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Clinical Nursing Research

Clinical Nursing Research

An International Journal

eISSN: 15523799 | ISSN: 10547738 | Current volume: 33 | Current issue: 4 Frequency: 8 Times/Year

Clinical Nursing Research (CNR) is a leading international nursing journal, published eight times a year. CNR aims to publish the best available evidence from multidisciplinary teams, with the goal of reporting clinically applicable nursing science and phenomena of interest to nursing. Part of CNR’s mission is to bring to light clinically applicable solutions to some of the most complex problems important to nursing. This requires the efforts of diverse investigative teams. CNR publishes articles that are of interest to all the following disciplines: nursing, psychology, social work, medicine, exercise science, public health, physical therapy, occupational therapy, respiratory therapy, pharmacy, engineering, sociology, anthropology, health communication, and computer science. CNR invites submissions of original research, literature reviews, methodologies/methods, applied theoretical papers, and brief reports on a variety of health issues. Editorial and commentary manuscripts are typically invited. However, unsolicited editorial and commentary manuscripts will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Authors should query the Editor-In-Chief prior to submission of editorials and commentaries. Papers on any and all populations and settings in which nurses practice at any level are especially invited.

CNR does not accept papers on the study of nurses, nursing students, or students in the health professions unless clinically relevant patient outcomes are key outcomes and measured accordingly.

Clinical Nursing Research is a refereed journal publishing research articles that focus on nursing practice. It disseminates research findings of particular interest to practicing nurses, provides an international forum for discussion among clinical nurse researchers and by identifying practical applications of research, enhances practice. Manuscripts of interest to CNR are those that focus on assessment and/or measures of intervention effectiveness for application in practice settings. CNR does not publish research on nurses. This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Melissa D. Pinto, PhD, RN, FAAN University of California, Irvine, USA
Editors Emeriti
Pamela Z. Cacchione, PhD, CRNP, BC, FGSA, FAAN University of Pennsylvania, School of Nursing, USA
Marilynn J. Wood, DrPH, RN University of Alberta, Canada
Associate Editors
Stephanie Gilbertson-White, PhD, APRN-BC University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
Joachim Voss, PhD, RN, ACRN, FAAN University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA
Jessica Williams, PhD, MPH, PHNA-BC, FAAN University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Associate Editor of Diversity, Equity and Inclusion
Candace W. Burton, PhD, RN, AFN-BC, FNAP University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada
Jean Edward, PhD, RN University of Kentucky, School of Nursing, USA
Associate Review Editor
Amy M. Greenblatt, PhD, MPH, RN Hillside Behavioral Health, Atlanta, GA, USA
Editorial Board
Nakia C. Best, PhD, RN University of California Irvine, Sue & Bill Gross School of Nursing, USA
Dawn Bounds, PhD, RN, PMHNP-BC, FAAN University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA
Rana Chakraborty, MD, MSc, FAAP, FRCPCH, D.Phil. (Oxon), FPIDS, FIDSA Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, USA
JiYeon Choi, PhD, RN, ATSF Yonsei University College of Nursing, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Samantha Conley, PhD, RN Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
Ralph J. DiClemente, PhD New York University, School of Global Public Health, USA
Charles A. Downs, PhD, ACNP-BC, FAAN University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA
Scott Harpin, PhD, MPH, RN, FNAP The University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, USA
Melinda K. Higgins, PhD Emory University, Nell Hogsdon Woodruff School of Nursing, USA
Paule V. Joseph, PhD, RN, FAAN National Institutes of Health, USA
Adam I. Kaplin, MD, PhD Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, USA
Natalile Lambert, PhD Indiana University, School of Medicine, USA
Jon McIntyre, PhD(c), MS, CRNA, APRN University of California, Sue and Bill Gross School of Nursing, USA
Wendy Miller, PhD, RN, CNS, CCRN, FAAN, FAES Indiana University, School of Nursing, USA
Patrick O'Byrne, NP, PhD, FAAN University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
Cristobal Padilla F., PhD Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Chile
Amir M. Rahmani, PhD University of California, Sue and Bill Gross School of Nursing, USA
Heather Rice, PhD, CPNP-PC, PMHS Cleveland State University, USA
Robert Topp, PhD, RN University of Kentucky, USA
Diane Von Ah, PhD, RN, FAAN The Ohio State University, College of Nursing, USA
Michelle Wright, PhD, RN, FAAN National Institutes of Health, USA
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  • This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.

