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Introductory Statistics Using SPSS
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Introductory Statistics Using SPSS

Second Edition
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October 2016 | 312 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
The updated Second Edition of Herschel Knapp’s friendly and practical introduction to statistics shows students how to properly select, process, and interpret statistics without heavy emphasis on theory, formula derivations, or abstract mathematical concepts. Each chapter is structured to answer questions that students most want answered: What statistical test should I use for this situation? How do I set up the data? How do I run the test? How do I interpret and document the results? Online tutorial videos, examples, screenshots, and intuitive illustrations help students "get the story" from their data as they learn by doing, completing practice exercises at the end of each chapter using prepared downloadable data sets.

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Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Author
 
PART I: STATISTICAL PRINCIPLES
 
1. Research Principles
Learning Objectives

 
Overview—Research Principles

 
Rationale for Statistics

 
Research Questions

 
Treatment and Control Groups

 
Rationale for Random Assignment

 
Hypothesis Formulation

 
Reading Statistical Outcomes

 
Accept or Reject Hypotheses

 
Variable Types and Levels of Measure

 
Continuous

 
Interval

 
Ratio

 
Categorical

 
Nominal

 
Ordinal

 
Good Common Sense

 
Key Concepts

 
Practice Exercises

 
 
2. Sampling
Learning Objectives

 
Overview—Sampling

 
Rationale for Sampling

 
Time

 
Cost

 
Feasibility

 
Extrapolation

 
Sampling Terminology

 
Population

 
Sample Frame

 
Sample

 
Representative Sample

 
Probability Sampling

 
Simple Random Sampling

 
Stratified Sampling

 
Proportionate and Disproportionate Sampling

 
Systematic Sampling

 
Area Sampling

 
Nonprobability Sampling

 
Convenience Sampling

 
Purposive Sampling

 
Quota Sampling

 
Snowball Sampling

 
Sampling Bias

 
Optimal Sample Size

 
Good Common Sense

 
Key Concepts

 
Practice Exercises

 
 
3. Working in SPSS
Learning Objectives

 
Video

 
Overview—SPSS

 
Two Views: Variable View and Data View

 
Variable View

 
Name

 
Type

 
Width

 
Decimals

 
Label

 
Values

 
Missing

 
Columns

 
Align

 
Measure

 
Role

 
Data View

 
Value Labels Icon

 
Codebook

 
Saving Data Files

 
Good Common Sense

 
Key Concepts

 
Practice Exercises

 
 
PART II: STATISTICAL PROCESSES
 
4. Descriptive Statistics
Learning Objectives

 
Videos

 
Overview—Descriptive Statistics

 
Descriptive Statistics

 
Number (n)

 
Mean (µ)

 
Median

 
Mode

 
Standard Deviation (SD)

 
Variance

 
Minimum

 
Maximum

 
Range

 
SPSS—Loading an SPSS Data File

 
Run SPSS

 
Data Set

 
Test Run

 
SPSS—Descriptive Statistics: Continuous Variables (age)

 
Statistics Tables

 
Histogram With Normal Curve

 
Skewed Distribution

 
SPSS—Descriptive Statistics: Categorical Variables (gender)

 
Statistics Tables

 
Bar Chart

 
SPSS—Descriptive Statistics: Continuous Variable (age) Select by Categorical Variable (gender)—Female or Male Only

 
SPSS—(Re)Selecting All Variables

 
Good Common Sense

 
Key Concepts

 
Practice Exercises

 
 
5. t Test and Mann-Whitney U Test
Learning Objectives

 
Videos

 
Overview—t Test

 
Example

 
Research Question

 
Groups

 
Procedure

 
Hypotheses

 
Data Set

 
Pretest Checklist

 
Pretest Checklist Criterion 1—Normality

 
Pretest Checklist Criterion 2—n Quota

 
Pretest Checklist Criterion 3—Homogeneity of Variance

 
Test Run

 
Results

 
Pretest Checklist Criterion 2—n Quota

 
Pretest Checklist Criterion 3—Homogeneity of Variance

 
p Value

 
Hypothesis Resolution

 
a Level

 
Documenting Results

 
Type I and Type II Errors

 
Type I Error

 
Type II Error

 
Overview—Mann-Whitney U Test

 
Test Run

 
Results

 
Good Common Sense

 
Key Concepts

 
Practice Exercises

 
 
6. ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis Test
Learning Objectives

 
Videos

 
Layered Learning

 
Overview—ANOVA

 
Example

 
Research Question

 
Groups

 
Procedure

 
Hypotheses

 
Data Set

 
Pretest Checklist

 
Pretest Checklist Criterion 1—Normality

 
Pretest Checklist Criterion 2—n Quota

 
Pretest Checklist Criterion 3—Homogeneity of Variance

 
Test Run

 
Results

 
Pretest Checklist Criterion 2—n Quota

 
Pretest Checklist Criterion 3—Homogeneity of Variance

 
Comparison 1—Text : Text With Illustrations

 
Comparison 2—Text : Video

 
Comparison 3—Text With Illustrations : Video

 
Hypothesis Resolution

 
Documenting Results

 
Overview—Kruskal-Wallis Test

 
Test Run

 
Results

 
Good Common Sense

 
Key Concepts

 
Practice Exercises

 
 
