption/Legend” textbox that appears in the online submission system. Additionally, under “Link text” in the online submission system, type in the name of the file as you wrote it in the running text (i.e., “Figure 1”) so that when this text is found in your document, it will link to the selected file. Please follow the guides (a) through (e) below on how to format your Figure or Table created outside of MS Word.

    a. Format: TIFF or JPEG are preferred. These are the common format for pictures (or Figures) with no text or graphs. EPS is the preferred format for graphs and line art (retains quality when enlarging/zooming in).

    b. Resolution: Rasterized based files (i.e., .tiff or .jpeg extension) require a resolution of at least 300 dpi (dots per inch). Line art should be supplied with a minimum resolution of 800 dpi.

    c. Colour: Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from SAGE after receipt of your accepted article.

    d. Dimension: Check that the artworks supplied match or exceed the dimensions of the journal. Images cannot be scaled up after origination.

    e. Fonts: The lettering used in the artwork should not vary too much in size and type (usually Arial as a default).

    4.4 Supplementary material

    Language Testing is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, videos, images, etc.) alongside the full-text of the article. We strongly encourage authors to archive their datasets (and analysis models where appropriate, e.g., R Code) in an open repository. Any datafiles submitted for publication as supplemental material will be hosted as open data in Figshare by SAGE automatically. For more information, please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files.

    4.5 Video abstracts

    Language Testing is allows authors to have a link to a Video Abstract from the Table of Contents on SAGE. You may additionally place a URL to your Video Abstract into the Acknowledgements section of your paper. If the URL is long, consider using a URL shortener so that you can link to the video through a short URL in the Acknowledgements. SAGE provides guidelines on how to make a Video Abstract. Within your Video Abstract, encourage viewers to download your article. Invite viewers to ask questions via your Twitter or Facebook page (maybe suggest a hashtag). For more ideas, search the internet for tips on Video Abstract creation, or visit these sites:

    4.6 Open Science Badges

    Articles accepted to Language Testing are eligible to earn up to three badges that recognize open scientific practices: research preregistration, publicly available data, and publicly available materials. If you wish to apply for the Preregistered, Open Data, or Open Materials badges, please take the following steps: 1) mention this intention in your cover letter, 2) select the badges applicable to you in the submission panel under "Open Science Badges", 3) complete the "Language Testing Open Science Badges Disclosure Form", and 4) include the disclosure form with your submission (upload your completed disclosure form within the online submission system under the "File Upload" section and select "OSF Disclosure Form" as the file type). To qualify for a preregistration, Open Data or Open Materials badge, you must provide a URL, doi, or other permanent path for accessing the specified information in a public, open-access repository; it should be time-stamped and immutable. Qualifying public, open-access repositories are committed to preserving data, materials, and/or registered analysis plans and keeping them publicly accessible via the web in perpetuity. Examples include the Open Science Framework (OSF) and the various Dataverse networks. Hundreds of other qualifying data/materials repositories are listed at Personal websites and most departmental websites do not qualify as repositories. For more information about the badges and how to earn them, please see the OSF Wiki.

    4.7 Reference style

    Language Testing follows the American Psychological Association (APA) reference style. Refer to the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association to review the guidelines on APA to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style. Please include Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) in the format When there is no DOI, add in the stable URL if available. See the following two examples:

    Plough, I. (2018). Revisiting the speaking construct: The question of interactional competence. Language Testing, 35(3), 325-329.

    Sato, T. (2018). The gap between communicative ability measurements: General-purpose English speaking tests and linguistic laypersons’ judgements. Papers in Language Testing and Assessment, 7(1), 1-31.

    4.8 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    5. Submitting your manuscript

    Language Testing is hosted on SAGE Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities ensuring that their work is recognised.

    The collection of ORCID IDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID ID you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID ID will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID ID is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID ID please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    5.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the SAGE Author Gateway.

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 SAGE Production

    Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly.  Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. Please note that if there are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to complete and sign a form authorising the change.

    6.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the SAGE Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    SAGE provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice. 

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    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Language Testing editorial office as follows:

    Dylan Burton, Administrator

    Luke Harding, Editor
    Senior Lecturer
    Department of Linguistics and English Language
    Lancaster University
    United Kingdom

    Paula Winke, Editor
    Associate Professor of Second Language Studies
    Department of Linguistics and Languages
    Michigan State State University
    B252 Wells Hall
    East Lansing, MI 48824

    Slobodanka Dimova, Book Review Editor
    Associate Professor
    Department of English, Germanic and Romance Studies
    University of Copenhagen
    Emil Holms Kanal 6, Njalsgade 128, Office: 24.2
    2300 Copenhagen S, KUA1

    Ofra Inbar, Test Review Editor
    School of Education
    Tel-Aviv University
    P.O. Box 39040
    Tel Aviv 6997801

    Institutional Print subscription inclusive of free online access