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Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association

Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association

eISSN: 15325725 | ISSN: 10783903 | Current volume: 30 | Current issue: 3 Frequency: Bi-monthly

Nurses Turn to JAPNA for Cutting Edge Information on Psychiatric Nursing Practice, Education, and Research...

The Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association (JAPNA) provides quality, up-to-date information to: promote psychiatric nursing, improve mental health care for culturally diverse individuals, families, groups, and communities, and shape health care policy for the delivery of mental health services.

JAPNA, a peer-reviewed journal, publishes both clinical and research articles relevant to psychiatric nursing. Authors describe critical and timely analyses of the emerging issues and trends in psychiatric nursing, and present innovative models of practice related to mental health care systems. JAPNA publishes original research, review, and practice-focused articles that include continuing education credit, as well as brief reports, quality improvement, and discussion articles, and letters to the editors. The Journal’s expert content provides psychiatric nurses with the most up-to-date evidence-based nursing practices, innovative therapeutic approaches, significant information trends, and useful, clinically focused research in psychiatric mental health nursing and its related subspecialties.

In JAPNA, the reader will find timely, peer-reviewed content aimed at a wide audience of psychiatric nurses, advancing scholarship through:

  • Education, clinical, and practice-focused articles
  • Original research articles
  • Features on topics such as health policy and psychopharmacology
  • Significant news from the American Psychiatric Nurses Association

Practice-focused articles address important topics on:

  • Psychiatric disorders and mental health, including substance use and trauma
  • Regulatory issues for psychiatric mental health nurses
  • Staffing and other issues relevant to psychiatric mental health nurses
  • Community mental health practice and emergency care

JAPNA publishes a blend of unique features and authoritative content making it one of the most respected publications in psychiatric nursing. Subscribe today or recommend this important journal to your institutional librarian! If your library subscribes, you and your colleagues will receive online access for FREE!

The Journal also occasionally complements its broad coverage with supplements (with continuing education credit) on a particular mental health condition, including current treatments and management strategies.

As a primary source of evidence-based and innovative scholarship for practice, education, administration, and research in psychiatric nursing, the editors of the Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association are committed to integrating principles of diversity, equity, and inclusion throughout the journal’s editorial and review processes. We recognize that to publish scholarship that contributes to greater understanding and promotion of health equity in psychiatric-mental health care, our authors, reviewers, and editorial board members must reflect the composition of the population we serve. We are committed to outreach and professional development to support inclusion for authors, reviewers, and editorial board members and strongly encourage authors to address and recommend innovative solutions
pertaining to diversity, equity, and inclusion in their submitted manuscripts.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

The Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association (JAPNA) is the official journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association and has the largest readership of psychiatric-mental health nurse academics and scientists, at RN and advanced practice levels, of any nursing specialty journal. A bimonthly peer-reviewed journal, JAPNA serves as a mechanism for global dissemination and dialogue among nurses and health care professionals involved in the science, education, and service delivery related to mental health and substance use conditions. The main goal of the journal is to publish scholarship (original research, review, and practice-focused articles that include continuing education credit, as well as brief reports, quality improvement, and discussion articles, and letters to the editors) that contributes both to knowledge development and continuum of care from mental health promotion and mental illness prevention to psychiatric treatment and recovery at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of prevention across the lifespan.

View the journal's various indexing metrics here:

