Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics (FAO) is a scholarly journal of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS). This open access medical journal emphasizes surgical and medical management of foot and ankle disorders with a specific focus on reconstructive, trauma, and sports-related conditions utilizing the latest technological advances. FAO offers original peer-reviewed articles including: clinical and basic science research, meta-analyses, systematic and topical reviews, case reviews, hot topics, research designs and technique tips. This journal is an ideal resource for orthopaedic surgeons, fellows, residents, and allied health providers interested in providing the latest in evidenced-based foot and ankle care.
The journal’s editor is David B. Thordarson, MD. FAO opened for submissions in July 2016. Please click on Submission Guidelines for instructions.
This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
Cover image "Finite element foot" courtesy of University of Arizona and Paragon, 28, inc., created in Solidworks
Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics, a publication of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society® (AOFAS®), is an open access medical journal that emphasizes surgical and medical management as well as basic and clinical research related to foot and ankle problems. FAO offers peer-reviewed articles emphasizing surgical and medical management as well as basic and clinical research related to foot and ankle problems.
|David B. Thordarson, MD||Professor, Division of Orthopedics, Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA|
|James W. Brodsky, MD, Ex-officio||Clinical Professor of Orthopedic Surgery at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (UTSWMC) and Texas A&M Health Science College of Medicine, Dallas, TX, USA|
|Thomas O. Clanton, MD||Director, Foot and Ankle Sports Medicine, The Steadman Clinic, Vail, CO, USA|
|Timothy R. Daniels, MD, FRCSC, Chair||Professor, St. Michael's Hospital Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada|
|James R. Holmes, MD||Service Chief, Associate Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery, Foot and Ankle, University of Michigan, South Main Orthopaedics, Ann Arbor, MI, USA|
|Jeffrey E. Johnson, MD||Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery, Chief, Foot and Ankle Service, Director, Foot and Ankle Fellowship Program, Barnes-Jewish Hospital at Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA|
|Harold B. Kitaoka, MD||Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic Alix School of Medicine; Head of Foot and Ankle Section, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA|
|L. Daniel Latt, MD, PhD||Associate Professor, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA|
|E. Greer Richardson, MD, ex-officio, Past Editor-in-Chief, FAI||Campbell Clinic, Memphis, TN, USA (retired)|
|Steven D.K. Ross, MD||FAOA retired professor of Orthopaedics, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA|
|David B. Thordarson, MD, ex-officio, Editor-in-Chief, FAI and FAO||Professor, Division of Orthopedics, Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA|
|James K. DeOrio, MD||Professor, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA|
|Timothy C. Fitzgibbons, MD||Assistant Clinical Professor Creighton University School of Medicine and Special Clinical Instructor, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA|
|Andy Goldberg, OBE, MD, FRCS (Tr&Orth)||Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust & Clinical Senior Lecturer UCL, London, UK|
|Gerald F. Harris, PhD, PE||Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Director: Ortho & Rehab Engineering Center, OREC: Marquette University / Med College of WI, Marquette University, College of Engineering, Milwaukee, WI, USA|
|Beat Hintermann, MD||Chairman, Orthopaedic Clinic, Kantonsspital Baselland, Liestal, BL, Switzerland|
|Young Koo Lee, MD, PhD||Associate Professor, Soon Chun Hyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon-Si, South Korea|
|Shu-Yuan Li, MD, PhD||Attending, Foot & Ankle Center, Bejing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China|
|Terence Saxby, MBBS, FRACS (Orth)||Brisbane Foot & Ankle Centre, Brisbane, Australia|
|Mihra S. Taljanovic, MD, PhD, FACR||Professor (tenured) of Radiology and Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA|
|David B. Thordarson, MD, Chair, Editor-in-Chief||Professor, Division of Orthopedics, Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA|
|Jason R. Kerrigan, PhD||Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Orthopaedic Surgery, Deputy Director, UVa Center for Applied Biomechanics, Charlottesville, VA, USA|
|E. Meade Spratley, PhD||Research Scientist, UVa Center for Applied Biomechanics, Charlottesville, VA, USA|
|Christopher Neville, PT, PhD||Associate Professor, Department of Physical Therapy Education, Upstate Medical University, Motion Analysis Laboratory, Syracuse, NY, USA|
