HSS Journal is a publication of Hospital for Special Surgery, ranked U.S. #1 in orthopedics, 11 years in a row, and #4 in rheumatology by U.S. News & World Report. The journal’s publication is a part of the overall HSS educational mission to be the most trusted educator by providing timely content to clinicians concerned with musculoskeletal health. Professionals in 130 countries receive CME via HSS eAcademy.
This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
HSS Journal: The Musculoskeletal Journal of Hospital for Special Surgery is a peer-reviewed publication featuring clinical and basic science research, case reports, commentaries, and review articles encompassing the spectrum of musculoskeletal health and disease. Our global audience of clinicians, surgeons, and scientists is dedicated to the diagnosis and management of orthopedic trauma, osteoarthritis, and rheumatic disease. Published since 2005, HSS Journal upholds the highest standards in interdisciplinary practice and research.
|Charles N. Cornell, MD||HSS, Stamford, CT, USA|
|Laura Robbins, DSW||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Joy Jacobson, MFA||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Emily R. Dodwell, MD, MPH, FRC||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Cynthia Kahlenberg, MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Alejandro Leali, MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Robert G. Marx, MD, MSc, FRCSC||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Alexander S. McLawhorn, MD, MBA||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Benedict Nwachukwu, MD, MBA||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Sheeraz Qureshi, MD, MBA||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Burak Altintas, MD||Jacobi Medical Center, New York, NY, USA|
|Christopher Dy, MD, MPH||Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA|
|O. Folorunsho Edobor-Osula , MD||Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA|
|Michael J. Klein, MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Stephen Lyman, PhD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Carol A. Mancuso, MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Benjamin F. Ricciardi, MD||University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA|
|Carolyn M. Sofka, MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Ekaterina Urch, MD||St. Charles Health System, Bend, OR, USA|
|Deborah Valentine, MSN, CCN, ONC||HSS, Stamford, CT, USA|
|Timothy Wright, PhD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Brian Chalmers, MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Caroline Donovan MSN, RN, CIC, ONC||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Maria Eugenia L. Duarte, MD, PhD||National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil|
|Michael Fu MD, MHS||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Harry Greditzer MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Lawrence V. Gulotta MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Iftach Hetsroni MD||Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel|
|Thomas J. Heyse, MD, PhD||Red Cross Hospital Frankfurt; Frankfurt, Germany|
|Kethy M. Jules-Elysee MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Paz Kedem MD||Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikvah, Israel|
|Han Jo Kim MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Virginie Lafage PhD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|David Landy MD, PhD||University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY USA|
|Steve K. Lee MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Audrey Zucker Levin PhD, MBA, MSPT, GCS||University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada|
|Ogonna Nwawka MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Deanna Paxos MSN, RN-BC, CNL, NE-BC||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Joel M. Press MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|José A. Rodriguez MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Thomas P. Sculco MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Seung-Suk Seo MD, PhD||Haeundae Bumin Hospital , Busan, South Korea|
|Jeffrey Stepan MD, MSc||University of Chicago Medical Center Chicago, IL USA|
|Jin Bo Tang MD, PhD||Brown University, Providence, RI USA|
|Gwen Weinstock-Zlotnick PhD, OTR/L, CHT||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|David S. Wellman, MD||Westchester Medical Center; Valhalla, NY, USA|
|Patawut Bovonratwet||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Yusef Jordan MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Kyle Kunze MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Mark Langhans MD, PhD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Francis Lovecchio MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Ajay Premkumar MD, MPH||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Ryan Rauck MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
|Tyler Uppstrom MD||HSS, New York, NY, USA|
Manuscript Submission Guidelines: HSS Journal®: The Musculoskeletal Journal of Hospital for Special Surgery
This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.
This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).
Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/hss to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.
SAGE Publishing disseminates high-quality research and engaged scholarship globally, and we are committed to diversity and inclusion in publishing. We encourage submissions from a diverse range of authors from across all countries and backgrounds.
Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of HSS Journal will be reviewed.
There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal.
As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere. Please see our guidelines on prior publication.
HSS Journal will consider submissions of papers that have been posted on preprint servers; please alert the editor-in-chief in your cover letter when submitting and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the Journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the Journal's author archiving policy. If your paper is accepted, you must include a link on your preprint to the final version of your paper.
If you have any questions about publishing with SAGE, please visit the SAGE Journal Solutions Portal.
- What do we publish?