Geraldine S. Pearson, PhD, PMH-CNS, APRN, FAAN UCONN School of Medicine - Retired, Farmington, CT, USA
Associate Editor
Michelle DeCoux Hampton, RN, PhD, MS Stanford Health Care, Menlo Park, CA, USA
Managing Editor
Kristen Overstreet, BA Origin Editorial, LLC, Arvada, CO, USA
Editorial Board
Susie Adams, PhD, APRN, PMHNP-BC, PMHCNS-BC, FAAN Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
Linda Beeber, PhD, RN, CS University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Genevieve E. Chandler, PhD, RN University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA
Jeanne Clement, EdD, APRN, PMHCNS- BC, FAAN The Ohio University, Columbus, OH, USA
Claire Draucker, PhD, RN, FAAN Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA
Karen Foli, PhD, RN, FAAN Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
Carla Groh, PhD, PMHNP-BC, FAAN University of Detroit Mercy, Detroit, MI, USA
Sara Jones, PhD, APRN, PMHNP-BC, FAANP McNeese State University, Lake Charles, LA, USA
Laura G. Leahy, DrNP, APRN, PMH-CNS/FNP, CARN-AP, FAANP, FAAN APN Solutions, LLC, Sewell, NJ, USA
Vanndy Loth, DNP, MPH, PMHNP-BC AACI, San Jose, CA, USA
Angel Johann Solorzano Martinez, PhD, DNP, MSN, MBA, RN, CNS, PMHNP-BC Samuel Merritt University, San Mateo, CA, USA
Karen Jennings Mathis, PhD, APRN, PMHNP-BC, FAED University of Rhode Island College of Nursing, Providence, RI, USA
Mary Moller, DNP, ARNP, APRN, PMHCNS-BC, CPRP, FAAN Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, WA, USA
Dorothy Moore, DNP, FNP-C, PMHNP-BC San Jose State University, San Jose, CA, USA
Kathryn Phillips, PhD, APRN Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT, USA
R. John Repique, DNP, RN, NEA-BC University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Michael Rice, PhD, APRN, BC, FAAN University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA
Barbara Warren, PhD, RN, APRN-CNS, PMH-BC, FNAP, FAAN The Ohio State University, College of Nursing, Columbus, OH, USA
Sandra Weiss, PhD University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
Kathleen Wheeler, PhD, PMHCNS, PMHNP, FAAN Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT, USA
Barbara Wolfe, PhD, APRN, BC, FAAN University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA
Lora Peppard, PhD, DNP, PMHNP-BC Director of ADAPT and Deputy Director for Treatment & Prevention, Washington/Baltimore High-Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA); Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner (part-time), Marymount University, Ashburn, VA, USA
Joyce M. Shea, DNSc, APRN, PMHCNS-BC, FAAN Professor Emerita, Fairfield University, Prospect, CT, USA
Immediate Past President
Chizimuzo (Zim) Okoli, PhD, MPH, MSN, PMHNP-BC, FAAN Associate Professor, University of Kentucky College of Nursing Lexington, KY, USA
Constance Ann Noll, DNP, MA, PMHNP-BC, CRNP Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner, University of Maryland Upper Chesapeake Health System, Manchester, MD, USA
Kristen Kichefski, DNP, MBA, RN, PMH-BC, NEA-BC Vice President and Chief Nursing Officer, Emma Pendleton Bradley Hospital, Riverside, RI, USA
Board Members at Large
Jane Abanes, PhD, DNP, MSN/Ed, PMHCNS/NP-BC Assistant Clinical Professor, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
Carol Essenmacher, DNP, RN, PMHCNS-BC, NCTTP Assistant Professor of Nursing, Saginaw Valley State University, Kalamazoo, MI, USA
Kerry Peterson, PhD, DNP, PMHNP-BC Associate Professor of Clinical Teaching, University of Colorado College of Nursing, Anschutz Medical Campus Aurora, CO, USA
Deborah Salani, DNP, APRN, PMHNP-BC, NE-BC Associate Professor of Clinical/Director of the Post Graduate PMHNP Program, University of Miami School of Nursing and Health Studies, Miami, FL, USA
Ex Officio
Lisa Deffenbaugh Nguyen, MS, CAE Executive Director, American Psychiatric Nurses Association, Falls Church, VA, USA
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  • Sage Publishing disseminates high-quality research and globally engaged scholarly works, and we are committed to diversity and inclusion in publishing. We encourage submissions from a diverse range of authors from across the world and from all backgrounds.

    The Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association (JAPNA) is a professional, double-anonymous, peer-reviewed journal that welcomes original articles in English that provide up-to-date information about promoting psychiatric nursing; improving mental health care for culturally diverse individuals, families, groups, and communities; and shaping health care policy for the delivery of mental health services. The Journal publishes research and other scholarly works designed to provide new knowledge that is clinically relevant to psychiatric nurses and to inform psychiatric nurses and others about significant issues in mental health/psychiatric care. We invite submissions of manuscripts relevant to psychiatric nursing that describe critical and timely analysis of emerging issues and trends and discuss innovative models of practice as they relate to changing systems of health care. We encourage diverse perspectives that represent  workforces in all countries, cultures, and backgrounds. Types of manuscripts published include:  Original Research Reports, Review Articles, Quality Improvement Manuscripts, Discussion Papers, Brief Reports, and Letters to the Editor. We accept submissions that have been or are currently posted as a preprint.



