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Forensic Science and the Administration of Justice
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Forensic Science and the Administration of Justice
Critical Issues and Directions

Edited by:


April 2014 | 312 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Uniting forensics, law, and social science in meaningful and relevant ways, Forensic Science and the Administration of Justice is structured around current research on how forensic evidence is being used and how it is impacting the justice system. This unique book—written by nationally known scholars in the field—includes five sections that explore the demand for forensic services, the quality of forensic services, the utility of forensic services, post-conviction forensic issues, and the future role of forensic science in the administration of justice. The authors offer policy-relevant directions for both the criminal justice and forensic fields and demonstrate how the role of the crime laboratory in the American justice system is evolving in concert with technological advances as well as changing demands and competing pressures for laboratory resources.
 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
Section I. The Demand for Forensic Services
Joseph L. Peterson
Chapter 1. A Historical Review of the Demand for Forensic Evidence
Introduction

 
Estimating the Demand for Forensic Evidence

 
What Is Physical Evidence and What Can It Tell Us?

 
Physical Evidence Presence--Historical Indicators

 
Macro Forces Influencing Utilization Patterns

 
Crime Laboratory Census Results

 
Up-to-Date Utilization Patterns From the "Role and Impact" Study

 
Conclusion

 
References

 
Rachel Dioso-Villa
Chapter 2. Is There Evidence of a "CSI Effect"?
Introduction

 
CSI's Depictions of Forensic Science

 
Cultivation Theory

 
Typology of CSI Effects Found in Media Accounts

 
Evidence of the CSI Effect

 
The Perceived CSI Effect

 
Juror Expectations and Their Understanding of Forensic Science

 
What Can Be Done?

 
Conclusion

 
References

 
Matthew J. Hickman and Kevin J. Strom
Chapter 3. What We Know (and Don't Know) About Evidence Backlogs
Introduction

 
What Is a "Backlog"?

 
What Are the Sources of Backlog?

 
What Do We "Know" About the Nature and Scope of Forensic Backlog?

 
The Problem of Artificial Backlog

 
Do Backlogs Represent Justice Delayed and Justice Denied, or Simply Justice "Satisficed"?

 
References

 
 
Section II. The Quality of Forensic Services
Barry A. J. Fisher
Chapter 4. Adopting a Research Culture in the Forensic Sciences
Introduction

 
Why a Research Culture Does Not Currently Exist in the Forensic Sciences

 
Recent Developments in the Forensic Sciences

 
Factors Affecting the Admissibility of Forensic Science

 
Contemporary Challenges Facing Forensic Science

 
References

 
Reinoud D. Stoel, Charles E. H. Berger, Wim Kerkhoff, Erwin J. A. T. Mattijssen, and Itiel E. Dror
Chapter 5. Minimizing Contextual Bias in Forensic Casework
Introduction

 
Historical Background

 
Psychological Background

 
Levels of Contextual Information

 
How to Deal With Contextual Information

 
Outlook and Conclusion

 
References

 
Jay Siegel
Chapter 6. A Survey of Ethical Issues in the Forensic Sciences
Introduction

 
Discussion of Ethical Issues

 
Toward a National Code of Ethics in Forensic Science

 
 
Section III. The Utility of Forensic Services
Sally Kelty, Roberta Julian, and Robert Hayes
Chapter 7. The Impact of Forensic Evidence on Criminal Justice: Evidence From Case-Processing Studies
Introduction

 
The Impact of Forensic Evidence (FE) on Solvability and Case-Processing Outcomes: Evidence From the Literature

 
Conceptual Framework and Case-Processing Model of Critical Decisions and Leakage Points in Homicide Cases: Findings From the Effectiveness of Forensic Science in the Criminal Justice System (EFS) Project

 
Conclusion

 
Cases

 
References

 
Michael D. White, Andrea R. Borrego, and David A. Schroeder
Chapter 8. Assessing the Utility of DNA Evidence in Criminal Investigations
Introduction