1.1 Aims & Scope
1.2 Article types
1.3 Writing your paper
1.3.1 Make your article discoverable
- Editorial policies
2.1 Peer review policy
2.3.1 Third party submissions
2.3.2 Writing assistance
2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
2.6 Research ethics and patient consent
2.7 Clinical trials
2.8 Reporting guidelines
2.9 Research data
- Publishing policies
3.1 Publication ethics
3.1.2 Prior Publication
3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
3.3 Open access and author archiving
- Preparing your manuscript
4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
4.3 Supplemental material
4.4 Reference style
4.5 English language editing services
- Submitting your manuscript
5.2 Information required for completing your submission
- On acceptance and publication
6.1 SAGE Production
6.2 Online First publication
6.3 Access to your published article
6.4 Promoting your article
- Further information
7.1 Appealing the publication decision
Before submitting your manuscript to HSS Journal, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.
HSS Journal considers the following article types.
- Original Article
- Clinical Research (describing evidence on the treatment, diagnosis, prognosis, or cost-effectiveness of musculoskeletal disorders) or Basic Research (exploring mechanisms of musculoskeletal disorders and/or their treatment)
- In the Introduction, lay out the rationale for your study; provide an adequate review of the literature that demonstrates the gap in knowledge your study will fill.
- Format your thesis using a “question driven” style: include 2-4 questions or purposes in the Introduction that are then answered in the Results and Discussion sections.
- Delineate your study design, sampling, and statistical analysis in the Methods section. Describe these in sufficient detail that your study could be replicated.
- Limit to 3000 words (not including abstract and references) and 50 references.
- Include a 200-250 word structured abstract (Background, Questions/purposes, Methods, Results, Conclusions) and 3-5 keywords.
- Include tables and figures that provide greater detail but do not duplicate findings reported in the text.
- Review Article
- For narrative, systematic, and scoping reviews, lay out the rationale for your review; provide an adequate review of the literature that demonstrates the reason your review is necessary.
- Please use a “question driven” style: include 2-4 questions or purposes in the Introduction that are then answered in the Results and Discussion sections.
- Limit to 5000 words (not including abstract and references) and 80 references.
- Include a 200-250-word structured abstract (Background, Questions/purposes, Methods, Results, Conclusions) and 3-5 keywords.
- Case Report
- The Editors consider case reports featuring a diagnostic dilemma, an unusual challenge in diagnosis or treatment, or unanticipated complications.
- A representative literature review should be presented as background.
- Limit to 2000 words (not including abstract and references) and 30 references.
- No abstract required but include 3-5 keywords.
- Commentaries address a clinical dilemma or outline personal or professional experience.
- Limit to 2000 words and 20 references.
- No abstract required but include 3-5 keywords.
- Letter to the Editor
- Respond to an article published in the journal with a letter of fewer than 500 words, including references.
- Evidence Based Review in Orthopedics
- Analyze a clinical trial published in any journal within the prior year.
- Review and synthesize the literature on the topic to provide context for the findings.
- Limit to 2000 words (not including abstract and references) and 25 references.
- Include a narrative (unstructured) abstract.
- Surgical Technique
- Report on a surgical innovation in a structured article (Introduction, Technique, Results, Discussion).
- Introduction: discuss the rationale for and succinctly describe the new technique.
- Present results of the technique and include sufficient numbers of patients, follow-up times, and assessment methods to warrant use by others.
- Discussion: review advantages and disadvantages of the technique.
- Submit short videos of the surgery for posting on the SAGE site (see instructions for submitting electronic supplementary material).
See this recently published example: Butler AJ, Brusko GD, Wang MY. Awake endoscopic transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: a technical note. HSS J. 2020;16(2):200-204. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11420-020-09748-6
The SAGE Author Gateway has some general advice on how to get published, plus links to further resources.
For information and guidance on how to make your article more discoverable, visit our Gateway page on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.
HSS Journal adheres to a rigorous double-blind reviewing policy in which the identity of both the reviewer and author are always concealed from both parties.
Decisions on manuscripts will be made as rapidly as possible. In general, Editors seek advice from two or more expert reviewers about the scientific content and presentation of submitted articles. All manuscripts are reviewed initially by the Editors and only those that meet the scientific and editorial standards of the journal, and fit within its aims and scope, will be sent for outside review.
As standard practice, SAGE does not permit the use of author-suggested reviewers.
HSS Journal is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer-review for your paper, and as such has partnered with Publons. Publons is a third-party service that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for HSS Journal can opt in to Publons in order to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and the content of their review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Publons website.
The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the Journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor/Board member will not be involved in the decision-making process.
Papers should be submitted only once all contributing authors have given consent. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.
The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This includes those who:
- Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
- Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
- Approved the version to be published,
- Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.
Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.
Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the ICMJE authorship guidelines for more information.
All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.
Please supply any personal acknowledgements on the title page and not in the main document to facilitate anonymous peer review.
Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:
· Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
· Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
· Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.
Where appropriate, SAGE reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.
Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.