|Jason T. Bariteau, MD||Assistant Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, Director of Foot & Ankle Research, Associate Residency Program Director, Emory University School of Medicine, Emory Orthopaedics & Spine Center, Atlanta, GA, USA|
|L. Daniel Latt, MD, PhD||Associate Professor, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA|
|Christopher Gross, MD||Associate Professor, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston SC, USA|
|J. Turner Vosseller, MD||Assistant Professor, Dept of Orthopedic Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA|
|Amiethab Aiyer, MD||Chief, Foot & Ankle Service, Assistant Professor, Department of Orthopaedics, University of Miami/Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA|
|Jonathan R.M. Kaplan, MD||Orthopaedic Specialty Institute, Orange, CA, USA|
|Shera Palmer Cook||AOFAS, Rosemont, IL, USA|
Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics (FAO) welcomes articles that contribute to orthopaedic science as it relates to the foot and ankle. Articles are welcome from all countries and all sources under the following conditions:
This Journal recommends that authors follow the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).
There are no fees payable to submit to this journal.
Please read the guidelines below then visit the journal’s submission site https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/fao to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.
Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics will be reviewed.
As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere. Please see our guidelines on prior publication and note that FAO may accept submissions of papers that have been posted on pre-print servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the journal's author archiving policy.
If your paper is accepted, you must include a link on your preprint to the final version of your paper.
If you have any questions about publishing with SAGE, please visit the SAGE Journal Solutions Portal
- Open Access
- Article Processing Charge (APC)
- Article Types and Word/Artwork Limits
3.1 Meta-analysis/Systematic Review
- Editorial Policies
4.1 Peer Review Policy
4.3.1 Writing Assistance
4.5 Declaration of Conflicting Interests
4.6 Research Ethics and Patient Consent
4.7 Clinical Trials
4.8 Reporting Guidelines
- Publishing Policies
5.1 Publication Ethics
5.1.2 Prior Publication
5.2 Contributor's Publishing Agreement
5.4 Randomized Controlled Trials (RTCs)
- Manuscript Preparation
6.1 Word Processing Formats
6.2 Artwork, Figures, and Other Graphics
6.3 Supplementary Material
6.4 Journal Layout
6.5 Reference Style
6.6 English Language Editing Services
- Manuscript Submission
7.1 How to Submit Your Manuscript
7.2 Title, Keywords, and Abstracts
7.3 Corresponding Author Contact Details
- On Acceptance and Publication
8.1 SAGE Production
8.2 Continuous Publication
- Further Information
- Appealing the publication decision
Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. Each article accepted by peer review is made freely available online immediately upon publication, is published under a Creative Commons license and will be hosted online in perpetuity. Publication costs of the journal are covered by the collection of article processing charges which are paid by the funder, institution or author of each manuscript upon acceptance. There is no charge for submitting a paper to the journal.
If, after peer review, your manuscript is accepted for publication, a one-time article processing charge (APC) is payable. This APC covers the cost of publication and ensures that your article will be freely available online in perpetuity under a Creative Commons license.
The article processing charge (APC) for AOFAS members and articles cascaded from FAI is $650.
The article processing charge (APC) is $1,000 for direct submissions from non-members.
Scientific Manuscript 4,000 words
Systematic Review/Meta-Analysis 4,000 words
Current Concept Review/Topical Review 5,000 words
Case Report/Technique Tip 2,000 words
Number of Tables 4
Number of Figures 8
Abstract 300 words
Systematic reviews and meta-analysis techniques are used to review and pool data obtained from high quality studies usually with Level I or II evidence. These techniques require determination of a specific health care question, selection of studies which meet research methodology and quality standards, and then application of rigorous methodology to minimize error, bias, and inaccurate or misleading conclusions. It is recommended that authors have or obtain expertise in these types of studies and plan their methodology accordingly. Studies which conclude that the quality of existing literature is not adequate (poor) and that more studies are needed, provide little useful information to the reader and will seldom be accepted for publication.
