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Journal of Early Intervention

Journal of Early Intervention

eISSN: 21543992 | ISSN: 10538151 | Current volume: 45 | Current issue: 4 Frequency: Quarterly

The Journal of Early Intervention (JEI) offers articles related to research and practice in early intervention for infants and young children with special needs and their families. Early intervention is broadly defined as procedures that facilitate the development of infants and young children who have special needs or who are at risk for developmental disabilities. Key features include research reports, scholarly reviews, policy analyses, research methods, and conceptual papers.

Journal of Early Intervention is available online through the SAGE Journals Platform at


The Journal of Early Intervention (JEI) publishes articles related to research and practice in early intervention for infants and young children with special needs and their families. Early intervention is defined broadly as procedures that facilitate the development of infants and young children who have special needs or who are at risk for developmental disabilities. The childhood years in which early intervention might occur begin at birth, or before birth for some prevention programs, and extend through the years in which children traditionally begin elementary school.

Authors are strongly encouraged to submit the following types of manuscripts to JEI: (a) research reports that have clear relevance for early intervention practices, (b) scholarly reviews that have implications for practice, (c) policy analyses that contain implications for the practice of early intervention, and (d) conceptual papers. Of particular interest are manuscripts that address issues in early intervention for infants and young children and their families who are members of minority or culturally diverse groups and reports of early intervention research and practice in other countries.