    Organization and Basic Formatting of the Manuscript

    • Prepare ALL manuscripts using the style and standards outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), 7th edition.
      • Use 12-point font and 1-inch margins at the top, bottom, right, and left.
      • Double-space all pages, including the abstract, text, references, tables, and legends.
      • All abstracts should be no more than 250 words.
      • Number pages consecutively.
      • Include a running head (shortened version of the title) at the top of each page to identify the manuscript. The running head must not contain any author names or initials.
      • IMPORTANT! Manuscript files uploaded for review should NOT include any of the authors' names or institutional affiliations to facilitate anonymous peer review.  If this occurs, all files will be returned to the corresponding author.
      • For Military/VA Authors: Please refer to your organization's publication submission policy/process and include a copy of publication approval from your organization. 
      • Please complete the Authorship Contribution Statement available here and in the Instructions and Forms on the JAPNA submission site, and submit this with the manuscript. The paper will not be sent for review until Authorship Contribution Statements have been received.

    Main Document

    The main document should include:

    1. Title, abstract, and keywords (page 1)
    2. Manuscript text (begin on page 2)
    3. References (begin on a new page)
    4. Tables and table captions (begin each table on a new page)
    5. Figure captions (begin each figure caption on a new page). Figure files should be uploaded as separate files and not be included in the manuscript main document. (See information on figures below.)

    Note:  Please ensure that no identifying author or institution names are included anywhere in your manuscript so as to facilitate our double-anonymous peer-review process. Please use XXXX in place of in-text citations and items in the reference list, by any of the authors of this submitted manuscript, to remove all identifying information related to authors of the paper you are submitting. When submitting a revised manuscript, follow the same instructions, but please upload two clean copies of your manuscript: 1 copy with all track changes accepted and the in-text citations and references anonymized for information related to authors, and 1 copy with all track changes accepted and the in-text citations and authors’ names in the reference list reinstated. Designate the first clean copy as a “Main Document” and the second clean copy of the manuscript as a “Supplementary File” when you upload the files and make it clear in the file names which is which. The clean file with the in-text citations and references anonymized will be sent back to the reviewers, along with the marked copy, for their review, if needed, and the second clean copy with the in-text citations and references reinstated will be sent to the production team if the paper is accepted for publication.

    See for detailed guidance on making an anonymous submission.


    JAPNA editors welcome the following types of manuscripts:

    Original Research Reports Original research reports include studies of all designs including quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods studies. (Pilot, preliminary, and feasibility studies should be submitted as Brief Reports).  All research reports must contain a statement in the methods section about the protection of human subjects and approval by the appropriate institutional review board (IRB). Reports should provide new knowledge for clinical practice and highlight significance for psychiatric nursing.  Original articles are limited to 20 pages, exclusive of references, tables and figures. Original research articles are the highest priority for JAPNA.

    • For reports of randomized control trials, use the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Guidelines ( The CONSORT Guidelines provide direction for reporting randomized controlled trials and include a 25-item checklist focused on minimum reporting requirements, and a flow diagram to document the progression of all participants through the trial.
    • For reports of Observational studies (nonexperimental quantitative research), use the  STRengthening the Reporting of OBservation studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Guidelines ( )
    • For qualitative studies, the following resources are recommended: 

    Suggested headings:

    • Introduction
      • Provide an adequate but concise background.
      • State the objective(s) of the research in the last paragraph of the introduction.
    • Methods
      • Include design, setting, participants, ethical considerations, and full details of data collection (including dates the original data were collected) and analysis.
      • Provide support for the adequacy of the sample.
      • For quantitative studies, provide specific evidence for validity of measures.
      • For qualitative studies, describe types of dependability and credibility used and how trustworthiness of qualitative data was assured.
    • Results
      • Include pertinent demographic data on the sex, age, and race-ethnicity of the study participants.
      • Report only the findings directly related to the study objectives or research questions.
      • Report sample numbers for all percentages, and report SDs or SEs for all means.
      • When reporting statistically significant results, report test statistic values, degrees of freedom, and probability level (not to exceed p < .001; do not use p = .000).
    • Discussion
      • Discuss the significance of the study findings, without simply repeating them.
      • Include limitations and recommendations.
      • Provide implications for psychiatric nursing practice, policy, and/or research.
    • Conclusions
      • What can reasonably be determined from your findings? It is important that you do not overstate these.
      • Include a statement about the clinical relevance of the research.
      • Apply your conclusions to nursing practice.