Following a preliminary triage to eliminate submissions unsuitable for Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics, all papers are sent out for review. The journal’s policy is to have manuscripts reviewed by three expert reviewers, an Associate Editor, and the Editor-in-Chief. FAO utilizes a double-blind peer review process in which the reviewer and author’s names and information are withheld from the other. All manuscripts are reviewed as rapidly as possible, while maintaining rigor. Reviewers make comments to the author and recommendations to the editors, who then make the final decision.
Manuscripts that are transferred to Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics after first submission to Foot & Ankle International will retain the double-blind peer review from first submission.
The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor / Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.
FAO is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer-review for your paper, and as such has partnered with Publons. Publons is a third party service that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for Journal Title can opt in to Publons in order to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and the content of their review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Publons website.
Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.
The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:
- Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
- Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
- Approved the version to be published,
- Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.
Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.
When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.
Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.
All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.
4.3.1 Third party submissions
Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:
- Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
- Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
- Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.
Where appropriate, SAGE reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.
Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance–including the individual’s name, company and level of input–and identify the entity that paid for this assistance).
It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.
Please supply any personal acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.
Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
It is the policy of Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.
Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.
Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.
For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.
Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative.
Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants.
Authors need to include an ethical approval statement in the Title Page, with the correct statement completed:
(i) Ethical approval for this study was obtained from *NAME OF ETHICS COMMITTEE OR INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD (APPROVAL NUMBER/ID)*.
(ii) Ethical approval for this study was waived by *NAME OF ETHICS COMMITTEE OR INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD* because *REASON FOR WAIVER*.
(iii) Ethical approval was not sought for the present study because *REASON*.
Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included in the separate Title Page.
The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study.
Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.
SAGE acknowledges the importance of research data availability as an integral part of the research and verification process for academic journal articles.
Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics requests all authors submitting any primary data used in their research articles to be published in the online version of the journal, or provide detailed information in their articles on how the data can be obtained. This information should include links to third-party data repositories or detailed contact information for third-party data sources. Data available only on an author-maintained website will need to be loaded onto either the journal’s platform or a third-party platform to ensure continuing accessibility. Examples of data types include but are not limited to statistical data files, replication code, text files, audio files, images, videos, appendices, and additional charts and graphs necessary to understand the original research. The editor(s) may consider limited embargoes on proprietary data. The editor(s) can also grant exceptions for data that cannot legally or ethically be released. All data submitted should comply with Institutional or Ethical Review Board requirements and applicable government regulations.
Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics. SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway.
Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles will be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.
If material has been previously published, it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway.
Before publication SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics publishes manuscripts under Creative Commons licenses. The standard Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics license is Creative Commons by Attribution Non-Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0), which allows others to re-use the work without permission as long as the work is properly referenced and the use is non-commercial. For more information, you are advised to visit SAGE's OA licenses page.
Alternative license arrangements are available, for example, to meet particular funder mandates, made at the author’s request.
Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway.
Randomized Controlled Trials (RTCs) must be prospectively registered in a publicly searchable clinical trials registry before considering review for publication from 1 January, 2020. RTCs, which started after the date of electronic publication of the editorial policy for Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics (FAO) in the transition period in 2019, as well as RCTs with satisfactory evidence of starting before electronic publication of the editorial policy for FAO, shall be allowed retrospective registration in a publicly searchable clinical trials registry prior to review and potential publication. The Editorial Board, however, will reserve the right to make rare exceptions in the event of unusual studies in extenuating circumstances following guidance from the Editor in Chief with an explanatory note from the authors regarding the reasons and an Editorial note for the exception, published as a foot note to the article.