    This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Please review the ICMJE 4 Criteria for Authorship to determine who meets criteria for authorship versus who should be placed in the Acknowledgments.

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.

    Sage disseminates high-quality research and engaged scholarship globally, and we are committed to diversity and inclusion in publishing. We encourage submissions from a diverse range of authors from across all countries and backgrounds. Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet CNR Aims and Scope will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 3.3 below.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to confirm the following:  (1)  you are submitting your original work and that you have the rights in the work; (2)  you are submitting the work for first publication in CNR. The manuscript has not been submitted elsewhere, is currently under consideration for publication elsewhere, and the manuscript has not been published elsewhere; (3) You have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you. Please include statements  #1-3 in your cover letter.


    1. What do we publish?
      1.1 Aims & scope
      1.2 Presubmission inquiry
      1.3 Article types
      1.4 General guidelines
      1.5 Writing your paper
      1.6 Diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging
    2. Editorial policies
      2.1 Peer review policy
      2.2 Authorship
      2.3 Acknowledgements
      2.3.1 Third party submissions
      2.3.2 Writing assistance
      2.3.3 Artificial intelligence-assisted technologies
      2.4 Funding
      2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
      2.6 Research ethics and patient consent
      2.7 Clinical trials
      2.8 Reporting guidelines
      2.9 Research data
    3. Publishing policies
      3.1Publication ethics
      3.1.1 Plagiarism
      3.1.2 Prior publication
      3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement
      3.3 Open access and author archiving
    4. Preparing your manuscript
      4.2 Artwork, figures, and other graphics
      4.3 Supplemental material
      4.4 Reference style
      4.5 English language editing services
    5. Submitting your manuscript
      5.1 ORCID
      5.2 Information required for completing your submission
      5.3 Permissions
    6. On acceptance and publication
      6.1 Sage Production
      6.2 Online First publication
      6.3 Access to your published article
      6.4 Promoting your article
    7. Further information
      7.1 Appealing the publication decision


    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to CNR, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope (CNR Aims and Scope).

    1.2 Presubmission inquiry

    Pre-Submission inquiry is not required, but is encouraged. Pre-submission inquiries should be addressed to the CNR Editor-In-Chief, Dr. Melissa Pinto, at Please place  “CNR Inquiry” in the email title line. 

    1.3 Article types

    CNR accepts the following article types: Research Article, Literature Reviews, Brief Reports, Applied Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks, Methods, Commentaries, Editorials, and Registered Reports. The section below summarizes the article types and length (word limit).

    Research Article

    • Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods

    • Maximum word limit/tables and figures:

      • Non-intervention study: 3,500 words

      • Intervention Study: 4,500 words**

      • No more than 8 figures and tables total

    Literature Reviews

    • All types, but must use PRISMA or conventional guidelines for the conduct of the review. Systematic, umbrella, and rapid reviews must be registered in PROSPERO.

    • Maximum word limit/tables and figures:

      • 3,500 words

      • No more than 8 figures and tables total

    Brief Reports

    • Pilot, feasibility, and developmental research. (Sample sizes for short reports that use quantitative methods are usually less than 100.)

    • Maximum word limit/tables and figures:

      • Non-interventional study: 2,500 words

      • Interventional study: 3,500 words**

      • No more than 8 figures and tables total

    Applied Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks

    • Development, testing, and/or critique theoretical constructs or conceptual frameworks that are actionable and can be used for clinical research.

