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Designing and Managing Programs

Designing and Managing Programs
An Effectiveness-Based Approach

Fifth Edition

288 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
The Fifth Edition of the classic Designing and Managing Programs for human services helps readers grasp the meaning and significance of measuring performance and evaluating outcomes. The authors, all leaders in the field, incorporate the principles of effectiveness-based planning as they address the steps of designing, implementing, and evaluating a human services program at the local agency level. Meaningful examples at every stage of the process—from problem analysis and needs assessment to evaluating effectiveness and calculating costs—enhance reader understanding of how concepts are implemented in the real world.
Part I: Assessing Current Practices
Chapter 1: Contemporary Issues in Human Service Program Planning and Administration
The Era of Accountability

The Logic Model

Community Focus

The Issue of Effectiveness

Assessing an Existing Program

What Is Effectiveness-Based Program Planning?

Using Effectiveness Principles to Understand Existing Programs

Implementation Considerations

Part II: Problem Analysis/Needs Assessment
Chapter 2: The Contribution of Theory to Program Planning
The Use of Theory in Program Planning

Theory in Practice

Planning Theory

Types of Planning

Theory in Program Planning

Chapter 3: Understanding Social Problems
Addressing Social Problems

Stating Problems as Solutions

The Need for a New Approach

Identifying a Social Condition

Defining Problems

Frameworks for Production Analysis

Chapter 4: Needs Assessment: Theoretical Considerations
The Concept of Need

Theoretical understandings of Need

Needs Assessment and the Planning Process

Factors Influencing the Definition of Need

Different Perspectives on Need

Factors Influencing the Definition of Need

Different Perspectives on Need

Need Categories and the Planning Process

Determining Who Is in Need

Two Major Problems: Reliability and Availability of Data

Chapter 5: Needs Assessment: Approaches to Measurement
Methodologies Used in Measuring Need

Extrapolating from Existing Studies: Normative Need

Using Resource Inventories: Normative Need

Using Service Statistics: Expressed Need

Conducting a Social Survey: Perceived Need

Holding a Public Forum: Perceived Need

Focus Groups

Selecting the Best Method

Approaches Useful for Locating Concentrations of High-Risk Groups

Part III: Planning, Designing, and Tracking the Intervention
Chapter 6: Selecting the Appropriate Intervention Strategy
The Program Hypothesis

Types of Program Hypotheses

The Process of Developing a Program Hypothesis

Program Hypotheses and the Idea of Consequences

From Program Hypothesis to Service

Benefits of the Program Hypothesis

Chapter 7: Setting Goals and Objectives
From Program Hypothesis to Goals and Objectives

The Function of a Mission Statement

Goals and Objectives: A Framework for Action

Agency Example: Safe Haven

The Formulation of Goals

The Formulation of Objectives

Requirements for All Objectives

Outcome Objectives

Process Objectives and Activities

Integrating Outcome Objectives, Process Objectives, and Activities

Chapter 8: Designing Effective Programs
The Significance of Program Design

Program Design and Diversity

Defining the Elements of a Program

The Relationship between Objectives and System Components

Specifying the Program Hypothesis

Chapter 9: Designing Effectiveness-Based Information Systems
Documentation Practices in Human Services

Designing a Data Collection System for a Program

Part IV: Calculating the Value and Cost of the Intervention
Chapter 10: Performance Measurement, Monitoring, and Program Evaluation
The Link between Performance Measurement, Monitoring, and Evaluation and Management Information Systems

Feedback and Self-Evaluating Systems

Performance Measurment


Program Evaluations

Program Data Requirements

Performance Measurement, Monitoring, Program Evaluation, and Program Data

The Utility of Performance Measurement, Monitoring, and Program Evaluation

Chapter 11: Impact Program Evaluation and Hypothesis Testing
Differentiating Impact Program Evaluation from Performance Measurement

Impact Program Evaluation

Impact Program Evaluation and Hypothesis Testing

Research Design for Impact Program Evaluation

Nonequivalent Comparison Group Design

Chapter 12: Budgeting for Financial Control, Management, and Planning
The Differences between Budgeting and Accounting

The Principal Purposes and Budgeting

Budgeting and the Systems Framework

Major Models of the Budgetary Process

Major Budgeting Systems

Dealing with Revenue Increases and Decreases

Budgeting in Human Service Agencies and Programs Today

Chapter 13: Developing Line-Item, Functional, and Program Budgeting Systems
Developing Line-Item Budgeting Systems

The Link between Line-Item, Functional, and Program Budgeting Systems

Fucntional Budgeting Systems

Program Budgeting Systems

A Comprehensive Budgeting System



Instructor Teaching Site

Password-protected Instructor Resources include the following:

  • A Microsoft® Word® test bank is available containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course.
  • Suggested assignments designed by Dr. Kettner encourage a good deal of thoughtful, careful planning. Each exercise builds on the next and includes guidance to complete the exercise. The student's final objective is to create a program plan which demonstrates consistency and integrity beginning with problem analysis through evaluation design, and it should include feedback from you, the professor, as given throughout the semester.

"The most comprehensive text on effective program development on the market. The authors do an excellent job at covering the important tasks and processes necessary in building results-based programs."

Stephanie L. Carter
University of Southern California

“This book provides a detailed and cumulative set of instructions and guidelines that every human service manager should know.”  

Daniel Hubler
Weber State University

“[This book’s] practical and straightforward approach guides students through the fundamentals of program planning and evaluation from an effectiveness-based perspective. The strengths of this well-organized text are its pragmatic approach and applied focus. The real-life examples and practical information make this text a very valuable resource for both students and practitioners.” 

Louise M. Murray
University of North Carolina at Charlotte

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 6

Chapter 8

Peter Martin Kettner

Peter M. Kettner was a professor at the Arizona State University School of Social Work. He authored six books, 50 articles, monographs, and book chapters on the topics of purchase-of-service contracting, privatization, macro practice in social work, human services planning, and social work administration. Over his 30 year career in academia he served as a consultant to five different state human service agencies and dozens of local nonprofit agencies on their purchase of service contracting practices and in the design and implementation of effectiveness-based planning systems. More About Author

Robert M. Moroney

Robert M. Moroney is Professor of Social Policy and Planning at the School of Social Work at Arizona State University. He is the author of ten books and over 60 articles and book chapters on various aspects of policy, planning, and program evaluation. He currently serves as a board member of the Rosalyn Carter Institute for Human Development. He does extensive consultation with numerous national, state, and local human service organizations. More About Author

Lawrence L. Martin

Lawrence L. Martin is Professor of Public Affairs, Social Work and Public Administration at the University of Central Florida in Orlando. He was previously on the faculty of the Columbia University School of Social Work in New York City where he directed the program in social work administration. He is the author of 20 books and major monographs and over 100 articles and book chapters. More About Author

For instructors