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Introduction to Criminal Justice

Introduction to Criminal Justice
Practice and Process

Second Edition
Additional resources:

December 2015 | 504 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

“This text provides a clear and interesting format through which students may understand often difficult criminal justice concepts. Peak provides students with an interactive format for learning, complete with up-to-date supplementary information. The text is concise, informative and interesting.”

—Tameka Samuels-Jones, University of Florida


Introduction to Criminal Justice: Practice and Process, Second Edition uses a proven problem-based learning approach to enhance the critical thinking and analytic skills of students. Best-selling authors Kenneth J. Peak and Pamela M. Everett explain the importance of criminal justice and show students how key trends, emerging issues, historical background, and practical lessons apply to their future careers. Students learn core topics—policing, corrections, criminal behavior, criminal law, and courts—as well as special topics such as ethics, juvenile justice, terrorism, and the changing war on drugs, while learning how to solve problems they are likely to face as criminal justice practitioners. Packed with new examples and drawing on the authors’ years of experience in the field, this student-friendly book offers a palpable, real-world flavor typically missing in other texts for the course.


Interactive eBook also available—FREE when bundled with the new edition!

Your students save when you bundle the new edition Introduction to Criminal Justice: Practice and Process with the interactive eBook. Use bundle ISBN 978-1-5063-3927-6

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PART I. Criminal Justice as a System: The Basics
Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Criminal Justice: Essential Themes and Practices
Foundations of Criminal Justice: Legal and Historical Bases  
Politics and Criminal Justice  
Crime Control and Due Process: Do Ends Justify Means?  
Discretion: Making and Applying the Law  
The Criminal Justice Process: An Overview of Flow and Functions  
The Wedding Cake Model of Criminal Justice  
Ethics Throughout the Criminal Justice System  
Chapter 2. Foundations of Law and Crime: Nature, Elements, and Defenses
Common Law and Its Progeny  
Modern-Day Sources and Hierarchy of Law  
Criminal and Civil Law  
Substantive and Procedural Law  
Essential Elements: Mens Rea and Actus Reus  
Felonies and Misdemeanors  
Offense Definitions and Categories  
Chapter 3. Theories of Crime and Measuring Victimization
Classical and Positivist Theories  
Biological Determinism  
Psychological Rationales  
Sociocultural Explanations  
Women and Crime  
White-Collar Crime  
In Their Own Words: Offenders Speak  
Measuring Crime and Victimization  
Chapter 4. Ethical Essentials: "Doing Right When No One Is Watching"
Good Examples of Bad Examples  
Philosophical Foundations  
Ethics in Policing  
Ethics in the Courts  
Ethical Conduct of Federal Employees  
Ethics in Corrections  
The Ethical Decision-Making Process  
Ethics Tests for the Criminal Justice Student  
PART II. The Police
Chapter 5. Police Organizations: Structure and Functions
English and Colonial Roots: An Overview  
Policing Comes to the United States  
Federal Law Enforcement  
State Agencies  
Local Agencies: Municipal Police and Sheriff’s Departments  
On Guard: The Private Police  
Chapter 6. Police at Work: Patrolling and Investigating
From Citizen to Patrol Officer  
Having the “Right Stuff”: A Working Personality  
Defining the Role  
Stressors of Police Work  
A Study of Patrol Effectiveness  
The Traffic Function  
Police Discretion  
Community Policing and Problem Solving  
The Work of Forensics and Detectives  
Chapter 7. Policing Methods and Challenges
Use of Force: A Sacred Trust  
The Role of Local Police in Homeland Security  
When Failing the Public Trust: Civil Liability  
Needed: More Women and Minorities  
Police Technologies  
Chapter 8. Expounding the Constitution: Laws of Arrest, Search, and Seizure
Some Caveats  
The Fourth Amendment  
The Fifth Amendment  
The Sixth Amendment  
PART III. The Courts
Chapter 9. Court Organization: Structure, Functions, and the Trial Process
Our Adversarial System  
The Influence of Courts in Policy Making  
American Courts: A Dual Court System  
State Courts  
Federal Courts  
Making Preparations: Pretrial Processes  
The Trial Process  
Technologies in the Courts  
Chapter 10. The Bench and The Bar: Those Who Judge, Prosecute, and Defend
Those Who Would Be Judge: Selection Methods and Issues  
Jurists’ Benefits, Training, and Challenges  
The Art of Judging, Courtroom Civility, and Judicial Misconduct  
The Attorneys  
Chapter 11. Court Methods and Challenges: Sentencing and Punishment
Purposes of Punishment  
Types of Sentences to Be Served  
Sentencing Guidelines  
Victim Impact Statements  
Capital Punishment  
Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances  
Criminal Appeals  
PART IV. Corrections
Chapter 12. Prisons and Jails: Structure and Function
Correctional Facilities as Organizations  
State Prisons as Organizations  
Federal Prisons  
Supermax Prisons  
Jails as Organizations  
Technologies in Prisons: The Good and the Bad  
Chapter 13. The Inmates' World: The "Keepers" and the "Kept"
The Nature of Incarceration  
Potentially Hazardous Work  
Jail Personnel  
Issues of Prison Governance  
Preparation for Reentry and Aftercare  
Prisoners’ Constitutional Rights  
Chapter 14. Corrections in the Community: Probation, Parole, and Other Alternatives to Incarceration
Why Alternatives to Incarceration  
Origins of Probation and Parole  
Probation and Parole Today  
Do Probation and Parole Work?  
Functions of Probation and Parole Officers  
Other Alternatives: Intermediate Sanctions  
Confronting Recidivists: The Risk-Needs-Responsivity (RNR) Model  
Restorative Justice  
PART V. Spanning the System: Methods and Issues
Chapter 15. Juvenile Justice: Philosophy, Law, and Practices
History of Juvenile Justice  
Unique Philosophy, Principles, and Goals  
Juvenile Offending Today  
Case Flow of the Juvenile Justice Process  
The Problem of Labeling  
Youth Gangs: An Overview  
Aftercare and Reentry  
Significant Court Decisions  
Chapter 16. On the Crime Policy and Prevention Agenda: Terrorism, the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System, and the Changing War on Drugs
The “New Asylums”: The Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System  
The Changing War on Drugs  
Appendix: Constitution of the United States


