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Corrections: The Essentials

Corrections: The Essentials

Second Edition
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January 2015 | 384 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Corrections: The Essentials, is a comprehensive, yet compact version of corrections by two esteemed authors who are experts in the field. The text addresses the most important topics in corrections in a shorter and more cost-effective format. The Second Edition continues to cover the history, development, and future of corrections as well as provides new coverage of Ethics and the Death Penalty. The book’s brevity makes it an excellent core textbook that can easily be supplemented with additional reading materials.   
Chapter 1: The Philosophical and Ideological Underpinnings of Corrections
Introduction: What Is Corrections?  
From Arrest to Punishment  
The Theoretical Underpinnings of Corrections  
Short History of Correctional Punishment  
The Emergence of Positivism: Should Punishment Fit the Offender or the Offense?  
The Function of Punishment  
The Philosophical Assumptions behind Justifications for Punishment  
The Major Punishment Justifications  
Selective Incapacitation  
The Four Legal Traditions and Why They are Useful to Know  
The Due Process and Crime Control Models and Cultural Comparisons  
The Crime Control Model  
The Due Process Model  
Is the United States Hard or Soft on Crime?  
Chapter 2: Correctional History: Ancient Times–Colonial Jails
Introduction: The Evolving Practice of Corrections  
Themes: Truths That Underlie Correctional Practice  
Early Punishments in Westernized Countries  
Enlightenment - Paradigm Shift  
Colonial Jails and Prisons  
Chapter 3: Correctional History: The 17th–20th Century
Introduction: The Grand Reforms  
Early Modern Prisons and the Pennsylvania and New York Models  
Early Prisons and Jails Not Reformed  
The Renewed Promise of Reform  
Southern and Northern Prisons and the Contract and Lease Systems, and Industrial Prisons  
Correctional Institutions or Warehouse Prisons?  
Themes That Prevail in Correctional History  
Chapter 4: Ethics and Corrections
Introduction: To Do the Right Thing!  
Defining Ethics: What is Right (and Wrong)?  
Ethical Foundation For Professional Practice  
Why People Behave Unethically  
How to Prevent Unethical Behavior and to Promote Ethical Work Practices  
War on Drugs = Attack on Ethics?  
Chapter 5: Sentencing: The Application of Punishment
What is Sentencing?  
Types of Sentences: Indeterminate, Determinate, and Mandatory  
Habitual Offender Statutes  
Other Types of Sentences: Shock, Split, and Non-Custodial Sentences  
Victim Impact Statements  
Sentencing by Civil Commitment for Sex Offenders  
Problem-Solving Courts  
Drug Courts  
Sentencing Disparity, Legitimate and Illegitimate  
Structuring Sentencing: The Presentence Investigation Report  
Structuring Sentencing: The Presentence Investigation Report  
Structured Sentencing: Sentencing Guidelines  
The Future of Sentencing Guidelines  
The American Correctional Association’s Statement on Sentencing  
Chapter 6: Jails
Introduction: The Community Institution  
Jail Types  
Jail Inmates and Their Processing  
Gender, Juveniles, Race, and Ethnicity  
The Poor and the Mentally Ill  
Medical Problems  
Substance Abuse and Jails  
Suicides, Gangs and Sexual Violence in Jails  
Innovations in Jails: New Generation/Podular Direct Supervision Jails, Community Jails,  
Chapter 7: Community Corrections: Probation and Intermediary Sanctions
The Origins of Probation  
Number and Demographic Characteristics of Offenders on Probation  
Why do we Need Community Corrections?  
The Probation Officer Role  
Models of Probation Supervision  
Probation Violations and Graduated Sanctions  
Probation Officer Stress  
Community Supervision and Recidivism  
Engaging the Community to Prevent Recidivism  
Intermediate Sanctions  
Work Release  
Intensive Supervision Probation  
Shock Probation/Parole and Boot Camps  
Victim-Offender Reconciliation Programs (VORPs)  
Chapter 8: Prisons
Introduction: The State of Prisons  
