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Introduction to Intelligence

Introduction to Intelligence
Institutions, Operations, and Analysis

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February 2021 | 440 pages | CQ Press
Introduction to Intelligence: Institutions, Operations, and Analysis offers a strategic, international, and comparative approach to covering intelligence organizations and domestic security issues. Written by multiple authors, each chapter draws on the author's professional and scholarly expertise in the subject matter. As a core text for an introductory survey course in intelligence, this text provides readers with a comprehensive introduction to intelligence, including institutions and processes, collection, communications, and common analytic methods.

About the Authors
Chapter 1. Introduction
What Is Intelligence?

The Purpose of Intelligence

Conclusion: The Promise and the Limitations of Intelligence

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 2. Intelligence History
Intelligence From Antiquity to the Westphalian State System

Intelligence in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe

Intelligence in America From the Revolution to Pearl Harbor

World War II and the Birth of the Modern

The Cold War

Intelligence in the 21st Century: 9/11 and Its Aftermath

Conclusion: Assessing Over 3,000 Years of Intelligence History

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 3. Intelligence and Security Institutions: Organizations and Processes
An Illustration of Intelligence Support

The National Security Framework in the US System

The Growth of the National Security Bureaucracy

Intelligence Organizations in the US System of Government

The Intelligence Cycle and Its Critics

Conclusion: Critiques and Alternative Approaches

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 4. Comparative Intelligence Systems
Cases in Intelligence Studies

The United Kingdom

French Republic

Federal Republic of Germany


Russian Federation

People’s Republic of China

Conclusion: Similarities and Differences of Foreign

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 5. Intelligence Operations
How Do We Collect Intelligence?

Complexity and Challenges of Contemporary Intelligence Operations

Intelligence Collection Planning

The Five Principal Intelligence Collection Disciplines and Beyond

Military Intelligence

Conclusion: Intelligence Operations Summary

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 6. Counterintelligence
The World of Espionage and Intrigue

Counterintelligence Roles and Missions

Defensive Counterintelligence

Offensive Counterintelligence

Contemporary Challenges for Counterintelligence

Conclusion: Counterintelligence Summary

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 7. Covert Action
Types of Covert Action

Oversight of Covert Action in the United States

The US Military and Covert Action

Conclusion: Considerations in Covert Action

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 8. Cyberspace Operations and the Information Environment
Convergence of Technology

Peeling Back the Layers of Cyberspace

The US Cyber Strategy

Analyzing Cyber Threats

Conclusion: The Complexity of Threats in the Cyberspace Domain

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 9. Intelligence Regulation and Governance
McCarthyism and the Second Red Scare

Domestic Intelligence and COINTELPRO

The Watergate Scandal

The Church and Pike Committees

Intelligence Oversight After Watergate

Intelligence Oversight in Practice

The Separation of Powers in Intelligence Oversight

Conclusion: An Imperfect but Indispensable System

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 10. Inter-Agency Communications
The Inherent Tensions in Intelligence Communications

Communications Challenges in Intra-Agency Settings

Communications Challenges in Inter-Agency Settings

Products for Intelligence Consumers

Getting the Attention of Intelligence Consumers

Retaining the Attention of Intelligence Consumers

Conclusion: Making Intelligence Useful

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 11. Intelligence Analysis
Epistemology and Intelligence Analysis

Forecasting and the Challenges of Prediction

Psychological Biases and Intelligence Analysis

Conclusion: From the Philosophy of Science to Practice

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 12. Analytic Methods
The Contemporary Context of Intelligence Analysis

Methods Used to Analyze Intelligence Targets

Presenting Findings: The Structure and Voice of Written

Conclusion: Patterns of Recruitment and Training of Intelligence Analysts in the US Intelligence Community

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 13. The Ethics of Intelligence
Of Ethics and Moral Systems

Case Studies

Conclusion: The Ethical Demands of National Service

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 14. Threats to the United States and Its Interests
Strategic Competitors


Climate Change as a Driver of International Instability

Cyber Threats in the 21st Century

Inter-state War

Ethnic Conflict, Revolution, and State Destabilization

Weapons of Mass Destruction


Criminal Networks

Conclusion: Of Threats and Priorities

Key Concepts

Additional Reading


Jonathan M. Acuff

Jonathan M. Acuff is an associate professor of intelligence and national security studies at Coastal Carolina University. A former officer in the US Army Reserve, Professor Acuff has also worked as a military analyst for the National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR). While at NBR, he conducted research funded by the Department of Homeland Security evaluating the vulnerability of private sector facilities in the Pacific Northwest to terrorist attacks, as well as several projects supported by US Pacific Command (PACOM). He has published articles in Intelligence and National Security, International Political Sociology, and Totalitarian... More About Author

Lamesha Craft

LaMesha L. Craft’s background includes 20 years of active military service in the US Army as an all-source intelligence warrant officer. Throughout her career, she provided strategic and operational intelligence analysis of nation-state and nonstate threats to US interests, policy, data, and networks in/around Asia, Europe, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, and Southwest Asia. She has also worked overseas in Kosovo, Germany, Kuwait, and Iraq. Dr. Craft authored a comprehensive guide to conducting intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB) when analyzing threats in cyberspace. It was recognized as a “best practice” by the Center... More About Author

Christopher Ferrero

Christopher J. Ferrero holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from Villanova University, a master’s degree in security studies from Georgetown University, and a PhD in foreign affairs from the University of Virginia. He worked as a weapons of mass destruction analyst for the US Department of State from 2002 to 2003 and for the US Missile Defense Agency from 2003 to 2006. His areas of specialization include intelligence studies, WMD, the Middle East, and international security. He has taught courses on a range of international relations subjects at the University of Virginia, Seton Hall University, Syracuse University, and... More About Author

Joseph Fitsanakis

Joseph Fitsanakis, PhD, is an associate professor in the intelligence and national security studies program at Coastal Carolina University, where he teaches courses on intelligence communications, intelligence operations, intelligence analysis, and human intelligence, among other topics. He has published widely on intelligence collection (communications interception and cyber espionage), intelligence reform, and transnational criminal networks. His writings also cover the evolution and practices of intelligence agencies in the United States, the Balkan region, northeast Africa, and Asia, with particular emphasis on China and North Korea.... More About Author

Richard J. Kilroy

Richard J. Kilroy Jr. is an associate professor in the Department of Politics at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, South Carolina, where he teaches courses in support of the intelligence and national security studies degree program and Latin America regional studies. He is also a former army intelligence and Latin America foreign area officer, having served in Germany, the US embassy, Mexico City, and US Southern Command in Panama. He holds an MA and PhD in foreign affairs from the University of Virginia. Dr. Kilroy is coauthor of Seguridad Regional en América del Norte: Una Relación Impugnada, published by Universidad Iberoamericana... More About Author

Jonathan Smith

Jonathan C. Smith is a professor in the intelligence and national security studies program at Coastal Carolina University, which he established in 2011. He also serves as the Educational Practices Committee chairman for the International Association for Intelligence Education. In addition to his teaching activities, Dr. Smith served in the US Navy Reserve as an intelligence officer. In a 23-year career, he deployed in support of operations in Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq, Afghanistan, and the global war on terrorism. His last assignment was as the commanding officer of Joint Intelligence Operations Center 0174 at the US Southern Command in Miami,... More About Author

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ISBN: 9781544374673