Student Study Site

SAGE EDGE FOR STUDENTS enhances learning in an easy-to-use environment that offers:

  • Mobile-friendly flashcards that strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts, and make it easy to maximize your study time, anywhere, anytime
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes that allow you to assess how much you’ve learned and where you need to focus your attention
  • A customized online action plan that includes tips and feedback on progress through the course and materials
  • Chapter summaries with learning objectives that reinforce the most important material
  • Chapter-specific study questions that allow you to engage with the material
  • SAGE Premium Video, tied to learning objectives and curated and produced exclusively for this text to bring concepts to life, featuring:
    • Students on the Street illustrating common student misconceptions of criminal justice
    • Want access to more SAGE Premium Video? Ask your instructor about the interactive eBook version of this text, where you can access even more video resources and digital tools.
  • Video resources that bring concepts to life, are tied to learning objectives, and make learning easier
  • Exclusive access to influential SAGE journal and reference content, that ties important research and scholarship to chapter concepts to strengthen learning
Instructor Resource site

SAGE COURSEPACKS FOR INSTRUCTORS makes it easy to import our quality content into your school’s LMS. Intuitive and simple to use, it allows you to


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For use in: Blackboard, Canvas, Brightspace by Desire2Learn (D2L), and Moodle


Don’t use an LMS platform? No problem, you can still access many of the online resources for your text via SAGE edge.