    • Maximum word limit/tables and figures:

      • 3,500 words

      • No more than 4 figures and tables total


    • Instrument development and psychometric studies, new analytic approaches, sampling, recruitment and retention of participants, and implications for the conduct of research in novel settings. CNR is less interested in studies of instrument translation into different languages.

    • Maximum word limit/tables and figures:

      • 3,500 words

      • No more than 4 figures and tables total


    • Short communication that is narrowly focused. The paper should highlight one or more research articles published in CNR within the last year. Commentaries most often focus on a contained segment of knowledge within a larger field. Commentaries should not focus on the overall field. Authors may wish to explain how findings can be placed into new or additional contexts. Opinions that are factually based are acceptable.

    • Maximum word limit/tables and figures:

      • 1,200 words

      • No more than 2 tables and figures total


    • Short communication that covers an aspect of a topic relevant to CNR’s scope and aims. Editorials are not typically completed in response to specific CNR articles.

    • Maximum word limit/tables and figures:

      • 1,200 words

      • No more than 2 tables or figures total

    Registered Reports, Pre-Data or Post-Data:   

    • There are two types of Registered Reports:  

      • Registered Reports – Pre-Data, i.e., before any data have been gathered

      • Registered Reports – Post-Data, i.e., before already existing data have been examined and analyzed.   

    • These submissions are reviewed in two stages. In Stage 1, a study proposal is considered for publication prior to data collection and/or analysis. Stage 1 submissions should include a complete Introduction, Methods, and Proposed Analyses. High-quality proposals will be accepted in principle before data collection and/or data analysis commences. Once the study is completed, the author will finish the article including Results and Discussion sections (Stage 2). Publication of the Stage 2 submission is guaranteed as long as the approved Stage 1 protocol is followed and the conclusions are appropriate. Full details can be found here. The Journal’s manuscript requirements should be adhered to for the stage 2 submission.

    Please see Conn, Algase, Rawl, Zerwic, & Wyman, 2010) for guidance.

    Word limits do not include the abstract, references, figures or tables.

    **Please review the Conn, Algase, Rawl, Zerwic, & Wyman, (2010) for components to be included in intervention studies. Conn, V.S., Algase, D.L., Rawl, S.M., Zerwic, J.J. & Wyman, J.F. (2010). Publishing pilot intervention work. Western Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 32(8), 994-1010. Direct link is here: Conn, Algase, Rawl, Zerwic, & Wyman (2010).

    ***Commentaries and Editorials are typically by invitation only. Authors are expected to possess sufficient topical and field expertise. Occasionally, CNR will consider unsolicited commentaries and editorials. Authors interested in submitting an unsolicited commentary or editorial are highly encouraged to send a pre-submission inquiry to the Editor-In-Chief, Melissa D. Pinto, PhD, RN, FAAN ( Please place “CNR Inquiry” in the email title line so your email will be easily located by the Editor.

    Please note, medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Every manuscript submission of original research must have a statement of local IRB approval or adherence to the Declaration of Helsinki standards for protection of human subjects noted in the Methods section. 

    Manuscript Types CNR Does NOT Accept:

    • Studies that focus on nurses/healthcare providers, students (nursing, medical, allied health, etc.) and are devoid of primary outcomes that are patient focused and measured accordingly.
    • Case reports
    • Case studies
    • Single subject studies
    • Study protocols

    1.4 General guidelines

    Manuscript Style and Formatting:  Manuscripts should be submitted in APA Style.  Please add continuous line numbering on the left side throughout the document.  Authors’ names must not appear anywhere in the manuscript other than on the title page.

    Manuscript Length: Please see 1.3 Article Type for specific instructions on manuscript length. Please note: the word limit does not include abstract, references, figures or tables.

