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Crisis Intervention

Crisis Intervention
A Practical Guide

November 2017 | 456 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

Crisis Intervention takes into account various environments and populations across the lifespan to provide students with practical guidelines for managing crises. Drawing on over 25 years of relevant experience, authors Alan A. Cavaiola and Joseph E. Colford cover several different types of crises frequently encountered by professionals in medical, school, work, and community settings. Models for effectively managing these crises are presented along with the authors’ own step-by-step approach, the Listen–Assess–Plan–Commit (LAPC) model, giving students the freedom to select a model that best fits their personal style or a given crisis. Future mental health professionals will gain the knowledge, skills, and confidence to help their clients manage the crises they will encounter in their day-to-day lives.


Chapter 1: Understanding Crisis
Defining Crisis

Danger vs. Opportunity

Types of Crises

Crises Reactions: A Continuum of Response

Multicultural Awareness and Crisis Intervention

Resources for Chapter Enrichment

Chapter 2: Crisis Intervention Models: an Exploration of Historical and Contemporary Models
Crisis Assessment Models

Crisis Intervention Models

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Crisis Intervention

Slaikeu’s Comprehensive Model for Crisis Intervention

Flannery & Everly’s Crisis Intervention Model

Aguilera’s Model of Crisis Intervention

Robert’s Seven-Stage Crisis Intervention Model

James and Gilliland’s Six-Step Crisis Intervention Model

Greenstone & Leviton’s Crisis Intervention Model

Kanel’s A-B-C Model of Crisis Intervention

Cavaiola & Colford’s L-A-P-C Model of Crisis Intervention

Crisis Intervention Services in the 21st Century


Resources for Chapter Enrichment

Chapter 3: Essential Crisis Intervention Skills
Responses to Crisis

The Physical Response

The Emotional Response

The Cognitive Response

Characteristics of Effective Crisis Intervention

Empowerment-Focused Crisis Intervention

Flexible Crisis Intervention

Characteristics of Effective Crisis Counselors

Empathy, Genuineness, and Acceptance and Positive Regard

Crisis Intervention Techniques: The L-A-P-C model

Putting Empathy, Genuineness, and Acceptance Into Practice

Chapter 4: Child Maltreatment
Discussion Questions


Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect

Definitional Issues in Maltreatment

Prevalence of Child Abuse and Neglect

Possible Indicators of Child Abuse and Neglect

General Guidelines for Reporting Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect

Resources for Chapter Enrichment

Chapter 5: Adolescent Crises
Discussion Questions


Historical Perspectives in Adolescence

What the Data Say

Adolescent Crises

Guidelines for Intervening with Eating Disorders

Adolescent Suicide

Guidelines for Dealing with a Suicidal Adolescent

Adolescents and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI): An Overview

Guidelines for Treating an Adolescent for Self-Injury

An Identity Crisis in Adolescence

Guidelines for Addressing Issues of Identity Development

Resources for Chapter Enrichment

Chapter 6: The School’s Response to Crisis
Discussion Questions


Active Shooter Incidents: Results from the FBI and the Secret Service

Implications for Schools

Case Presentation: A Case Involving A School Shooting

Case Discussion/Crisis Resolution

Case Presentation: Suicide and the School’s Response

Case Discussion/Crisis Resolution

Guidelines for Dealing with a School-Related Suicide

Case Presentation: Accidental Death of a Student

Responding to Accidental Death: The School’s Response


Case Presentation: Middle School and 9/11

Case Conceptualization/Crisis Resolution

Crisis by Proxy

Resources for Chapter Enrichment

Chapter 7: Alcohol and Drug Crises
Discussion Questions

The Scope of Drug and Alcohol Problems

Defining Substance Use Disorders: Diagnostic Concerns

Crisis Intervention and Case Management

General Guidelines for Working with Individuals with Substance Use Disorders

Treatment Options


Resources for Chapter Enrichment

Chapter 8: The Crisis of Sexual Assault
Discussion Questions



Reactions of Victims to Sexual Assault

Who are the Perpetrators of Rape and Sexual Assault?

What to Do When Sexual Assault Is Reported


Case Presentation: Anita, a Case of Sexual Assault


Case Discussion/Crisis Resolution

Case Presentation: Nicole, a Case of Date Rape

Case Conceptualization/Crisis Resolution

Case Presentation: A Case of Date Rape and Date Rape Drugs

Case Conceptualization/Crisis Resolution

Case Presentation: Kristin, a Case of Rape

Case Conceptualization/Crisis Resolution

Guidelines for Treating Victims of Sexual Assault

Quiz Answers

Resources for Chapter Enrichment

Chapter 9: Intimate Partner Violence & Domestic Violence
Discussion Questions

Scope of the Problem

Definitions and Terminology

Battered Women

Characteristics Common to Batterers

The Cycle of Violence

Multicultural Considerations

Survivor Therapy with Battered Women

Programs for Batterers

Intimate Partner Stalking

Case Presentation: Physical & Verbal Abuse in a Dating Relationships

Case Presentation: A Case of Physical & Verbal Abuse

Case Presentation: A Verbally and Emotionally Abusive Relationship

General Guidelines for Crisis Counseling with Couples Exhibiting Intimate Partner Violence

