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Culture's Consequences

Culture's Consequences
Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations

Second Edition

October 2016 | 616 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
`The publication of this Second Edition of Culture's Consequences marks an important moment in the field of cross-cultural studies… for business researchers interested in doing cross-cultural work. A teaching aid for introducing the notion of cultural differences to business students, [it] provides an easy-to-understand framework with numerous examples of their practical applicability. Hofstede's framework for understanding national differences has been one of the most influential and widely used frameworks in cross-cultural business studies, in the past ten years' - Australian Journal of Management

The long-anticipated Second Edition of a true classic is thoroughly updated with an expanded coverage and scope. This excellent work explores the differences in thinking and social action that exist between members of more than 50 modern nations and will be the new benchmark for scholars and professionals for years to come. It argues that people carry `mental programmes' which are developed in the family in early childhood and reinforced in school and organizations, and that these mental programmes contain a component of national culture. They are most clearly expressed in the different values that predominate among people from different countries.

Values and Culture
Data Collection, Treatment and Validation
Power Distance
Uncertainty Avoidance
Individualism and Collectivism
Masculinity and Femininity
Long versus Short-Term Orientation
Cultures in Organizations
Intercultural Encounters
Using Culture Dimension Scores in Theory and Research

"An important, sophisticated and complex monograph. . . . Both the theoretical analysis and the empirical findings constitute major contributions to cross-cultural value analysis and the cross-cultural study of work motivations and organizational dynamics. This book is also a valuable resource for anyone interested in a historical or anthropological approach to cross-cultural comparisons." 


In the field of humanitarian politics, law and economics it is important that the students is cognisant of the culture difference around the globe and the consequences of ignoring that when dealing with humanitarian crises.

Dr Ciaran McAleenan
School of the Built Environment (Jordanstown Campus), Ulster University
October 6, 2020

Essential for any Intercultural Communication course. Invaluable.

Ms Shauna Garry
School of Business & Humanities, Institute of Technology Blanchardstown
January 21, 2016

Our course is based around teaching critical views on Hofstede's work, so this new book is a crucial resource

Dr Diepiriye Kuku-Siemons
Northampton Business School, Northampton University
June 22, 2015

Geert Hofstede's book is one of the best social psychology books I have ever seen! It is complete, professional, very well documented and a sophisticated view on interdisciplinary and cross-cultural analysis... I will strongly recommend this book to my students, and I will certanly use it in my classroom! Thank you very much for this opportunity!

Professor Claudia-Neptina Manea
Psychology, "Ovidius" University of Constanta
February 7, 2013

This text offers a unique and detailed information about intercultural differences. It is good as a basic reading for all students studying management and dealing with intercultural communication within the international business arena.

Sam Nkala

Mr Sam Nkala
Health & Social Care (Cambridge), Anglia Ruskin University
November 24, 2012

as reference material , compulsory citation for final papers

Ms Mariana Sueldo
Management , ISM University of Management and Economics
March 24, 2012

Very detailed and concise descriptions of the empirical studies by Hofstede. However, lack of theoretical concepts underlying his assumptions.

Miss Maria Faust
Empirical Communication and Media Research, University of Leipzig
August 2, 2011

This has become a seminal study of cultural issues, albeit with an unavoidably Western perspective. Hofstede offers a very usable 4 part structure for students to assess and analyse culture, whatever their background, and his discussion of intercultural encounters provides some interesting talking points and areas for seminar discussions.

Mr Grenville Lannon
School of Computing and Informatics, Nottingham Trent University
July 12, 2011

This textbook offers unique and detailed information about intercultural differences. It is good as a basic reading for all students dealing with intercultural communication and international business.

Dr Andrea Haug
PR & Communication, European University
February 22, 2010

Geert Hofstede

Geert Hofstede received a master’s degree in Mechanical Engineering from the Technical University at Delft and a doctorate in Social Psychology from the University of Groningen, both in his native Netherlands. His professional career includes experience as a worker, foreman, plant manager, chief psychologist on the international staff of a multinational corporation, academic researcher, director of human resources of another multinational, and university professor. He has been affiliated with IMD (Lausanne, Switzerland), INSEAD (Fontainebleau, France), the European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management (Brussels, Belguim), IIASA ... More About Author