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Corrections: The Essentials

Corrections: The Essentials

Second Edition

384 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Corrections: The Essentials, is a comprehensive, yet compact version of corrections by two esteemed authors who are experts in the field. The text addresses the most important topics in corrections in a shorter and more cost-effective format. The Second Edition continues to cover the history, development, and future of corrections as well as provides new coverage of Ethics and the Death Penalty. The book’s brevity makes it an excellent core textbook that can easily be supplemented with additional reading materials.   
Chapter 1: The Philosophical and Ideological Underpinnings of Corrections
Introduction: What Is Corrections?

From Arrest to Punishment

The Theoretical Underpinnings of Corrections

Short History of Correctional Punishment

The Emergence of Positivism: Should Punishment Fit the Offender or the Offense?

The Function of Punishment

The Philosophical Assumptions behind Justifications for Punishment

The Major Punishment Justifications




Selective Incapacitation



The Four Legal Traditions and Why They are Useful to Know

The Due Process and Crime Control Models and Cultural Comparisons

The Crime Control Model

The Due Process Model

Is the United States Hard or Soft on Crime?

Chapter 2: Correctional History: Ancient Times–Colonial Jails
Introduction: The Evolving Practice of Corrections

Themes: Truths That Underlie Correctional Practice

Early Punishments in Westernized Countries

Enlightenment - Paradigm Shift

Colonial Jails and Prisons

Chapter 3: Correctional History: The 17th–20th Century
Introduction: The Grand Reforms

Early Modern Prisons and the Pennsylvania and New York Models

Early Prisons and Jails Not Reformed

The Renewed Promise of Reform

Southern and Northern Prisons and the Contract and Lease Systems, and Industrial Prisons

Correctional Institutions or Warehouse Prisons?

Themes That Prevail in Correctional History

Chapter 4: Ethics and Corrections
Introduction: To Do the Right Thing!

Defining Ethics: What is Right (and Wrong)?

Ethical Foundation For Professional Practice

Why People Behave Unethically

How to Prevent Unethical Behavior and to Promote Ethical Work Practices

War on Drugs = Attack on Ethics?

Chapter 5: Sentencing: The Application of Punishment
What is Sentencing?

Types of Sentences: Indeterminate, Determinate, and Mandatory

Habitual Offender Statutes

Other Types of Sentences: Shock, Split, and Non-Custodial Sentences

Victim Impact Statements

Sentencing by Civil Commitment for Sex Offenders

Problem-Solving Courts

Drug Courts

Sentencing Disparity, Legitimate and Illegitimate

Structuring Sentencing: The Presentence Investigation Report

Structuring Sentencing: The Presentence Investigation Report

Structured Sentencing: Sentencing Guidelines

The Future of Sentencing Guidelines

The American Correctional Association’s Statement on Sentencing

Chapter 6: Jails
Introduction: The Community Institution

Jail Types

Jail Inmates and Their Processing


Gender, Juveniles, Race, and Ethnicity

The Poor and the Mentally Ill

Medical Problems

Substance Abuse and Jails

Suicides, Gangs and Sexual Violence in Jails

Innovations in Jails: New Generation/Podular Direct Supervision Jails, Community Jails,

Chapter 7: Community Corrections: Probation and Intermediary Sanctions
The Origins of Probation

Number and Demographic Characteristics of Offenders on Probation

Why do we Need Community Corrections?

The Probation Officer Role

Models of Probation Supervision

Probation Violations and Graduated Sanctions

Probation Officer Stress

Community Supervision and Recidivism

Engaging the Community to Prevent Recidivism

Intermediate Sanctions

Work Release

Intensive Supervision Probation

Shock Probation/Parole and Boot Camps

Victim-Offender Reconciliation Programs (VORPs)

Chapter 8: Prisons
Introduction: The State of Prisons

Prison Organizations

Prison Value?

