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Data Collection

Data Collection

Four Volume Set
Edited by:

August 2010 | 1 664 pages | SAGE Publications Ltd

Insufficient attention to collecting data is often to blame when a research project founders. So how can we avoid, at best, redoing the research and at worst, scrapping the project due to a lack of sufficient data? Data collection is the foundation of high quality research, but it is often given less attention than later steps in a research project, such as coding and analyzing data.

The first step in implementing a research design is collecting the data. You first have to take care to gather appropriate types of and amount of data, because making adjustments later in the project can be prohibitive. This major work focuses on this neglected aspect of the research process. It is divided into five main sections that correspond to the broad types of research design and their associated sampling methods. The five categories of research design used to organize the selection are:
1. Surveys
2. Interviews
3. Experiments
4. Observations, including ethnographic
5. Archival and public sources of data

In each of the five sections, quantitative, and qualitative data collection is discussed because each of these design types can be used to collect either or both types of data.

Section 1: What Counts as Relevant Data?
Reconceptualizing Knowledge Accumulation in Sociology

Andrew Abbott
The Elephant in the Living Room: Or extending the conversation about the politics of evidence

Norman Denzin
Comparative Perspectives and Competing Explanations: Taking on the newly configured reductionist challenge to sociology

Troy Duster
Neurological Imaging as Evidence in Political Science

Dustin Tingley
History of and in Sociology

Charles Tilly
What has Sociology to Contribute to the Study of Inequality Trends? A historical and comparative perspective

Thomas DiPrete
The Imagination and Social Life

Jacqueline Adams
Naturalistic Inquiry and the Saturation Concept

Glenn Bowen
Replication Standards for Quantitative Social Science

Jeremy Freese
Improving Data Quality: Actors, incentives, and capabilities

Yoshiko Herrera and Devesh Kapur
Section 2: Data Collection in Survey Research
Section 2a: Survey Sampling for Data Collection
Participatory Survey Research

Emilio Parrado et al
An Empirical Test of Respondent-Driven Sampling

Cyprain Wejnert
Longitudinal Research at the Turn of the Century

Vilma Ortiz and Estella Godinez Ballon
Nonresponse Rates and Nonresponse Bias in Household Surveys

Robert Groves
Section 2b: Measurement in Survey Data Collection
Limitations of Stranger-Interviewers in Rural Kenya

Alexander Weinreb
Measuring Induced Abortion in Mexico: A comparison of four methodologies

Diana Lara et al
Meta-Analysis of Randomized Response Research

Gerty Lensvelt-Mulders et al
Sample Surveys with Sensitive Questions: A nonrandomized response approach

Ming Tan et al
Section 3: Interview Methods for Collecting Data
Section 3a: Eliciting Useful Responses (Data) in Interview Research
What to do With 'I Don't Know:' Elicitation in ethnographic and survey interviews

Hilary Parsons Dick
The Great Interview: 25 strategies for studying people in bed

Joseph Hermanowicz
Collecting Data from Elites and Ultra Elites: Telephone and face-to-face interviews with macroeconomists

Neil Stephens
Section 3b: Multiple Formats for Interview Data Collection
Eliciting Managers' Personal Values: An adaptation of the laddering interview method

Humphrey Bourne and Mark Jenkins
Learning in Focus Groups: An analytical dimension for enhancing focus group research

Victoria Wibeck et al
Fieldworker or Foreigner? Ethnographic interviewing in nonnative languages

Michaela Winchatz
Condom Semiotics: Meaning and condom use in rural Malawi

Iddo Tavory and Ann Swidler
Section 3c: Coding Interview Data
Analyzing Interview Data: The development and evolution of a coding system

Cynthia Weston et al
Intercoder Reliability for Validating Conclusions Drawn From Open-Ended Interview Data

Karen Kurasaki
Problematics of Grounded Theory: Innovations for developing an increasingly rigorous qualitative method

Jason Adam Wasserman et al
Section 4: Experiments and Data Collection
Section 4a: Varieties of Experimental Data Gathering
'Economic Man' in Cross-Cultural Perspective: Behavioral experiments in 15 small-scale societies

Joseph Henrich et al
The False Enforcement of Unpopular Norms

Robb Willer et al
Reasons and Inclusion: The foundation of deliberation

Erik Schneiderhan and Shamus Khan
Experimental Ethnography: The marriage of qualitative and quantitative research

Lawrence Sherman and Heather Strang
Section 4b: Collecting Data in Survey Experiments
An Experimental Comparison of Methods of Measuring Ethnicity

Tom Smith
Does Race Matter n Neighborhood Preferences? Results from a video experiment

Maria Krysan et al
Insiders, outsiders, and the editing inconsistent survey data

Mariano Sana and Alexander Weinreb
Section 4c: Alternatives to Randomized Control Trials for Gathering Data
Grades of evidence: Variability in quality of findings in effectiveness studies of complex field interventions

Madhabi Chatterji
Addressing self-selection bias in quasi-experimental evaluations of whole-school reform

Robert Bifulco
Ethics, data-dependent designs, and the strategy of clinical trials: time to start learning as we go?

