You are here

Hate Crime

Hate Crime
Impact, Causes and Responses

Second Edition

March 2015 | 208 pages | SAGE Publications Ltd

Hate crime is a particularly pernicious form of criminal behaviour that has significant impacts upon victims, their families and wider communities. In this substantially revised and updated edition the book examines the nature, extent and harms of hate crime, and the effectiveness of criminal justice responses to it. It covers racist, religiously motivated, homophobic, disablist and transphobic hate crime, as well as other forms of targeted victimisation such as gendered hostility, elder abuse, attacks upon alternative subcultures and violence against sex workers and the homeless. The book also assesses the complexities and controversies surrounding hate crime legislation and policy-making, as well as the continuing challenges associated with the policing of hate.


The second edition features expanded discussions of international perspectives and contemporary topics such as online hate and cyberbullying, as well as numerous case studies covering issues such as lone wolf extremists, Islamophobia, asylum seekers and the far right. The book contains a range of links to online material that accompany the extensive lists of further reading in each chapter. 

Chapter One: Understanding Hate Crime
Chapter Two: Racist Hate Crime
Chapter Three: Religiously Motivated Hate Crime
Chapter Four: Homophobic Hate Crime
Chapter Five: Transphobic Hate Crime
Chapter Six: Disablist Hate Crime
Chapter Seven: Vulnerability, ‘Difference’ and Gendered Violence
Chapter Eight: Perpetrators of Hate Crime
Chapter Nine: Responding to Hate Crime
Chapter Ten: International Perspectives on Hate Crime
Chapter Eleven: Conclusions and Future Directions

In this second edition of Hate Crime, Chakraborti and Garland broaden the scope of their analysis to thoughtfully reflect on dramatic changes in the realms of theory, research and policy that have characterized the field in the intervening 6 years since the first edition. They draw attention to our increased awareness of the complexity and ambiguity of hate crime, challenging readers to question many taken for granted assumptions of previous scholarship. This thoroughly researched and accessible text deftly captures the contexts and consequences of hate crime, giving due consideration to both victims and offenders, as well as the relationships between them. What is especially welcome is the weight given to "ways forward." The authors' emphasis on policy innovations within and beyond the UK will undoubtedly shape the scholarly and practical discourses around how we confront hate crime globally.

Dr. Barbara Perry
University of Ontario Institute of Technology

Comprehensive, informed, full of ideas, and yet accessible. The completely revised and fully updated second edition of this terrific book, by two of the leading scholars in the field, is an absolute must for anyone interested in the field of hate crimes.

Professor Tim Newburn
London School of Economics

The concept of hate crime has been widely debated by academics but there is unlikely to ever be a broad consensus. However, the realities of the harm it causes to individuals and communities are all too real and UK Governments have recognized the value of decisions having a sound academic foundation. Fortunately there are a core group of academics in the UK who have moved on from the conceptual, to focus on its practicalities. Neil Chakraborti and Jon Garland have contributed greatly to this practical wave of research and this updated volume is a useful step forward, addressing some recent emerging elements of policy and practice.

Paul Giannasi
Head of the UK Cross-Government Hate Crime Programme

A very useful read for students or practitioners wanting to expand their understanding of this important area. The text is up-to-date, covering such recent developments as the murder of Lee Rigby and the rise of recent far right street movements. The source material encompasses a wide range of international research but also the impressive work of the two central authors who are clearly leaders in the field... I [recommend] this book to all with an interest in the field who would benefit from an extremely competent and illuminating overview.

Pete Marston, Senior Probation Officer, Cumbria, NPS (North West)
Probation Journal

This is a fantastic book for helping students to understand the diverse nature of hate crime and will be a key text for helping students to understand the victimisation of a diverse range of demographic groups.

Miss Samantha Reveley
Faculty of Education and Society, Sunderland University
September 20, 2019

The previous edition of this book is already included on the reading list, so this is an updated version which I intend to recommend.

Mrs Ruth McGrath
Law , Policing and Investigation, University of Teeside
June 7, 2016

Great book, which gives you an understanding for hate crimes in a more general perspective.

Ms Sara Thunberg
Social Work , School of Law, Psychology and Social Work
March 1, 2016

Although the text is not key to the overall course, it does offer an interesting and informative read for anyone looking at the intricacies of victimology and the links to hate.

Miss Anna Waistnage
Health and Social care sciences, Grimsby Institute of HE & FE
June 2, 2015

This book presents an excellent review of one of the most important areas of Criminology: youth crime. The relation established by this book between the criminological theory and the special characteristics of this type of crime is very interesting. And those chapters related to Criminal Politics and the strategies for its prevention and formal control are even more interesting (and unusual).

Mr Francisco Bernabeu
Centro Crímina, Universidad Miguel Hernández
August 26, 2015

This book approaches a new criminal activity, which has been hardly dealt with in current scientific studies: hate crime. In a near future, hate crime will require more and more attention by criminological research. That is why this book is considered as a very useful learning tool for students of this concrete area of Criminology.

Mr Francisco Bernabeu
Centro Crímina, Universidad Miguel Hernández
October 15, 2015
Key features

New to the Second Edition of Hate Crime:

  • Expanded discussions of international perspectives and contemporary topics e.g. online hate and cyberbullying
  • Case studies covering issues such as lone wolf extremists, Islamophobia, asylum seekers and the far right
  • Links to online material that accompany the extensive lists of further reading in each chapter. 
  • Expanded discussions of international perspectives and contemporary topics e.g. online hate and cyberbullying
  • Case studies covering issues such as lone wolf extremists, Islamophobia, asylum seekers and the far right
  • Links to online material that accompany the extensive lists of further reading in each chapter. 

Sample Materials & Chapters

Hate Crime: Perpetrators of Hate Crime

Neil Chakraborti

Neil Chakraborti is a Professor of Criminology at the University of Leicester, Director of the Leicester Centre for Hate Studies and an Adjunct Professor at the University of Ontario. He has published widely within the field of hate crime, and his books include Hate Crime: Impact, Causes and Responses (Sage, 2nd edition 2015; 1st edition 2009 with Jon Garland) Responding to Hate Crime: The Case for Connecting Policy and Research (2014, with Jon Garland); Islamophobia, Victimisation and the Veil (2014 with Irene Zempi); Hate Crime: Concepts, Policy, Future Directions (2010); and Rural Racism (2004 with Jon Garland). Neil conducts ongoing... More About Author

Jon Garland

Jon Garland is a Reader in Criminology in the Department of Sociology at the University of Surrey. His main areas of research are in the fields of hate crime, rural racism, community and identity, policing and victimisation. He has just finished working on the Leicester Hate Crime Project, a two-year hate crime victimisation study funded by the Economic and Social Research Council. Prior to this he has been awarded research grants from the Home Office (to evaluate police diversity training); Leicester City Council (to conduct an audit of the local African Caribbean community); the European Union (to examine the issue of racism in football)... More About Author

Purchasing options

Please select a format:

ISBN: 9781446272510
ISBN: 9781446272503

SAGE Knowledge is the ultimate social sciences digital library for students, researchers, and faculty. Hosting more than 4,400 titles, it includes an expansive range of SAGE eBook and eReference content, including scholarly monographs, reference works, handbooks, series, professional development titles, and more.

The platform allows researchers to cross-search and seamlessly access a wide breadth of must-have SAGE book and reference content from one source.