Brian A. Boyd University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Brian Reichow University of Connecticut, USA
Managing Editor
James D. Lee University of Washington, USA
Associate Editors
Erin Barton Vanderbilt University, USA
Catherine Corr University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA
Doré LaForett Child Trends and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA
Hedda Meadan University of Illinois, USA
Kristen N. Missall University of Washington, USA
Lindee J. Morgan Emory University, USA
Beth Rous University of Kentucky
Elizabeth Steed University of Colorado Denver, USA
Dale Walker University of Kansas, USA
Editorial Board
Harriet Able University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA
Yusuf Akemoglu The University of Alabama, USA
Kathleen Artman Meeker University of Washington, USA
Sally Atkins-Burnett Mathematica Policy Research, USA
Kathleen Baggett Georgia State University
Stefano Bagnato University of Pittsburgh, USA
Bethany Bell University of Virginia, USA
Crystal Bishop University of Florida, USA
Patricia M. Blasco Oregon Health & Science University, USA
William H. Brown University of South Carolina, USA
Mary Beth Bruder University of Connecticut, USA
Deborah Bruns Southern Illinois University Carbondale, USA
Virginia Buysse American Institutes for Research, USA
Jay Buzhardt University of Kansas, Juniper Gardens Research Center, USA
Judith Carta University of Kansas, USA
Lynette Chandler Northern Illinois University, USA
Gregory A. Cheatham University of Kansas, USA
Maureen Conroy University of Florida, USA
Christan Grygas Coogle George Mason University, USA
Vivian Correa University of North Carolina-Charlotte, USA
Karen Diamond Purdue University, USA
Glen Dunlap University of Nevada, USA
Lillian Duran University of Oregon, USA
Nicole Edwards Rowan University, USA
Angel Fettig University of Washington, USA
Kandace Fleming University of Kansas, USA
Veronica P. Fleury Florida State University, USA
Lise Fox University of South Florida, USA
Howard Goldstein University of South Florida, USA
Heather Googe University of South Carolina, USA
Charles Greenwood University of Kansas, USA
Fred Greer University of South Carolina, USA
Jennifer Grisham-Brown University of Kentucky, USA
Laura Hall San Diego State University, USA
James W. Halle University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Mary Louise Hemmeter Vanderbilt University, USA
Nicole Hendrix Emory University, USA
Robin Hojnoski Lehigh University, USA
Eva Horn University of Kansas, USA
Mark Innocenti Utah State University, USA
Iheoma Iruka University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA
Dwight Irvin University of Florida, USA
Lee Ann Jung Lead Inclusion
Louise A. Kaczmarek University of Pittsburg, USA
Ann Kaiser Vanderbilt University, USA
Herman Knopf University of Florida, USA
Justin Lane University of Kentucky, USA
Karen LaParo University of North Carolina-Greensboro, USA
Ann Larson University of Minnesota, USA
Anne Larson University of Minnesota, USA
Jennifer Ledford Vanderbilt University, USA
Rebecca G. Lieberman-Betz University of Georgia, USA
Karin Lifter Northeastern University, USA
Hailey Love University of Wisconsin, Madison
Bonnie McBride University of Oklahoma, USA
Scott McConnell University of Minnesota, USA
Laura McCorkle University of North Carolina-Charlotte, USA
Debra McKeown Texas A&M University, USA
Tara Way McLaughlin Massey University, USA
Mary McLean University of Florida, USA
Robin McWilliam The University of Alabama, USA
Ann Mickelson University of North Carolina-Charlotte
Alicia Mrachko Bowling Green State University, USA
Courtney O'Grady University of Alabama, USA
Samuel L. Odom University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA
Michaelene M. Ostrosky University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Jamie Pearson North Carolina State University, USA
Carla A. Peterson Iowa State University, USA
Salih Rakap Ondokuz Mayis University, Turkey
Amy Reschly University of Georgia, USA
Mollie Romano Florida State University, USA
Cordelia Rosenberg University of Colorado School of Medicine, USA
Nancy Rosenberg University of Washington, USA
Susan Sandall University of Washington, USA
Rosa Santos University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Hannah Schertz Indiana University, USA
Ilene Schwartz University of Washington, USA
M'Lisa Shelden Western Carolina Center, USA
Stephanie Shire University of Oregon, USA
John Sideris University of Southern California, USA
Michael Siller Emory University, USA
Patricia A. Snyder University of Florida, USA
Scott Snyder University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA
Jane K. Squires University of Oregon, USA
Aubyn C. Stahmer University of California-Davis MIND Institute, USA
Tina Stanton-Chapman University of Cincinnati, USA
Vicki D. Stayton Western Kentucky University, USA
Sloan Storie University of Cincinnati, USA
Phil Strain University of Colorado at Denver, USA
Sarintha Buras Stricklin Innovations in Education, LLC, USA
Jessica Suhrheinrich San Diego State University, USA
Yasemin Turan San Diego State University, USA
Giacomo Vivanti Drexel University, USA
Linn Wakeford University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA
Steven Warren University of Kansas, USA
M. Jeanne Wilcox Arizona State University, USA
Amanda Williford University of Virginia
Michael Willoughby RTI International, USA
Katie Wolfe University of South Carolina, USA
Juliann Woods Florida State University, USA
Paul Yoder Vanderbilt University, USA
SeonYeong Yu University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA
Kathleen Zimmerman University of Kansas, USA
Methodological Consultants
Kandace Fleming University of Kansas, USA
Jennifer Ledford Vanderbilt University, USA
Joan Lieber University of Maryland
John Sideris University of Southern California, USA
John Sideris University of Southern California, USA
Division for Early Education Executive Board
Darla Gundler President
Megan Purcell President Elect
Jenna Weglarz-Ward Vice President
Amanda Quesenberry Past President
LaShorage Shaffer Secretary
Jessica K. Hardy Treasurer
Krista Scott Member-at-Large
Justin Lane Member-at-Large
Victor James Young Member-at-Large
Peggy Kemp Executive Director
Diana Stanfill Associate Director
  • CABI: CAB Abstracts
  • Clarivate Analytics: Current Contents - Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences
  • Contents Pages in Education (T&F)
  • ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children
  • ERIC Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE)
  • Educational Research Abstracts Online (T&F)
  • NISC
  • PsycINFO
  • Scopus
  • Social Sciences Citation Index (Web of Science)
  • Guidelines for Authors

    The Co-Editors and Associate Editors of the Journal of Early Intervention (JEI) seek to publish articles related to research and practice in early intervention for infants and young children with developmental disabilities, delays, or at risk for developmental delays; their families and individuals who provide services for these children and families. Early intervention is defined broadly as procedures that facilitate the development of infants and young children who have developmental delays or disabilities or who are at risk for developmental delays and/or school failure.

    Our goals are to publish reports of original research, literature reviews and meta-analyses, conceptual analyses of problems and issues the field faces, and advances in research methods. Research should be interpreted broadly to include any replicable method (e.g., single case experimental studies, group experimental studies, causal comparative studies, correlational studies, descriptive studies, and qualitative studies). Manuscripts should focus on topics related to young children (birth through age 8) who are at risk for or have developmental delays or disabilities, their families, individuals who provide services to such children and families, and research methods. As a general guideline, the majority of the child participants in research reported in the journal should be age 8 or less and a majority of child participants should be at risk for or having developmental delays or disabilities.