    Review Articles:  Review Articles provide a comprehensive review and critical synthesis of the literature on a specific topic. Types of review manuscripts considered include systematic reviews either with or without meta-analysis, integrative reviews, narrative reviews and reviews and syntheses of qualitative research (e.g., metasynthesis). All reviews should be guided by a clear statement of purpose or research question. The methods section should clearly report data sources, search procedures, article selection process, data extraction, and data synthesis procedures.  All reviews require a synthesis of the findings with specific implications for practice, policy, and/or research. Review papers are limited to 25 pages exclusive of references, tables, and figures.  Suggested headings within the text include: Background, Objective(s), Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions.

    Quality Improvement Manuscripts:  Quality improvement (QI) papers are reports of systematic, data-based interventions designed to achieve improvements in the quality, safety, and value of healthcare. Reports of QI projects should provide new knowledge with clear implications for psychiatric nursing practice beyond the study site.  QI manuscripts are limited to 10 pages, exclusive of references, and no more than 2 tables or figures. The appropriate guideline for reporting a QI research project is the SQUIRE guidelines (  Suggested headings within the text include: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions. 

    Discussion Papers:  JAPNA publishes critical analytical discussion papers addressing conceptual, philosophical, theoretical, methodological or professional phenomena of interest when it is clear that the content represents an extension of knowledge and that the phenomena are relevant to psychiatric nursing. These papers may include analyses of innovations and trends in clinical practice, care delivery systems, education programs, and public policy.  They focus on the latest evidence-based information about the presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and management of a particular clinical problem relevant to psychiatric nursing practice. Discussion Papers are limited to 10 pages, exclusive of references, and usually do not contain tables or figures.

    Brief Reports:  Brief Reports are reports of small-scale studies (e.g., pilot work, feasibility studies, preliminary reports, research conducted in one setting, or case studies) that may serve to stimulate additional investigation or alert readers regarding work in progress. Brief Reports are limited to 8 pages, exclusive of references, and usually do not contain tables or figures. Tables or figures may be included only at the Editors’ discretion. Most Brief Reports should follow the standard format for original research articles. For case reports, use the CARE (CAse REport) guidelines (

    Letters to the Editor:  Letters to the Editor discuss points of current interest or comments on a paper published in JAPNA within the past 6 months prior to submission. The Editor reserves the right to accept, reject, or excerpt letters. Letters should be limited to 500-1000 words. Whenever possible, authors of manuscripts referenced in the letter will be invited to respond.

    Notes to Students Submitting Manuscripts: If the manuscript submitted was produced to meet the requirement for a degree program or course of study under the supervision of one or more mentors, JAPNA encourages students and their faculty mentors to carefully review the journal guidelines and the scholarly articles published therein prior to their consideration of submitting a manuscript for review. Authors submitting student projects are advised to review their submissions with their advisors to be sure the manuscripts are ready for submission. The faculty member’s contribution to the manuscript should be acknowledged in the “Authorship Contribution Statement” described in the ethical guidelines in this document.  Student and faculty authorship should be determined according to ICMJE guidelines.  Papers that do not meet the journal's professional standards will not be sent out for review. Students and their faculty mentors are strongly encouraged to contact the editorial team prior to the submission of a manuscript for guidance regarding the suitability of the paper and its adherence to guidelines and standards.



    Title Page

    The title page should include:

    • Full title
    • Author(s) name(s), full credentials, job titles, and institutional affiliation(s) with city and state/country, and ORCID IDs (; a persistent digital identifier)
    • Contact information of corresponding author:  name, address, e-mail address, and phone number
    • A statement of any conflicts of interest or a statement that no conflicts exist (See Declaration of Conflicting Interests section below.)
    • Clinical Trial Registration number, if applicable
    • Authorship Contribution Statement. The following Authorship Contribution Statement must be included (which matches the Authorship Contribution Form that must be uploaded with the manuscript files). The statement indicates that each author adheres to the ICMJE authorship guidelines
    • Author Contribution Statement:  All authors contributed to the conception or design of the study or to the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of the data. All authors drafted the manuscript, or critically revised the manuscript, and gave final approval of the version that was submitted for publication.  All authors agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work, ensuring integrity and accuracy.
    • A statement describing the funding sources and other acknowledgments or a statement that no funding was received.
    • If applicable, include a statement indicating that the article has been posted as a preprint and where.  Please include the DOI for the preprint.