SAGE coursepacks includes:

  • Our content delivered directly into your LMS
  • Intuitive, simple format that makes it easy to integrate the material into your course with minimal effort
  • Pedagogically robust assessment tools that foster review, practice, and critical thinking, and offer a more complete way to measure student engagement, including:
    • Diagnostic chapter pre tests and post tests that identify opportunities for improvement, track student progress, and ensure mastery of key learning objectives
    • Test banks built on Bloom’s Taxonomy that provide a diverse range of test items with ExamView test generation
    • Activity and quiz options that allow you to choose only the assignments and tests you want
    • Instructions on how to use and integrate the comprehensive assessments and resources provided
  • Chapter-specific discussion questions to help launch engaging classroom interaction while reinforcing important content
  • Assignable SAGE Premium Video (available via the interactive eBook version, linked through SAGE coursepacks) that is tied to learning objectives, and curated and produced exclusively for this text to bring concepts to life and appeal to different learning styles, featuring:
    • Corresponding multimedia assessment options that automatically feed to your gradeboo
    • Comprehensive, downloadable, easy-to-use Media Guide in the Coursepack for every video resource, listing the chapter to which the video content is tied, matching learning objective(s), a helpful description of the video content, and assessment questions
    • Students on the Street illustrating common student misconceptions of criminal justice and authors discussing the students' responses to provide explanations to these important topics.
  • Video resources that bring concepts to life, are tied to learning objectives and make learning easier 
  • EXCLUSIVE, influential SAGE journal content, built into course materials and assessment tools, that ties important research and scholarship to chapter concepts to strengthen learning
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides that offer flexibility when creating multimedia lectures so you don’t have to start from scratch but you can customize to your exact needs
  • Sample course syllabi with suggested models for structuring your course that give you options to customize your course in a way that is perfect for you
  • Lecture notes that summarize key concepts on a chapter-by-chapter basis to help you with preparation for lectures and class discussions
  • Integrated links to the FREE interactive eBook that make it easy for your students to maximize their study time with this “anywhere, anytime” mobile-friendly version of the text. It also offers access to more digital tools and resources, including SAGE Premium Video
  • All tables and figures from the textbook

 “This textbook provides excellent and relevant information that it is inter-disciplinary.”

Chris Chaney
The Institute of Technology/ William Jessup University

 “I already like Peak’s style and I like everything that has been added to make this particular book so comprehensive.”

Coy Johnston
Arizona State University

“This text provides a clear and interesting format through which students may understand often difficult criminal justice concepts. Peak provides students with an interactive format for learning, complete with up-to-date supplementary information. The text is concise, informative and interesting.”

Tameka Samuels-Jones
University of Florida

“Clearly and concisely written [and] as up-to-date as possible which helped the students understand the material"

Dianne Berger-Hill, M.A.S.
Old Dominion University

“Chapters 1 and 2 are strong – well written foundational materials [and]  E-book a strong addition and useful for students that are technology based (given that most are tech savvy).”

Jacqueline van Wormer, Ph.D.
Washington State University

“Engaging chapters”

Dominic D. Yin, MS., JD.
City College of San Francisco

“Provides students with many opportunities to further their knowledge and understanding of the area”

Richard Stringer
Old Dominion University

A comprehensive textbook with good ancillary supplements, especially online coursepack.

Dr George Weissinger
Social Science Dept, Queensborough Cmty College
October 6, 2016

Continue from 1st edition...use of blackboard supplements and other media (video, audio, etc.) helpful.

Dr George Weissinger
Social Sciences Dept, Queensborough Cmty College
January 23, 2016

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 4

Chapter 2

Preview this book

Kenneth John Peak

Kenneth J. Peak is emeritus professor and former chair of the Department of Criminal Justice, University of Nevada, Reno, where he was named “Teacher of the Year” by the university’s Honor Society. Following four years as a municipal police officer in Kansas, he subsequently held positions as a nine-county criminal justice planner for southeast Kansas; director of a four-state technical assistance institute for the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (based at Washburn University in Topeka); director of university police at Pittsburg State University (Kansas); acting director of public safety, University of Nevada, Reno; and... More About Author

Pamela Michele Everett

Pamela M. Everett is a lecturer in the Department of Criminal Justice, University of Nevada, Reno. She earned her undergraduate degree in criminal justice at the University of Nevada, Reno, where she was the top graduating senior in the College of Arts and Sciences. She thenearned her Juris Doctorate from the University of San Diego School of Law, where she wrote for the University of San Diego Law Review, garnered first-place honors in the Appellate Moot Court competition, and earned the Best Brief/Best Oralist award for first-year law students. Everett began her teaching career as an adjunct... More About Author

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ISBN: 9781506305929