Preferred formats for the text and tables of your manuscript are Word DOC, RTF, XLS. The text should be double-spaced throughout and with a minimum of 3cm for left and right hand margins and 5cm at head and foot. Text should be standard 10 or 12 point. Word templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.
For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.
Figures supplied in color will appear in color online.
This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc.) alongside the full-text of the article. These will be subjected to peer-review alongside the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files.
Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics conforms to the SAGE house style. Click here to review guidelines on SAGE House Style.
Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics adheres to the AMA 11 reference style with some modifications. References MUST be listed alphabetically and consecutively numbered in the reference section, and that numbering must be used in the reference citations within the text of the article. Follow the instructions below.
A journal article reference listing breaks down into the following sections:
[Authors]. [Title]. [Journal Abbreviation]. [Year];[Volume(Issue)]:[Page Range]. doi: 10.1177/1071100713511435
The bibliography must be titled “References” and be an alphabetical listing of references that are cited in the preceding text. Titles of foreign-language articles and books should appear in their published language. When citing a book, give the specific pages used unless the entire book was used. If an article has a DOI, it may be included at the end of the reference as shown above.
In cases where there are more than 6 authors for a given article, list the first 3 authors with an “et al.” after them.
- Ostrum RF, Meo PD, Subramanian R. A critical analysis of the anterior-posterior radiographic anatomy of the ankle syndesmosis. Foot Ankle Int. 1995;16(3):128-131. doi: 10.1177/107110079501600304
- Basmajian JV. Primary Anatomy. Baltimore, MD: William & Wilkins; 1970.
All references must be cited in the text. Citations must be superscript and be placed after periods and commas and before semi-colons and colons. For example:
The foot is connected to the ankle.15
The foot is connected to the ankle4,6-9,22; the knee,4 thigh,10 and ankle54 are all parts of the leg.
We no longer accept references of papers given at meetings, personal communications, doctoral theses, or obscure references that cannot be verified.
Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.
Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics is hosted on SAGE Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/fao to login and submit your article online.
IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created. For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.
Please supply a title, short title, an abstract and keywords to accompany your article. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article online through online search engines such as Google. Please refer to the information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords by visiting the SAGE Journal Author Gateway for guidelines on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.
Provide full contact details for the corresponding author including email, mailing address and telephone numbers. Academic affiliations are required for all co-authors. These details should be presented separately to the main text of the article to facilitate anonymous peer review.
As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.
The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.
If your paper is accepted for publication after peer review, you will first be asked to complete the contributor’s publishing agreement. Once your manuscript files have been check for SAGE Production, the corresponding author will be asked to pay the article processing charge (APC) via a payment link. Once the APC has been processed, your article will be prepared for publication and can appear online within an average of 30 days. Please note that no production work will occur on your paper until the APC has been received.
When your paper enters the SAGE Production system, your paper will be issued with a 6 digit ID number. Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by email attachment to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.
One of the many benefits of publishing your research in an open access journal is the speed to publication. With no issues to fill and no page count constraints, your article will be published online in a fully citable form with a DOI number as soon as it has completed the production process. At this time it will be completely free to view and download for all. Check the ‘Latest Articles’ tab on the journal website for the latest published content. Articles are batched periodically and are then available in the Archive.
Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the Manuscript Submission process should be sent to the Editorial Office: FAOjournal@aofas.org.
Editors have very broad discretion in determining whether an article is an appropriate fit for their journal. Many manuscripts are declined with a very general statement of the rejection decision. These decisions are not eligible for formal appeal unless the author believes the decision to reject the manuscript was based on an error in the review of the article, in which case the author may appeal the decision by providing the Editor with a detailed written description of the error they believe occurred.
If an author believes the decision regarding their manuscript was affected by a publication ethics breach, the author may contact the publisher with a detailed written description of their concern, and information supporting the concern, at firstname.lastname@example.org