    Sample Title Page

    Title of Manuscript

    Authors: Geraldine S. Pearson, Michelle DeCoux Hampton, and Kristen Overstreet

    Corresponding author

    Geraldine S. Pearson, PHD, APRN, FAAN
    Retired – UCONN School of Medicine
    342 Hidden Lake Road
    Higganum, CT 06441-4502
    Phone: 1.860.301.0120


    Michelle DeCoux Hampton, RN, PhD, MS
    The Valley Foundation School of Nursing, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA, USA

    Kristen Overstreet, BA
    Senior Partner, Origin Editorial, Arvada, CO, USA

    Conflicts of Interest:  Geraldine S. Pearson and Michelle DeCoux Hampton declare no conflicts of interest with the research or writing of this paper.  Kristen Overstreet is Senior Partner of Origin Editorial, which provided funding for this project.  She also receives speaking fees for presentations at conferences on the topic of this manuscript.

    Funding Statement:  This research was supported by a grant from Origin Editorial.  No grant number is available.

    Author Contributions:  All authors contributed to the conception or design of the study or to the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of the data. All authors drafted the manuscript, or critically revised the manuscript, and gave final approval of the version that was submitted for publication.  All authors agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work, ensuring integrity and accuracy.

    Other Acknowledgments:  Geraldine S. Pearson would like to thank the administrations at the hospitals where the data were collected for their support.

    Preprint:  This manuscript has been posted in its entirety as a preprint on bioRxiv. DOI:XXXXXXX

    First Page of the Anonymized Manuscript:  Title, Abstract and Keywords

    For Original Research manuscripts, include an abstract using the headings listed below (limit 250 words). Purpose of the study should be included in Background, and sample sizes must be included in Methods. Conclusions should contain a statement about the clinical relevance of the research.

    • Background
    • Aims
    • Methods
    • Results
    • Conclusions

    For Review manuscripts, include an abstract using the  headings listed below (limit 250 words).  Purpose of the study should be included in the Background. Methods should include information on data sources, study selection, data extraction, and data synthesis. Conclusions should contain implications for practice, policy, and/or research.

    • Background
    • Aims
    • Methods
    • Results
    • Conclusions

    For Quality Improvement manuscripts, include an abstract using the following headings (limit 250 words):

    • Introduction
    • Aims
    • Methods
    • Results
    • Conclusions

    For Brief Reports and Discussion Papers, include an abstract using the following headings (limit 250 words):

    • Objective
    • Methods
    • Results
    • Conclusions

    For Letters to the Editor, no abstract is required.  Please include keywords only.


    Include 3-5 keywords placed directly underneath the abstract. Use MeSH key words when possible:

    References for All Submissions

    Limit references to those that best support the text. Cite references in the text according to the style outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition, and format the reference list in APA 7th edition style. Cite current, primary sources only. Include DOI numbers for all sources for which they are available. JAPNA will review all citations to preprints. If the preprint has been published in a journal, the citation should be to the published version and not the preprint.  When citing a preprint in the text, add (PREPRINT) in the parentheses after the author’s name and year.  In the reference list, add (Preprint) after the repository name.

    References Examples


    • A Title and Note for each table must be included in the manuscript main document.
    • All symbols and abbreviations should be explained in the Note.
    • Credit for any previously published work in the table must be given in the Note, along with a statement about permissions.  For example, “Permission to adapt this table for this article was provided by Sage.” Permission usually requires specific wording accompanying that content. Please include this specific wording in the table note.

    If permission is needed for a table, it is the responsibility of the author to obtain permission from the copyright holder and pay for any expenses incurred. For Sage Publication permission guidelines, please refer to the following URL:


    • A Title and Note for each figure must be included in the manuscript main document.
    • All symbols and abbreviations should be explained in the Note.
    • Credit for any previously published work must be given in the Note, along with a statement about permissions.  For example, “Permission to adapt this figure for this article was provided by Sage.” Permission usually requires specific wording accompanying that content. Please include this specific wording in the figure note.
    • If permission is needed for a figure, it is the responsibility of the author to obtain permission from the copyright holder and pay for any expenses incurred. For Sage Publication permission guidelines, please refer to the following URL:
      • Upload a separate file for each figure as a .TIF, .JPG, or .EPS file.
      • Figure file should be submitted in the format in which it was created (do not paste into Word).
      • Grayscale images should be at least 300 DPI.
      • Combinations of grayscale and line art should be at least 1200 DPI.
      • Line art (black and white or color) should be at least 1200 DPI.
      • Color figures may be accepted for publication in the print version of the journal. However, the author must be prepared to pay a charge of $800 for the first illustration and $200 for each additional illustration.  Color online is free.
      • If a figure or image has been created by an artificial intelligence, machine learning, or similar technology, the authors must clearly describe what part of the image was created and provide the name of the tool used, including the model, version, and manufacturer. Authors must take responsibility for the integrity of the content generated by these tools.