 
Empirical Evidence on the Utility of DNA Evidence in Criminal Investigations

 
Explanatory Frameworks for Understanding Law Enforcement's Use of DNA Evidence

 
Conclusion

 
References

 
Nina W. Chernoff
Chapter 9. Forensic Science: The Prosecutor's Role
Introduction

 
The Rules That Govern Prosecutors' Use of Forensic Evidence

 
Why the Rules Do Not Produce Prosecutors Who Are Honest About the Reliability of Forensic Evidence

 
The Need for Accuracy Advocates

 
Conclusion

 
Notes

 
 
Section IV. Post-Conviction Issues
John M. Collins Jr.
Chapter 10. The Problems and Challenges of Evidence Retention
Introduction

 
Personnel

 
Safe and Secure Facilities

 
Inventory and Disposition

 
Forensic Testing

 
Jurisdictional Case Management

 
Conclusion

 
References

 
Kristen Skogerboe
Chapter 11. Innovation, Success, Error, and Confidence in Forensic DNA Testing
Introduction

 
History of DNA and Its Application in Criminal Justice

 
The Role of DNA in Highlighting Limitations in Other Forensic Disciplines

 
The Intersection of Success, Innovation, and Risk of Error in DNA Testing

 
The Road to Testing and Exonerations: DNA From a Chemist's Perspective

 
Innovation, Challenges, and Emerging Issues in Forensic DNA Testing

 
Achieving and Maintaining Confidence With a Research Mentality and Quality Assurance

 
References

 
 
Section V. The Future Role of Forensic Science in the Administration of Justice
Max M. Houck and Paul J. Speaker
Chapter 12. Developing New Business Models for Forensic Laboratories
Introduction

 
Economic Foundations

 
Metrics and Measurement

 
A Balanced View

 
Efficiency and Cost-Effectiveness

 
Identifying the Best Business Models for Forensic Laboratories

 
Conclusion

 
References

 
Kevin J. Strom and Matthew J. Hickman
Chapter 13. Rethinking the Role of the Crime Laboratory in Criminal Justice Decision Making
Introduction

 
The Changing Role of the Crime Laboratory

 
Laboratory Decision Making

 
Promising Examples of Crime Laboratory Decision-Making Policies

 
Conclusion

 
References

 
Walter F. Rowe
Chapter 14. The Future of Forensic Science
Introduction

 
Technological Developments

 
Administrative Changes in Forensic Science

 
Forensic Science Education

 
Conclusion

 
References

 
 
Index
 
About the Editors
 
About the Contributors

Great for additional resources.

Miss Nicole Waters
Accounting , New College Durham
September 12, 2016

Useful as a great teacher resource to present back to students.

Miss Nicole Waters
Accounting , New College Durham
June 27, 2016

This book contains two excellent chapters that are relevant to this course. The first is on bias, and this has been added to the syllabus for the first time this academic year. It is very useful to have a concise chapter that the students can read as an introduction to the area. The other useful chapter for this course is the one on ethics in forensic science. We are preparing our students for roles as practitioners, therefore they should be aware of, and prepared for, any ethical issues they may encounter in their work.

Dr Hilary Hamnett
College of Medical, Veterinary & Life, Glasgow University
February 18, 2016

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Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 1


Kevin J. Strom

Kevin J. Strom, Ph.D., directs the Policing, Security, and Investigative Science Program at RTI International. His research activity is focused on the impact of forensic science on the criminal justice system, law enforcement responses to community violence and terrorism, and crime- and forensic data–reporting systems. His work has been published in peer-reviewed journals that include Criminology & Public Policy, Journal of Forensic Sciences, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, and Crime & Delinquency. Dr. Strom has led numerous law enforcement– and forensic-related studies, including projects that have developed recommendations... More About Author

Matthew J. Hickman

Matthew J. Hickman, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at Seattle University. His research interests include issues in policing, quantitative research methodology, and the impact of forensic sciences on the administration of justice. He was previously a statistician at the U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Statistics, where he specialized in the development and analysis of national data collections on law enforcement and the forensic sciences. His work has been published in Criminology, Criminology & Public Policy, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Journal of Forensic Sciences, Crime ... More About Author

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ISBN: 9781452276885
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