HSS Journal requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
HSS Journal requires all authors of any submission to declare conflicting interests from the prior 3 years, enabling a ”Declaration of Conflicting Interests” statement to be published with each article.
Please ensure that a conflict of interest form from the ICMJE is included for each author at the time of submission and that the potential conflicts of interest are listed on your title page. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here.
Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.
Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant ethics committee or institutional review board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.
For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.
Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative. Please do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself breaches the patient’s confidentiality. The Journal requests that you confirm to us, in writing, that you have obtained written informed consent but the written consent itself should be held by the authors/investigators themselves, for example in a patient’s hospital record. The confirmatory letter may be uploaded with your submission as a separate file.
We recommend that authors of case reports use the CARE checklist before submission. Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants.
All research involving animals submitted for publication must be approved by an ethics committee with oversight of the facility in which the studies were conducted. The Journal has adopted the Consensus Author Guidelines on Animal Ethics and Welfare for Veterinary Journals published by the International Association of Veterinary Editors.
HSS Journal endorses the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment. However, consistent with the AllTrials campaign, retrospectively registered trials will be considered if the justification for late registration is acceptable. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.
The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline. If your research involves animals, you will be asked to confirm that you have carefully read and adhered to the ARRIVE guidelines.
Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.
At SAGE we are committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research. The Journal expects authors to share their research data in a suitable public repository. This is subject to ethical considerations and in such cases the Journal editor may grant an exception and authors should contact the Journal editorial office. Authors are also required to include a data accessibility statement in their manuscript file, indicating if data is present or absent, and to follow data citation principles. For more information please visit the SAGE Author Gateway, which includes information about SAGE’s partnership with the data repository Figshare.
SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway.
HSS Journal and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism, or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the Journal against malpractice. All submitted articles are checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.
3.1.2 Prior publication
If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.
Before publication, SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. SAGE’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive license agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants SAGE the sole and exclusive right and license to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than SAGE. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the SAGE Author Gateway.
HSS Journal offers optional open access publishing via the SAGE Choice program. For more information please visit the SAGE Choice website. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit SAGE Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway. HSS Journal covers the fees for a limited number of open access articles per year; contact the Editors for more information.
The preferred format for your manuscript is Microsoft Word. Please do not submit your text in PDF format.
For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.
Figures supplied in color will appear in color online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For specifically requested color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from SAGE after receipt of your accepted article.
This Journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc.) alongside the full text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplemental files.
4.4 Reference style
HSS Journal adheres to a modified AMA style for citations and reference lists. References should be in alphabetical order and in-text citations should be numbered according to alphabetical listing and placed within brackets. Please abbreviate and italicize journal titles. Submissions with reference lists not in alphabetical order will be withdrawn at the time of submission; authors may then submit a corrected file.
Examples of formatted references:
Journal article with fewer than six authors
Soffin EM, Waldman SA, Stack RJ, Liguori GA. An evidence-based approach to the prescription opioid epidemic in orthopedic surgery. Anesth Analg. 2017;125(5):1704–1713
Journal article with six or more authors
Griswold MK, Chai PR, Krotulski AJ, et al. A novel oral fluid assay (LC-QTOF-MS) for the detection of fentanyl and clandestine opioids in oral fluid after reported heroin overdose. J Med Toxicol. 2017;13(4):287–292.
Wellington B. Soft tissue, peripheral nerve and brachial plexus injury. In: Clarke S, Snaty-Tomlinson J, eds. Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing: An Evidence-Based Approach to Musculoskeletal Care. 1st ed. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014:265–275
Examples of in-text citations:
- Negotiation research spans many disciplines .
- This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman .
- This effect has been widely studied [1-3, 7].
Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.
HSS Journal is hosted on SAGE Track, an online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/hss to login and submit your article online.
IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the Journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created. For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.
As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process, SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.
The collection of ORCID IDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this Journal. If you already have an ORCID ID you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID ID will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID ID is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.
You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).
Please ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the SAGE Author Gateway.
Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal SAGE Edit or by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. Please note that if there are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to complete and sign a form authorizing the change.
OnlineFirst allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the SAGE Journals help page for more details, including how to cite OnlineFirst articles.
SAGE provides authors with online access to their final article.
Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.
Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the HSS Journal editorial office:
Joy Jacobson, MFA, Managing Editor
Editors have very broad discretion in determining whether an article is an appropriate fit for their journal. Many manuscripts are declined with a very general statement of the rejection decision. These decisions are not eligible for formal appeal unless the author believes the decision to reject the manuscript was based on an error in the review of the article, in which case the author may appeal the decision by providing the Editor with a detailed written description of the error they believe occurred.
If an author believes the decision regarding their manuscript was affected by a publication ethics breach, the author may contact the publisher with a detailed written description of their concern, and information supporting the concern, at email@example.com.