7. Paired t Test and Wilcoxon Test
Learning Objectives

 
Videos

 
Overview—Paired t Test

 
Pretest/Posttest Design

 
Step 1: Pretest

 
Step 2: Treatment

 
Step 3: Posttest

 
Example

 
Research Question

 
Groups

 
Procedure

 
Step 1: Pretest

 
Step 2: Treatment

 
Step 3: Posttest

 
Hypotheses

 
Data Set

 
Pretest Checklist

 
Pretest Checklist Criterion 1—Normality of Difference

 
Test Run

 
Results

 
Hypothesis Resolution

 
Documenting Results

 
?% Formula

 
Overview—Wilcoxon Test

 
Test Run

 
Results

 
Good Common Sense

 
Key Concepts

 
Practice Exercises

 
 
8. Correlation and Regression—Pearson and Spearman
Learning Objectives

 
Videos

 
Overview—Pearson Correlation

 
Example 1—Pearson Regression

 
Research Question

 
Groups

 
Procedure

 
Hypotheses

 
Data Set

 
Pretest Checklist

 
Pretest Checklist Criterion 1—Normality

 
Test Run

 
Correlation

 
Regression (Scatterplot With Regression Line)

 
Results

 
Scatterplot Points

 
Scatterplot Regression Line

 
Pretest Checklist Criterion 2—Linearity

 
Pretest Checklist Criterion 3—Homoscedasticity

 
Correlation

 
Hypothesis Resolution

 
Documenting Results

 
Negative Correlation

 
No Correlation

 
Overview—Spearman Correlation

 
Example 2—Spearman Correlation

 
Research Question

 
Groups

 
Procedure

 
Hypotheses

 
Data Set

 
Pretest Checklist

 
Test Run

 
Results

 
Hypothesis Resolution

 
Documenting Results

 
Alternative Use for Spearman Correlation

 
Correlation Versus Causation

 
Overview—Other Types of Statistical Regression: Multiple Regression and Logistic Regression

 
Multiple Regression (R2)

 
Logistic Regression

 
Good Common Sense

 
Key Concepts

 
Practice Exercises

 
 
9. Chi-Square
Learning Objectives

 
Video

 
Overview—Chi-Square

 
Example

 
Research Question

 
Groups

 
Procedure

 
Hypotheses

 
Data Set

 
Pretest Checklist

 
Pretest Checklist Criterion 1—n = 5 per Cell

 
Test Run

 
Results

 
Pretest Checklist Criterion 1—n = 5 per Cell

 
Hypothesis Resolution

 
Documenting Results

 
Good Common Sense

 
Key Concepts

 
Practice Exercises

 
 
PART III: DATA HANDLING
 
10. Supplemental SPSS Operations
Learning Objectives

 
Data Sets

 
Overview—Supplemental SPSS Operations

 
Generating Random Numbers

 
Sort Cases

 
Data Set

 
Select Cases

 
Data Set

 
Recoding

 
Data Set

 
Importing Data

 
Importing Excel Data

 
Data Set

 
Importing ASCII Data (Generic Text File)

 
Data Set

 
SPSS Syntax

 
Data Set

 
Data Sets

 
Good Common Sense

 
Key Concepts

 
Practice Exercises

 
 
Glossary
 
Index

Supplements

Student Study Site

The Student Study Site includes:

  • Data sets for use with exercises
  • Tutorial videos demonstrating how to use SPSS to work with data
  • Solutions to the odd-numbered exercises in the book
Instructor Teaching Site

Password-protected Instructor Resources include the following:

  • Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides that offer complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course
  • Tutorial videos demonstrating how to use SPSS to work with data
  • Solutions to the all of the exercises in the book

"This student-friendly text, coupled with an ample number of practice exercises and instructional videos for each chapter, provided my students with the resources to become proficient in using SPSS to perform and interpret the statistical analyses covered in the course. In addition, this text emphasizes and models the written communication of results and conclusions derived from research."

Linda Ritchie
Centenary University

“I find the videos extremely helpful. Of particular note was the pre-test checklist. This list helps students to understand what criteria need to be met for the test to be used. The directions provided are incredibly detailed and provide ample guidance to students with limited computer skills….Overall, I found this book to be the best of those that I have used or reviewed.” 

Christopher Salvatore
Montclair State University

“This is one of the best introductory SPSS texts on the market. It is easy to read, clear, concise and does not overwhelm the reader with abstract statistical theory. The exercises and examples are good and will be really useful both in class and for homework assignments. The online resources are a great addition and really help in understanding the material in the text.”

Barbra Teater
College of Staten Island, City University of New York

I highly recommend this book for everyone who wish to use SPSS. It is well written, easy to understand and to follow. The learning objectives at the beginning of the chapters give a good starting point.

Ms Eva Mikuska
Childhood and Youth study, Univeristy of Chichester
October 26, 2017

Finally a clear and concise book that presents with parametric and non-parametric equivalents together. I'm a fan!

Dr Cecile Muller
Department of Psychology, Surrey University
April 6, 2017

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 1

Chapter 6

Chapter 8


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Herschel Edmond Knapp

Herschel Knapp, PhD, MSSW, has more than 25 years of experience as a health care professional in a variety of domains.  In addition to his clinical work as a psychotherapist, primarily in hospital settings, he has provided project management for innovative implementations designed to improve the quality of patient care via multisite, health science implementations. He teaches master’s-level courses at the University of Southern California; he has also taught at the University of California, Los Angeles and California State University, Los Angeles. Dr. Knapp has served as the lead statistician on a longitudinal cancer research project... More About Author

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ISBN: 9781506341002
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