    Supplemental Material

    Supplemental materials can include datasets, figures, tables, podcasts, videos, visual abstracts, etc., and can be submitted with the manuscript and hosted online, alongside the full text of the published article. Please see Sage’s Supplemental Guidelines page.

    They will not be checked for accuracy, copyedited, typeset, or proofread. The responsibility for scientific accuracy and file functionality remains with the authors. A disclaimer will be displayed to this effect with any supplemental material published.

    Please supply a title and description for all supplemental material items supplied. These can be included in a separate word document upon submission. If a title and description is not supplied, the following title and description will be used: Title – “[File name] – Supplemental material for [Article title]”; Description – “Supplemental material, [File name], for [Article Title] by [Author names] in [Journal Title].” The title and description will appear on Sage Journals and also on the record in Figshare and will aid discoverability of the supplemental material online.

    Cover Letter

    A cover letter can be pasted into the appropriate box during the submission process or uploaded separately. The cover letter should include an explicit statement of the importance or relevance of the manuscript to JAPNA. The cover letter should include a statement affirming that the manuscript has not been published and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.



    Preparation inquiries can be sent to the editor at, but please send all manuscripts through SageTrack only. Do not mail or email files to the editor or editorial office.

    All manuscripts should be submitted online at Click on the “Check for Existing Account” button at the bottom of the opening page. If you do not already have an account, then create one by clicking on the “Create an Account” button. You then will be able to submit your manuscript. Click on “Author Center.” Follow the on-screen instructions carefully.

    You will be asked to upload at least three documents when you submit a manuscript: a title page, a main document, and an authorship contribution statement that has been signed by all authors. In addition, you will submit separate documents for each figure, if applicable.

    When submitting a revised manuscript, you must also provide an anonymous point-by-point response to the reviewers’ comments. Please do not type your response on letterhead. You are asked to highlight these changes in the re-submitted manuscript in a different color font or using the highlighter tool, but please do not use track changes. Please see the decision letter received from the editor for more specific instructions on responding to reviewers’ suggestions for revisions. 

    Authors are responsible for obtaining and providing written permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures, or lengthy quotations (exceeding 100 words) previously published elsewhere, including any information that has been adapted from a previously published source. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please visit Sage's Prior Publication guidelines.

    A journal contributor publishing agreement is a condition of publication. Authors will receive a request via email to complete the agreement once the article is accepted for publication.  See the journal contributor publishing agreement section below.

    At the end of a successful submission, you will see a confirmation screen with your manuscript number, and you will receive an email confirmation from the journal. If these two messages do not appear, go into your Author Center and make sure that you have clicked on the “Submit” button or contact technical support at Manuscripts submitted online are quickly assigned to reviewers. Through your Author Center on this website, you can view the status of your manuscript throughout the review process.


    • Cover letter – this is required to include in the provided text box during the submission process or to upload in a Word file.  Please do not include any of the authors’ names.
    • Title page with author names in the order of authorship, contact information, credentials, job titles, affiliations, ORCID IDs, conflict of interest statement, funding statement, acknowledgments, and authorship contribution statement. This document is not provided to the reviewers.
    • Main document with Abstract, Keywords, Text, References and Tables, Table captions, and Figure captions, if applicable.  Figures should be uploaded in separate files (e.g., .tif, .jpeg, .eps) into SageTrack. Please cite each table or figure in the text. Please ensure:
      • The manuscript is anonymized and contains no identifying information
      • Each page has a running head that does not include author names or initials
    • Letters of permission to reproduce previously published material or for subjects in photographs have been obtained and statements provided in the table or figure notes.
    • Authorship Contribution Statement – available here:


    All manuscripts are screened by the Editor or Associate Editor for suitability for publication in JAPNA prior to sending out for peer review. Manuscripts are checked for adherence to JAPNA submission guidelines and for their similarity to other sources (using iThenticate). Manuscripts that do not meet submission guidelines will be returned or rejected.

    Peer reviewers are not aware of the authorship of the manuscripts and are required to maintain confidentiality about the manuscripts they review.