C. R. Palmer
Observing the counterfactual? The search for political experiments in nature

Gregory Robinson et al
Section 5: Data Collection in Observational Research
Section 5a: Varieties of Observational Experience
People in Paces

Robert Zussman
Towards the Necessity of a New Interactive Approach Integrating Ethnology, Ecology, and Ethology in the Study of the Relationship between Kyrgyz Stockbreeders and Wolves

Nicolas Lescureux
Studying the New Media

Howard Becker
Section 5b: Collecting Data Using New Media
A Collective Ethnographer: Fieldwork experience in the Brazilian Northeast

Lygia Sigaud
Fieldnotes in Team Ethnography: Researching complementary schools

Angela Cresse et al
Ethnographic Approaches to the Internet and Computer-Mediated Communication

Angela Cora Garcia et al
Qualitative Research on Adolescents Risk Using E-Mail: A methodological assessment

Richard Hessler et al
Putting Social Context into Text: The semiotics of e-mail interaction

Daniel Menchik and Xiaoli Tian
Section 5c: Participant Observation for Collecting Data
Participant Observation in the Era of 'Ethnography'

Herbert Gans
Observer Behavior as a Source of Reactivity: Describing and quantifying observer effects in a large-scale observational study of police

Richard Spano
L'Intervention Sociologique after 25 Years: Can it translate into English?

Kevin McDonald
Bias as a Research Strategy in Participant Observation: The case of intergroup conflict

John Drury and Clifford Stott
Section 6: Collecting Data from Archival Sources
Section 6a: How to Evaluate Documents When Collecting Data
The File Drawer Problem in Reliability Generalization

Ryan Howell and Alan Shields
Repositioning Documents in Social Research

Lindsay Prior
Section 6b: Data Collection with Computerized Content Analysis
Lexical Cohesion Analysis of Political Speech

Beata Beigman Klebanov et al
On the State of Economic Content in Sociology

Richard Anderson-Connolly
Section 6c: Archival Sources for History of the Social Sciences
The Ethnographic Turn: Fact, fashion, or fiction?

Rebecca Culyba et al
Section 6d: Collecting Data Using Public Media
Finding Collective Events: Sources, searches, timing

Gregory Maney and Pamela Oliver
Characteristics of Medical Research News Reported on Front Pages of Newspapers

William Yuk Yeu Lai and Trevor Lane
'Entering the Blogosphere': Some strategies for using blogs in social research

Nicholas Hookway
Section 6e: Obtaining Data from Public Statistical Archives
The Official Statistics Olympic Challenge: Wider, deeper, quicker, better, cheaper

D. Tim Holt
America is Changing, and So is the Census: The American community survey

Nancy Torrieri
Tracking Official Development Assistance for Reproductive Health in Conflict-Affected Countries

Preeti Patel et al
Section 7: Collecting Data Ethically
Section 7a: General Overviews of Research Ethics
A Historical Interpretation of Deceptive Experiments in American Psychology

C.D. Herrera
Ethics and the Broader Rethinking/Reconceptualization of Research as a Construct

Yvonna Lincoln and Gaile Cannella
Section 7b: Governance and Ethics Review Boards
Ethics Creep: Governing social science research in the name of ethics

Kevin Haggerty
Research Ethics Review and the Sociological Research Relationship

Adam Hedgecoe
Section 7c: Ethics while Gathering Data with a Variety of Designs
The Art and Politics of Covert Research: Doing 'situated ethics' in the field

David Calvey
The Ethical Challenges of Field Research in Conflict Zones

Elisabeth Jean Wood
The Politics of Names: Rethinking the methodological and ethical significance of naming people, organizations, and places

Katja Guenthe
After the Interview

Carol Warren et al
Ethics in Qualitative Research and Evaluation

Ian Shaw
Random Assignment and Informed Consent: A case study of multiple perspectives

Robert Walker et al

W. Paul Vogt

W. Paul Vogt is Emeritus Professor of Research Methods and Evaluation at Illinois State University where he won both teaching and research awards. He specializes in methodological choice and program evaluation and is particularly interested in ways to integrate multiple methods. His other books include: Tolerance & Education: Learning to Live with Diversity and Difference (Sage Publications, 1998); Quantitative Research Methods for Professionals (Allyn & Bacon, 2007); Education Programs for Improving Intergroup Relations (coedited with Walter Stephan, Teachers College Press, 2004). He is also editor of four 4-volume sets in the... More About Author