    Title Page: A separate title page must include: (1) the title, (2) all authors’ names, credentials, institutions (with school/college and department), addresses (including street, city, state, zip code, and country), and emails. Corresponding author(s) be denoted in the  “Author Notes” on the title page. The Corresponding author should include all the above information, plus telephone number.  Any Acknowledgements should also be listed on the title page as an Author Note.

    The manuscript titles should not exceed 13 words. And please refrain from including the name of the country or location in the manuscript title or keywords, unless it essential to identification of the topic. Also, please refrain from using hyphens in the manuscript title unless it is absolutely necessary, such case may include name of an intervention or a specific method that is hyphenated.

    Please use a colon in the manuscript title when applicable.  Specifically, for:

    • Randomized Controlled Trials, Crossover Trials, Parallel-Design Double-Blind Trial, Equivalence and Noninferiority Trial, Cluster Trial, please use the subheading in the title: A Randomized Controlled/Clinical Trial.”Example: Artificial Intelligence Based Digital Therapeutic  to Treat Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial (12 words).
    • Nonrandomized Controlled Trial, please use the subtitle: A Nonrandomized Controlled Trial.”   Example: Mindfulness Intervention to Reduce Stress Among Adolescents: A Nonrandomized Controlled Trial (11 words)
    • Meta-Analysis, please include the subtitle, “A Meta-Analysis.” Example: Mindfulness Based Interventions to Treat Anorexia Nervosa: A Meta-Analysis. (10 words)
    • Systematic Review (without meta-analysis), please use the subtitle: “A Systematic Review” Example: New Biomarkers for Fibromyalgia: A Meta-Analysis (6 words)

    For all other article types, please use a succinct and descriptive title. While not required, authors may want to consider using a colon in the title.

    Abstract: Abstracts should be structured, 350 words or less, for all paper types except Commentaries and Editorials.

    The structured abstract headings should include the following headings (as appropriate for the article type): Background,  Purpose/Objective, Design, Setting, Sample (Include sample size, n=XXX), Intervention (if applicable), Measures,  Analysis  (statistical tests used), Results (Primary result in quantitative form and statistical values, as appropriate), and Conclusions.

    Copyright and Releases:  Include a typed cover letter with your submission which states “ the authors are submitting the manuscript to Clinical Nursing Research (CNR) exclusively and do so with the understanding that if the paper is accepted for publication, copyright belongs to the publisher.” If the manuscript is accepted for publication, the Corresponding Author will be required to sign a Journal Contributor's Publishing Agreement.

    Tables and Figures: All figures and tables with 17 or more columns must be camera-ready. Please submit black and white photographs of your figures or original line drawings. Please group tables and figures at the end of the manuscript; do not embed them within the body of the text  itself. Please  do not include more than one table on each page.  

    Permission: Include proof of written permission for all quotations which require permission or exceed 300 words in length and for all tables and figures from sources for which the authors do not hold the copyright.

    Submission: Please submit your manuscript to the Sage Track website at Clinical Nursing Research Submission

    Please Note: Manuscripts that do not conform to the author guidelines may be automatically returned without review or comment.

    1.5 Writing your paper

    The Sage Author Gateway provides general advice on how to get published, plus links to further resources.

    1.6 Diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging

    CNR has Associate Editors for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion that oversee the journal’s overarching aim for inclusivity. Authors are encouraged to use inclusive language in the Supplementary Table 1. Examples of Inclusive Language From Centers of Disease Control and Prevention’s Health Equity Guiding Principles for Inclusive Communication published in: Doubeni, C.A. & Corley, D.A.. (2021). Advancing diversity, equity, and inclusion in scientific publishing. Gastroenterology, 162 , 59-62.

    Authors will be required to complete a supplementary table on representativeness of study participants and a lay person impact statement.  Authors will be prompted to complete this and be provided with further instructions as the paper nears acceptance.