Attributes of the Prison That Shape the Experience

The Prison Subculture

Gangs and the Prison Subculture


Solutions: Strategies to Reduce Violence, Mature Coping and Social Support

Special Populations

Chapter 9: The Corrections Experience for Staff

The State of the Work in Correctional Institutions and Programs

Why the Need to Require More Education and Training Exists

Stanford Prison Experiment

Organizational-Level Factors That Affect the Correctional Workplace

Individual-Level Factors That Affect the Correctional Workplace

Correctional Roles

The Subculture and Socialization

Staff Interactions With Inmates

Other Issues for Staff: Stress, Burnout, Turnover


Perceived Benefits of Correctional Work

Chapter 10: Community Corrections: Parole and Prisoner Reentry
What is Parole?

Parole Boards

What Goes in Must Come Out: Prisoner Reentry into the Community

The Impact of Imprisonment and Reentry on Communities

What Makes for a Successful Reentry?
Determining Parole “Success”

Parole Violations and Graduated Sanctions

Halfway Houses

House Arrest, Electronic Monitoring, and Global Positioning Systems

Concluding Remarks on Reenty and Recidivism

Chapter 11: Women and Corrections


History and Growth

Current Figures on the Number of Women and Girls in Corrections

Females in Corrections: Needs, Programming, Abuse, and Adjustment

Female Correctional Officers

Chapter 12: Minorities and Corrections

Defining Race, Ethnicity, Disparity, and Discrimination

A Legacy of Racism: African Americans, American Indians, Hispanics, Asian Americans

The Connection Between Class and Race/Ethnicity

Minorities: Policies and Practices That Have Resulted in Increased Incarceration

Minorities: Adjustment to Incarceration

Minorities Working in Corrections

Chapter 13: Juveniles and Corrections
Introduction: Delinquency and Status Offending

The Extent of Delinquency

The Juvenile Brain and Juvenile Behavior

History and Philosophy of Juvenile Justice

Childhood in the United States

The Beginning of the Juvenile Courts

Processing Juvenile Offenders

Juveniles Waived to Criminal Court

Extending Due Process to Juveniles

Juveniles and the Death Penalty

Juvenile Community Corrections

Intensive Probation

Residential and Institutional Juvenile Corrections

Chapter 14: Legal Issues in Corrections

The Rule of Law

The Hands-Off Period: 1866–1963

The Prisoners’ Rights Period: 1964–1978

First Amendment

Fourth Amendment

Eighth Amendment

Fourteenth Amendment

The Civil Commitment of Sex Offenders

Prisoners’ Rights in Comparison Countries

Curtailing Prisoner Petitions

Legal Issues in Probation and Parole

Chapter 15: Correctional Programming and Treatment
The Rise and Fall (and Rise Again) of Rehabilitation

The Shift from “Nothing Works” to “What Works?”

Evidence-Based Practices

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Substance Abuse Programming

Drug Treatment with Swift Consequences for Failure: Hawaii’s HOPE Program

Therapeutic Communities

Pharmacological Treatment

Anger Management

Sex Offenders and Their Treatment

Mentally Ill Offenders

Chapter 16: The Death Penalty
The Death Penalty and Public Opinion

Methods of Execution used in the United States

Legal Challenges to the Death Penalty

Does the Death Penalty Deter?

Financial Costs and the Death Penalty

Racial Disparity in Death Sentences

The Issue of Victim’s Race

Women and the Death Penalty

The Chivalry Hypotheses

The Evil Women Hypotheses

The Death Penalty and Mental Disability

The Death Penalty and Mental Illness

The Innocence Revolution

Some Concerns with DNA Technology

Some Concerns with Neuroimaging Technology

Chapter 17: Corrections in the 21st Century
Introduction: Learning From the Past So That We Have Hope for the Future

Punitive Policies Yield Overuse of Corrections



Corrections Is a Relationship Business


Concluding Thoughts



Instructor Resource site

SAGE edge for Instructors supports teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.