    All manuscripts that pass the initial screening are peer reviewed by a minimum of two experts in fields related to the topic or methods of the manuscript and who do not know the names or any details about the authors. Final decisions regarding manuscripts are made by the Editors. The corresponding author will be notified by email regarding the outcome of the review, which includes copies of the editor’s feedback and reviewers’ comments. As much as possible, revised and resubmitted manuscripts will be reviewed by the same reviewers that evaluated the original submission. Except in exceptional circumstances, the maximum number of revisions we will request is two. All accepted manuscripts will receive light copyediting to conform to the style of the Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association.


    ETHICAL GUIDELINES and Research Integrity

    JAPNA adheres to a rigorous, double-anonymous reviewing policy in which the identity of both the reviewers and authors are always concealed from the other parties.

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Peer Review

    JAPNA prohibits the use of machine learning, large language models (LLM), or similar technology (e.g., ChatGPT) for use during the peer review of a manuscript if any part or all of the manuscript is uploaded into the tool. These tools store the manuscript information, and this violates our confidentiality policies.

    Reviewers, please indicate in the "Comments to Editor" box if you have used an LLM tool to help you prepare the language for your review comments (without uploading any part of the manuscript into the tool).

    Authors, upon submission, will be asked to confirm that if any content is generated by artificial intelligence (AI) applications, it is clearly identified within the text and acknowledged within your Acknowledgments section. Please note that AI bots such as ChatGPT should not be listed as an author. For more details on Sage's policy, please visit this page.

    • If a figure or image has been created by an artificial intelligence, machine learning, or similar technology, the authors must clearly describe what part of the image was created and provide the name of the tool used, including the model, version, and manufacturer. Authors must take responsibility for the integrity of the content generated by these tools.


    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship by fulfilling all four of the following  criteria, as outlined by the ICMJE Authorship guidelines at

    Each author listed must have:

    • Made a substantial contribution to the concept and design, acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data, AND
    • Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content, AND
    • Approved the final version to be published, AND
    • Agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work

    Please submit a completed “Authorship Contribution Statement” that has been signed by all authors,  and upload this form with the other manuscript files (

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.

    Changes to Author Order

    Any changes to the author order after the original submission of the manuscript will require written permission from all authors, including those who are added or deleted, providing approval of the new order.  A document showing the original order and the new order, a statement of approval, and signatures from each author indicating approval can be uploaded with the revised manuscript.  Alternatively, the corresponding author can email all authors, including the JAPNA managing editor, Kristen Overstreet, at, with a statement that lists the original order, the new order, the reason for the change, and a request for approval from each person.  Each author must then reply to all with their approval.


    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an ‘Acknowledgements’ section of the Title Page. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, data collection, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.

    Upon submission, you will be asked to confirm that if any content is AI-generated, it is clearly identified within the text and acknowledged within your Acknowledgements section. Please note that AI bots such as ChatGPT should not be listed as an author. For more details on Sage's policy, please visit this page.


    To comply with the guidance for Research Funders, Authors and Publishers issued by the Research Information Network (RIN), JAPNA additionally requires all Authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit Funding Acknowledgements on the Sage Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding or state in your acknowledgments that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. If stating funding, please include the grant number and the name of the principal investigator.

    Sage fully understands the demands on authors whose work is funded by bodies such as the NIH. Sage and JAPNA (via the exclusive license agreement) allow authors the right to post their final accepted, pre-published version of their manuscript (not the final PDF) to PubMed Central (PMC) with the understanding that the article will not be made available until 12 months after the official date of publication. This is in compliance with NIH’s requirements (see As an author with an NIH-funded work, you must post the final accepted manuscript to PMC. Please indicate that it should not be made publicly available on PMC until after the 12-month embargo.  Authors are responsible for setting up this posting. 

    Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of JAPNA to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please include any declaration on the Title Page, under a heading “Conflict of interests.”  If the authors have no conflicts of interest, after the heading insert “The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest.”

    When making a declaration, the disclosure information must be specific and include any financial relationship that each author of the article has with any sponsoring organization and the for-profit interests the organization represents, and with any for-profit product discussed or implied in the text of the article.

    Any commercial or financial involvements that might represent an appearance of a conflict of interest need to be additionally disclosed in the cover letter accompanying your article to assist the Editor in evaluating whether sufficient disclosure has been made within the Declaration of Conflicting Interests provided in the article.

    For more information, please visit the Sage Author Gateway.