Prison Organizations  
Prison Value?  
Attributes of the Prison That Shape the Experience  
The Prison Subculture  
Gangs and the Prison Subculture  
Solutions: Strategies to Reduce Violence, Mature Coping and Social Support  
Special Populations  
Chapter 9: The Corrections Experience for Staff
The State of the Work in Correctional Institutions and Programs  
Why the Need to Require More Education and Training Exists  
Stanford Prison Experiment  
Organizational-Level Factors That Affect the Correctional Workplace  
Individual-Level Factors That Affect the Correctional Workplace  
Correctional Roles  
The Subculture and Socialization  
Staff Interactions With Inmates  
Other Issues for Staff: Stress, Burnout, Turnover  
Perceived Benefits of Correctional Work  
Chapter 10: Community Corrections: Parole and Prisoner Reentry
What is Parole?  
Parole Boards  
What Goes in Must Come Out: Prisoner Reentry into the Community  
The Impact of Imprisonment and Reentry on Communities  
What Makes for a Successful Reentry?
Determining Parole “Success”  
Parole Violations and Graduated Sanctions  
Halfway Houses  
House Arrest, Electronic Monitoring, and Global Positioning Systems  
Concluding Remarks on Reenty and Recidivism  
Chapter 11: Women and Corrections  
History and Growth  
Current Figures on the Number of Women and Girls in Corrections  
Females in Corrections: Needs, Programming, Abuse, and Adjustment  
Female Correctional Officers  
Chapter 12: Minorities and Corrections
Defining Race, Ethnicity, Disparity, and Discrimination  
A Legacy of Racism: African Americans, American Indians, Hispanics, Asian Americans  
The Connection Between Class and Race/Ethnicity  
Minorities: Policies and Practices That Have Resulted in Increased Incarceration  
Minorities: Adjustment to Incarceration  
Minorities Working in Corrections  
Chapter 13: Juveniles and Corrections
Introduction: Delinquency and Status Offending  
The Extent of Delinquency  
The Juvenile Brain and Juvenile Behavior  
History and Philosophy of Juvenile Justice  
Childhood in the United States  
The Beginning of the Juvenile Courts  
Processing Juvenile Offenders  
Juveniles Waived to Criminal Court  
Extending Due Process to Juveniles  
Juveniles and the Death Penalty  
Juvenile Community Corrections  
Intensive Probation  
Residential and Institutional Juvenile Corrections  
Chapter 14: Legal Issues in Corrections
The Rule of Law  
The Hands-Off Period: 1866–1963  
The Prisoners’ Rights Period: 1964–1978  
First Amendment  
Fourth Amendment  
Eighth Amendment  
Fourteenth Amendment  
The Civil Commitment of Sex Offenders  
Prisoners’ Rights in Comparison Countries  
Curtailing Prisoner Petitions  
Legal Issues in Probation and Parole  
Chapter 15: Correctional Programming and Treatment
The Rise and Fall (and Rise Again) of Rehabilitation  
The Shift from “Nothing Works” to “What Works?”  
Evidence-Based Practices  
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy  
Substance Abuse Programming  
Drug Treatment with Swift Consequences for Failure: Hawaii’s HOPE Program  
Therapeutic Communities  
Pharmacological Treatment  
Anger Management  
Sex Offenders and Their Treatment  
Mentally Ill Offenders  
Chapter 16: The Death Penalty
The Death Penalty and Public Opinion  
Methods of Execution used in the United States  
Legal Challenges to the Death Penalty  
Does the Death Penalty Deter?  
Financial Costs and the Death Penalty  
Racial Disparity in Death Sentences  
The Issue of Victim’s Race  
Women and the Death Penalty  
The Chivalry Hypotheses  
The Evil Women Hypotheses  
The Death Penalty and Mental Disability  
The Death Penalty and Mental Illness  
The Innocence Revolution  
Some Concerns with DNA Technology  
Some Concerns with Neuroimaging Technology  
Chapter 17: Corrections in the 21st Century
Introduction: Learning From the Past So That We Have Hope for the Future  
Punitive Policies Yield Overuse of Corrections  
Corrections Is a Relationship Business  
Concluding Thoughts  


Instructor Resource site

SAGE edge for Instructors supports teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.