  • Test banks that provide a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalized questions to effectively assess the students' progress and understanding.
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for the course.
  • Lecture Notes summarize key concepts on a chapter-by-chapter basis to help with preparation for lectures and class discussions.
  • Class Activities for individual or group projects provide lively and stimulating ideas for use in and out of class to reinforce active learning.
  • A set of all the graphics from the text, including all of the maps, tables, and figures, in PowerPoint, .pdf, and jpg formats for class presentations.
  • Carefully selected chapter-by-chapter video and multimedia content which enhance classroom-based explorations of key topics.
Student Study Site

SAGE edge offers a robust online environment featuring an impressive array of tools and resources for review, study, and further exploration, keeping both instructors and students on the cutting edge of teaching and learning. SAGE edge content is open access and available on demand. Learning and teaching has never been easier! We gratefully acknowledge Marianne Hudson, Boise State University, for developing the ancillaries on this site.

SAGE edge for Students provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.

  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts.
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material.
  • A customized online action plan includes tips and feedback on progress through the course and materials, which allows students to individualize their learning experience.
  • Learning objectives reinforce the most important material.
  • Carefully selected chapter-by-chapter video and multimedia content which enhance classroom-based explorations of key topics
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides questions to focus and guide your interpretation.

“This is an outstanding primer that students of criminal justice, psychology, sociology, criminology, and social work, working in corrections, cannot be without.  A must read that is concise and understandable by all regardless of background!”

Joel L. Carr, Ph.D., LCSW, LPC
Social Work Program, Texas A&M University-Kingsville

“The material is presented in a very clear and concise manner.  The book is written in a manner that is highly organized.”

Lisa M. Carter
Florida Southern College

“I like this book, it offers a good introduction to new students and informs the reader of current, and recent, developments in correctional services.”

Dr. Andy Bain
Criminal Justice, University of Mount Union

“It covers the material with great insight and allows my students to purchase a text at a reasonable cost with all of the resources and tools available.”

Joe Marinello, MA, CCFC, QMHP

“Low cost, well organized, thorough yet concise.”

Caryn E. Saxon
Missouri State University

This book is fundamental and comprehensive

Dr Jabulani Calvin Makhubele
Social Work, Limpopo University
December 10, 2015

This is fundamental in teaching criminology and social workers working within correctional centres.

Dr Jabulani Calvin Makhubele
Social Work, Limpopo University
December 10, 2015

A useful book that provides sample questions to guide teaching and students revision and engagement with the subject matter.

Mr Gwatirera Javangwe
Psychology, University of Zimbabwe
June 10, 2015

Adopted American Corrections Concepts and Controversies instead

Mr Justin Dececca
Criminal justice, University Of The Cumberlands
April 8, 2015

I will use it for an ethics course. Excellent book with great examples

Dr Debi Mishra
School Of Management, Suny At Binghamton
February 10, 2015

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 1

Chapter 8

Mary K. Stohr

Mary K. Stohr is a professor in the Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology at Washington State University. She received a PhD (1990) in political science from Washington State University, with specializations in criminal justice and public administration. Many moons ago, and before she earned her graduate degrees, she worked as a correctional officer and then as a counselor in an adult male prison in Washington State. Professor Stohr has published more than 100 academic works in the areas of correctional organizations and operation, correctional personnel, inmate needs and assessment, program evaluation, gender, policing,... More About Author

Anthony Walsh

Anthony Walsh, is a professor of criminology at Boise State University. He received his PhD from Bowling Green State University at the ripe old age of 43. He has field experience in law enforcement and corrections and is the author of more than 150 journal articles and book chapters and 41 books, including Biology and Criminology; Feminist Criminology Through a Biosocial Lens; Law, Justice, and Society (with Hemmens); Correctional Assessment, Casework, and Counseling (with Stohr); The Neurobiology of Criminal Behavior: Gene-Brain-Culture Interaction (with Bolen, Ashgate); Corrections: The Essentials ... More About Author

Also available as a South Asia Edition.