    Research Ethics

    We accept manuscripts that report human and/or animal studies for publication only if it is made clear that investigations were carried out to a high ethical standard. Studies in humans that might be interpreted as experimental (e.g., controlled trials) should conform to the Declaration of Helsinki (, and manuscripts must include a statement that the research protocol was approved by the appropriate ethical committee based on the geographical location where research was conducted.

    In line with the Declaration of Helsinki 1975, revised in Hong Kong 1989, we encourage authors to register their clinical trials (at or If your trial has been registered, please state this on the Title Page. When reporting experiments on animals, indicate on the Title Page which guideline/law on the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.

    IRB Approval

    All studies submitted for publication, including quality improvement studies, should indicate in the methods section of the manuscript either that (a) the study was approved by the IRB of the sponsoring institution, or (b) a formal determination was made by the IRB that the study was exempted from IRB review.

    Falsification or Fabrication of Data

    JAPNA will not review or publish manuscripts where there is falsification or the changing or omission of research results (data) to support claims, hypotheses, other data, etc.  Falsification of a manuscript includes misreporting of instrumentation, methodologies, materials, or processes. Manipulation of images or representations in a manner that distorts the data or “reads too much between the lines” can also be considered falsification.  Fabrication, also misrepresentation, is the construction and/or addition of content that never occurred during manuscript preparation.  Claims about the elements of the manuscript need to be made on complete data collection and reports (as is normally assumed), where claims made based on incomplete or assumed results is a form of fabrication.

    Patient Consent

    Authors are required to ensure the following guidelines are followed, as recommended by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that a patient who is identifiable be shown the manuscript to be published.

    Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, however, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note. When informed consent has been obtained it should be indicated in the submitted article text.

    Appeal Process

    Authors are entitled to appeal any editorial decision that they believe is unfair, following the review process. Authors may contact the Editor with the request and rationale for appealing a decision. The Editor will review the request and rationale with the associate and managing editors, and with members of the editorial board if needed. A response to the appeal will be provided to the author by the Editor.  All author appeals will be taken seriously and addressed by the Editor in a timely manner. 



    Statements and opinions expressed in the articles and communications are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the Editor, the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, or publisher, and the Editor, Association, and publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such material. The Editor, Association, and publisher do not guarantee, warrant, or endorse any product or service advertised in the publication; nor do they guarantee any claim made by the manufacturer of such product or service.

    Journal Contributor Publishing Agreement

    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor Publishing Agreement is an exclusive license agreement, which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and license to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the Sage Author Gateway.

    JAPNA and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism, text recycling, or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism, text recycling, or misuse of articles published in the journal. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked using duplication-checking software. Where an article is found to have plagiarized other work, recycling the authors' previously published and copyrighted work, or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article (removing it from the journal); taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author’s institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; banning the author from publication in the journal or all Sage journals, or appropriate legal action.

    English Language Services

    Authors for whom English is a second language are strongly encouraged to use the services of a professional English-language editing company. Visit for more information. An author's use of these services in no way guarantees that his or her submission will ultimately be accepted. Any arrangement an author enters into will be exclusively between the author and the particular company, and any costs incurred are the sole responsibility of the author.


    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID ID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID ID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID IDs from corresponding authors is now part of JAPNA's submission process. If you already have an ORCID ID you will be asked to associate that with your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID ID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID ID will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID ID is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID ID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID ID please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID ID homepage to learn more.


    Reprints may be ordered by using the special reprint order form that will accompany author proofs. If you need another copy of this order form, please contact Barbara Eisenberg at 805-499-0721 X 7763 (telephone) or at


    Online First is a feature in which completed articles are published online prior to their inclusion in a print issue, offering authors the advantage of making their research accessible to the public in a timelier manner. Only online subscribers can view these PDFs, but abstracts are available to the public to view for free. Online First articles are fed to search engines and citation and content repositories, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, CrossRef, and Google Scholar, and therefore are available to be accessed and cited. Each Online First manuscript is citable by the publication date of the manuscript’s first online posting and the Digital Object Identifier (DOI), providing a persistent, permanent way to identify manuscripts published in the online environment. You can cite OnlineFirst articles as follows:

    Author’s last name, first initials. Article title. Journal title. Prepublished month day, year; DOI: 10.1177/0123456789123456

    Once your article has completed the production process and before it is published in a print issue, it will be posted online. You can access JAPNA OnlineFirst articles on the Web at Once posted online, articles may not be taken down or edited. If your article is not completed prior to its publication date, it will not go on OnlineFirst but will be posted online with the issue in which it is published.

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