    Authors are encouraged to submit the following types of manuscripts to JEI:

    1. Research Reports
      Research reports are descriptions of original investigations related to any aspect of EI. Diverse methodologies, including experimental studies using group or single-subject designs, descriptive studies using observational or survey methodologies, and qualitative investigations, are welcome. While the journal has not officially endorsed CONSORT standards of reporting experimental trials (see, the journal is moving in this direction and authors are strongly encouraged to review and adhere to many of the guidelines.
    2. Brief Reports
      Brief Reports are original research studies of a preliminary nature (e.g., involve a relatively small number of participants, use a quasi-experimental design, are under-powered) on an important and emerging topic that may not meet the demands of scientific rigor required of a research report. These reports are shorter than most other submissions (approximately 20 double-spaced, typed pages, including references, tables, and figures) and contain fewer tables and figures (usually no more than one table and one figure). They should include the same sections as original research studies (i.e., Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion), but be briefer (especially the Introduction and Discussion) with fewer citations/references (only the key references should be included).
    3. Research Method Reports
      Research method reports are descriptions of advances in research methods in research related to early intervention or novel applications of advanced methods from related fields with a description of how they can be used to advance research related to early intervention
    4. Systematic Reviews (which may include a Meta-Analysis)
      Systematic reviews consist of systematic quantitative and/or qualitative syntheses of research. Manuscripts submitted in this category may contain a statistical synthesis across study results (i.e., a meta-analysis), and should be submitted as a systematic review and not a research report. While the journal has not officially endorsed PRISMA standards of reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses (see, the journal is moving in this direction and authors are strongly encouraged to review and adhere to many of the guidelines.

    5. Theoretical, Conceptual, or Position Papers or Policy Analyses (by invitation only)
      Theoretical or Conceptual Papers are authoritative examinations of the theoretical or conceptual perspectives underlying significant and topical issues. Position papers are manuscripts that intended to advance the field’s understanding of an emerging or controversial issue, generate discussion related to a topical issue in the field, or both. Policy papers are critical analyses of policy or legal issues that impact young children with or at risk for disabilities and their families and caregivers. Authors must obtain the approval of the editors prior to submitting a manuscript of these types.

    The readers of the JEI are a diverse group which includes researchers and practitioners. Many readers are early interventionists, early childhood special educators or professionals in related areas working with young children, their interests are best represented in articles that have clear implications for practice and practitioners.

    Manuscript Preparation

    The Co-Editors and Associate Editors of the Journal of Early Intervention employ an anonymized peer review process to promote anonymous and constructive reviews of any manuscripts submitted. The editorial team requires that all manuscripts submitted for review follow the formatting rules and conventions of the American Psychological Association found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.; all page and chapter numbers in parentheses below refer to that publication):

    1. Manuscript Preparation (pages 381-384)
    2. Paper Elements and Format (Chapter 2)
    3. Writing Style and Grammar (Chapter 4)
    4. Presentation of data (for Table and Figure checklists see Chapter 7)

    Manuscript Formatting

    1. Articles should be formatted in the following manner: (a) double spaced, (b) 1 inch margins, (c) left alignment, (d) nonproportional font and 12-point font [preferably Times New Roman 12-point font], and (e) on 8 ½ inch by 11 inch paper.
    2. Articles should be no longer than 35 pages total (including all references, tables, and figures).
    3. Because JEI uses anonymize peer review, please remove all authors’ identifying information from the main manuscript file before uploading and submitting or resubmitting your manuscript.
    4. The title page should consist of five elements: (a) running head of no more than 50 characters, (b) title of no more than 12 words, (c) author byline, (d) institutional affiliation, and (e) author note (see pages 35-37).
    5. The page after the title page should include (a) an abstract of no more than 150 words and (b) 4 to 5 keywords.
    6. The complete title of the manuscript should appear centered on the first page of the manuscript above the first paragraph.
    7. Use fist line indentation for new paragraphs, using the tab key (page 45-46).
    8. Quotations of 40 or more words should be "blocked" (pages 272-273).
    9. Use hanging indents for references in your Reference section (pages 39-40).
    10. Content footnotes should be used as sparingly as possible (pages 40-41). 
    11. Accompanying figures and tables should be entered as separate files. Each should be mentioned in text by its number but location of each will be determined by the publisher after pages are typeset.
    12. Appendices and supplemental materials are discussed on pages 41-43. When possible, avoid such materials. Submitted appendices and supplemental materials will be reviewed carefully for inclusion.