    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    CNR is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer-review for your paper, and as such, has partnered with Web of Science. Web of Science is a third party service that seeks to track, verify, and give credit for peer review. Review for CNR can opt into Web of Science  (or any other peer-review tracking profile offered by Sage) in order to claim their reviews or have their reviews  automatically verified, and added to their review profile. Reviewers claiming credit for reviews will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision, and the content of the review is not published. CNR does not issue certificates for peer-review. If a reviewer would like evidence for peer-review, CNR encourages the reviewer to please use Web of Science. For more information, please visit the Web of Science  website.

    The Editor-In-Chief, Associate Editors or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication to CNR. In these cases, the peer-review process is managed by alternative members of the CNR Editorial Team (Associate Editors, etc.); the submitting authors cannot access and do not have any involvement in the manuscript decision.

    2.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is provided by all authors. The author who submits the manuscript should carefully check to ensure all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as co-authors in accordance with ICMJE 4 Criteria for Authorship. . The corresponding author(s) are required to attest that all authors meet the criteria.

    When a large multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet criteria for authorship.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.

    2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the acknowledgment section (see Title Page, Section 1.4), under Acknowledgements.

    2.3.1 Third party submissions

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must: (1)  Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input , (2)   Identify any entities that paid for this assistance, and (3)  Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc. Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    2.3.2 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language publishing services.

    2.3.3 Artificial intelligence-assisted technologies

    CNR follows best practices as outlined by ICMJE. Specifically, CNR requires that authors adhere to their ICMJE recommendations (See #4 of May 2023  ICMJE AI Recommendations). ChatGPT, large language models, and  chatbots require disclosure in the cover letter to the Editor, in the submitted work and how it was used. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of any information, and they must assert that there is no plagiarism in the document. This includes any material that should be appropriately referenced.

    2.4 Funding

    Clinical Nursing Research requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of CNR to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here.


    2.6 Research ethics and patient consent


    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Every manuscript submission must have a statement of local IRB approval or adherence to the Declaration of Helsinki standards for protection of human subjects. 

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative. Please do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself breaches the patient’s confidentiality. CNR requests that you confirm to us, in writing, that you have obtained written informed consent, but the written consent itself should be held by the authors/investigators themselves, for example in a patient’s hospital record. The confirmatory letter may be uploaded with your submission as a separate file.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants.

    2.7 Clinical trials

    Clinical Nursing Research conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

    2.8 Reporting guidelines

    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.

    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives

    2.9. Research Data

    The journal is committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research, and has the following research data sharing policy. For more information, including FAQs please visit the Sage Research Data policy pages.

    Subject to appropriate ethical and legal considerations, authors are encouraged to:

    • share your research data in a relevant public data repository
    • include a data availability statement linking to your data. If it is not possible to share your data, we encourage you to consider using the statement to explain why it cannot be shared.
    • cite these data in your research

    3. Publishing policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    Sageis committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway.

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    Clinical Nursing Research and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    Authors are responsible for use of AI-Assisted Technologies as outlined in the May 2023 ICMJE Recommendations #4  on AI-Assisted Technologies.  Prevention of plagiarism is the sole responsibility of the author.  Plagiarism from AI-Assisted Technologies will be treated the same as other cases of plagiarism, and will be subject to investigation and action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action by Sage.

    3.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement
    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    Clinical Nursing Research offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    4.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word (.doc, .doxc, .rtf., etc.). LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway. Please use APA Style for spacing and margins.

    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.

    4.3 Supplemental material

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word (.doc, .doxc, .rtf., etc.). LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway. Please use APA Style for spacing and margins.

    4.4 Reference style

    CNR uses APA reference style. View the APA guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    4.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

    5. Submitting your manuscript

    Clinical Nursing Research is hosted on Sage Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID IDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID ID you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID ID will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID ID is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID ID please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    5.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway.

    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 Sage Production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal Sage Edit or by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. Please note that if there are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to complete and sign a form authorizing the change.

    6.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Clinical Nursing Research editorial office as follows:

    7.1 Appealing the publication decision

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the CNR editorial office.

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