Elder Abuse and Other Types of Domestic Violence

Case Presentation: A Case of Elder Abuse


Resources for Chapter Enrichment

Chapter 10: Crises Involving Bereavement, Grief, and Loss
Discussion Questions

Defining Grief and Crises of Bereavement

Determinants of Grief Reactions

The Grieving Process

The Tasks of Mourning

Crisis Intervention in Situations Involving Bereavement and Loss

Case Presentation: George, a Husband Grieves the Loss of His Wife

Case Presentation: James and Barbara, a Couple Grieves the Tragic Loss of Their Son

Case Presentation: Ryan, a Child Grieves the Loss of His Mother

Case Presentations: Tara & Bill, Parents Grieving the Loss of Their Newborn Daughter

Case Presentation: Tanya, a Case of Traumatic Bereavement

Case Presentation: John, the Grief of Divorce

Suicide Bereavement

Grieving the Loss of a Pet

General Guidelines for Counselors in Managing Crises of Loss and Bereavement


Resources for Chapter Enrichment

Chapter 11: Crises Involving Suicide, Homicide & Lethality
Discussion Questions


Scope and Definition of the Problem

Case Presentation: Beth, A Case Involving a Vague Threat of Suicide

Case Presentation: Maria, a Case Involving a Threatened Suicide

Guidelines for Managing Crises Involving Suicide

Crises Involving Homicide, Lethality and Threats of Suicide

Case Presentation: Jason, A Case Involving the Threat of Violence

Case Presentation: Richard, A Case Involving Threats of Murder/Suicide


Resources for Chapter Enrichment

Chapter 12: Mental Health & Psychiatric Crises
Discussion Questions

Scope of the Problem

Defining Various Psychiatric Crises

Case Presentation: A Case of Panic Disorder in the Aftermath of Trauma

Practical Guidelines for Crisis Intervention for Someone with PTSD & Anxiety

Practical Guidelines for Crisis Intervention for Someone with Mood Disorders

Guidelines for Crisis Intervention for Those with Schizophrenia

Crisis Related to Personality Disorders

Guidelines for Crisis Intervention with Borderline Personality Disorder

Crises Involving Neurocognitive Disorders

Crisis Cases Involving Delirium and Dementia

Medical Conditions & Medications That Can Mimic Psychiatric Symptoms

Psychiatric Crisis Service Delivery: Psychiatric Crisis Hot Lines

Psychiatric Crisis Service Delivery: Psychiatric Walk-In Crisis Centers and Mobile Crisis Services

Warning Signs of a Mental Health Crisis

Multicultural Considerations


Resources for Chapter Enrichment

Chapter 13: Health Crises
Discussion Questions


Defining Medical Crises

Emotional-Psychological Response to Medical Crises

The Crisis Response of the Family and the Cultural Consideration

Case Presentation: A Crisis at the time of Diagnosis

Case Presentation: A Treatment Decision Crisis Involving Chronic Back Pain

Guidelines for Counselors Working with Medical Crises


Resources for Chapter Enrichment

Chapter 14: Crises in the Workplace
Discussion Questions


Crises Pertaining to Workplace Violence

Case Presentation: When Violence Threatens

Guidelines for Crisis Intervention with a Potentially Violent Employee

Crises Pertaining to Downsizing and Job Termination

Case Presentation: “I’ve Been Downsized”

Guidelines for Crisis Counseling with a Downsized Employee

Crises Pertaining to Supervisor – Coworker Conflict

Crises Pertaining to the Convergence of Work Stressors and Outside-of-Work Stressors


Resources for Chapter Enrichment

Chapter 15. Disaster Response
Discussion Questions


Middletown, New Jersey: A Community in Crisis

Middletown’s Response to 9/11

Middletown’s Favor Answers the Call

Middletown and Favor Working Together

A Parish Rises Up to Help

Resources for Chapter Enrichment


“This text includes the authors’ experiences with recent disasters and traumatic events, whereby readers can conceptualize intervention practices via application to cases with which they are likely familiar.” 

Ann M. McCaughan
University of Illinois Springfield

Excellent textbook which contained updated and relevant content pertaining to social work practice with victims experiencing crises and trauma.

Terri Moore Brown
Social Work Dept, Fayetteville State University
February 22, 2021

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 1: Understanding Crisis

Alan A. Cavaiola

Alan Cavaiola, PhD, LPC, LCADC is a full Professor in the Department of Professional Counseling at Monmouth University where he is  currently serving as the Director of the Addiction Studies program. Prior to teaching at Monmouth, he was an Assistant Professor in the Psychology Department at Rowan University.  Dr Cavaiola is the former Clinical Director of the addiction treatment programs at Monmouth Medical Center, which included a 49 bed adolescent substance use disorder residential program.  He has co-authored six books and has authored several journal articles.  Dr Cavaiola is currently an Associate Editor of the... More About Author

Joseph E. Colford

Joseph E. Colford holds a Ph.D. in Child Clinical Psychology from Seton Hall University; he also is a licensed psychologist and a certified school psychologist in New Jersey.  Dr. Colford worked in the public schools, primarily at the middle and high school levels, for almost 27 years before leaving the public sector for higher education.  He now is in his 13th year at Georgian Court University in Lakewood, New Jersey, as a professor of psychology and the director of the graduate program in school psychology. A former president of the New Jersey Association of School Psychologists (2012-13), he also is the co-author with Dr.... More About Author

Also available as a South Asia Edition.

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