    Writing Guidelines

    1. Avoid biased language.
    2. Employ “people first language” when referring to an individual or group (e.g., children with developmental delays, an adult with autism, children with Down syndrome).
    3. Manuscript narrative should be written in the active voice (e.g., “The teachers assessed participants daily...”).
    4. Avoid the passive voice (e.g., “Participants were assessed by the teachers daily…”).
    5. Carefully avoid anthropomorphisms. An experiment cannot find or demonstrate results; the experimenter does that.
    6. Avoid shifting tenses abruptly, particularly within paragraphs and related subsections.
      1. Use the past tense when referring to what has been written (i.e., past events and statements) and to report the results of a study.
      2. Use the present perfect tense to indicate a past action or condition beginning in the past for a period of time or that continues to the present (i.e., when the timing of the action, condition, or event is indefinite).
      3. The present perfect tense is appropriate when discussing a line of research that has relevance today (e.g., “Social interaction researchers have shown...”).
      4. Use the present tense in the Discussion section to discuss the basic findings and implications your research and to articulate your conclusions and opinions (this convention invites the reader to think along with you).
    7. Remember that you should not be interpreting your findings in the Results section. Also do not introduce new data or findings in the Discussion section.
    8. Whenever possible and if not referring to a specific individual, use plural constructions for participants or people you discuss throughout the paper (e.g., “teachers...” vs. “the teacher...,” “children” vs. “the child”); this helps avoid gender-specific language. Avoid the generalized singular (e.g., “the teacher,” “the individual with learning disabilities”).
    9. Give credit to other authors when you use their ideas or their information and provide appropriate citations for important points that are made in the manuscript (see Chapter 8, Works Credited in the Text, pages 253-278). All quotations require a citation and the specific page number of the material quoted.

    Figures and Data Display

    1. Figures must be provided as production-ready.
    2. Do not use rules or tick marks smaller than 1 point in size.
    3. Acceptable electronic formats for figures or other art are: TIFF, EPS, Word, or Excel. If you have trouble loading Excel files, copy and paste them into a Word document.
    4. Scans must be at least 300 dpi (also sometimes called lpi).


    1. Obtaining written permissions for material such as figures, tables, art, and extensive quotes taken directly—or adapted in minor ways—from another source, including material taken from software of downloaded from the Internet, is the author’s responsibility, as is payment of any fees the copyright holder may require.
    2. Because permissions often take a considerable amount of time to be granted, authors should start the request process as soon as possible.
    3. The Sage Permissions Request form is available at The form has been written to cover all necessary provisions; however, copyright holders may require use of their own form. In these cases, the author should read any forms carefully to make sure that the language is broad enough to allow publication in all formats, worldwide, as well as in both electronic and print versions.
    4. Failure to obtain permission will result in either removal of the particular item or the article being pulled from the journal issue.

    Electronic Manuscript Submission

    JEI uses an online submission and review platform. Manuscripts should be submitted electronically to Authors will be required to set up an online account on the Sage Track system powered by ScholarOne. Authors will be asked to provide the required information (e.g., author names and contact information, an abstract, keywords) and to upload the “title page” and “main document” separately to ensure that the manuscript is ready for an anonymize peer review. The site contains links to an online user’s guide for help navigating the site (Get Help Now). Questions about the submission process can be sent to the Co-Editors or to the JEI Editorial Assistant.

    Manuscript Review Process

    Manuscripts will be acknowledged upon receipt. Each manuscript will be assigned to one of the Co-Editors who examine the manuscript for content and format. Manuscripts not meeting the guidelines for content or format may be returned to the author at this point. This Co-Editor will either act as the action editor or assign the manuscript to an Associate Editor who will act as the action editor for review process oversight. The Co-Editors and Associate Editors will assign the manuscript to three or four qualified reviewers; additional reviews may be solicited from the JEI statistical consultants. The review process will be “double-anonymize,” in that the reviewers will not know who the authors are and vice versa. Our goal is to inform the authors of the editorial decision about their manuscript within 3 months. After an initial review decision, revisions of the manuscript may be requested and additional reviews of the manuscript may be obtained before acceptance.


    After your article has been accepted for publication, authors will be required to sign a Transfer of Copyright form.

    If you or your funder wish your article to be freely available online to nonsubscribers immediately upon publication (gold open access), you can opt for it to be included in Sage Choice, subject to the payment of a publication fee. The manuscript submission and peer review procedure is unchanged. On acceptance of your article, you will be asked to let Sage know directly if you are choosing Sage Choice. To check journal eligibility and the publication fee, please visit Sage Choice. For more information on open access options and compliance at Sage, including self/author archiving deposits (green open access) visit Sage Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.


    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    For more information, please refer to the Sage Manuscript Submission Guidelines.

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