  • Test banks that provide a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalized questions to effectively assess the students' progress and understanding.
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for the course.
  • Lecture Notes summarize key concepts on a chapter-by-chapter basis to help with preparation for lectures and class discussions.
  • Class Activities for individual or group projects provide lively and stimulating ideas for use in and out of class to reinforce active learning.
  • A set of all the graphics from the text, including all of the maps, tables, and figures, in PowerPoint, .pdf, and jpg formats for class presentations.
  • Carefully selected chapter-by-chapter video and multimedia content which enhance classroom-based explorations of key topics.
Student Study Site

SAGE edge offers a robust online environment featuring an impressive array of tools and resources for review, study, and further exploration, keeping both instructors and students on the cutting edge of teaching and learning. SAGE edge content is open access and available on demand. Learning and teaching has never been easier! We gratefully acknowledge Marianne Hudson, Boise State University, for developing the ancillaries on this site.

SAGE edge for Students provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.

  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts.
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material.
  • A customized online action plan includes tips and feedback on progress through the course and materials, which allows students to individualize their learning experience.
  • Learning objectives reinforce the most important material.
  • Carefully selected chapter-by-chapter video and multimedia content which enhance classroom-based explorations of key topics
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides questions to focus and guide your interpretation.

“This is an outstanding primer that students of criminal justice, psychology, sociology, criminology, and social work, working in corrections, cannot be without.  A must read that is concise and understandable by all regardless of background!”

Joel L. Carr, Ph.D., LCSW, LPC
Social Work Program, Texas A&M University-Kingsville

“The material is presented in a very clear and concise manner.  The book is written in a manner that is highly organized.”

Lisa M. Carter
Florida Southern College

“I like this book, it offers a good introduction to new students and informs the reader of current, and recent, developments in correctional services.”

Dr. Andy Bain
Criminal Justice, University of Mount Union

“It covers the material with great insight and allows my students to purchase a text at a reasonable cost with all of the resources and tools available.”

Joe Marinello, MA, CCFC, QMHP

“Low cost, well organized, thorough yet concise.”

Caryn E. Saxon
Missouri State University

This book is fundamental and comprehensive

Dr Jabulani Calvin Makhubele
Social Work, Limpopo University
May 30, 2016

This is fundamental in teaching criminology and social workers working within correctional centres.

Dr Jabulani Calvin Makhubele
Social Work, Limpopo University
December 10, 2015

A useful book that provides sample questions to guide teaching and students revision and engagement with the subject matter.

Mr Gwatirera Javangwe
Psychology, University of Zimbabwe
June 10, 2015

Adopted American Corrections Concepts and Controversies instead

Mr Justin Dececca
Criminal justice, University Of The Cumberlands
April 8, 2015

I will use it for an ethics course. Excellent book with great examples

Dr Debi Mishra
School Of Management, Suny At Binghamton
February 10, 2015

Sample Materials & Chapters

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Chapter 8

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Mary K. Stohr

Mary K. Stohr is a Professor in the Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology at Washington State University. She received a PhD (1990) in political science, with specializations in criminal justice and public administration, from Washington State University. Many moons ago, and before she earned her graduate degrees, she worked as a correctional officer and then as a counselor in an adult male prison in Washington State. Professor Stohr has published over 80 academic works in the areas of correctional organizations and operation, correctional personnel, inmate needs and assessment, program evaluation, gender, and victimization. Her... More About Author

Anthony Walsh

Anthony Walsh is a Professor of Criminology at Boise State University. He received his PhD from Bowling Green State University at the ripe old age of 43. He has field experience in law enforcement and corrections. He is the author of over 150 journal articles/book chapters and 34 books, including Biology and Criminology (Routledge, 2009), Feminist Criminology Through a Biosocial Lens (Carolina Academic Press, 2011), Law, Justice, and Society (with Craig Hemmens, Oxford University Press, 2011), Correctional Assessment, Casework, and Counseling (with Mary K. Stohr, American Correctional Association, 2011), The Neurobiology of Criminal... More About Author

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ISBN: 9781483372242