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Corrections: A Text/Reader

Corrections: A Text/Reader

Third Edition

August 2018 | 768 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

The Third Edition of Corrections: A Text/Reader provides students with the best of both worlds—a brief authored text accompanied by carefully selected and edited readings. Clear explanations of all of the major course topics help students understand the impact of new directions and policy in corrections. Policy-oriented original research articles demonstrate how research drives these advances. Designed throughout to enhance understanding, the book includes a helpful "How to Read a Research Article" section before the first reading, as well as article introductions, photographs, and discussion questions that capture students’ interest and help them develop their critical thinking skills. 

New to the Third Edition

  • Nearly 75% of the journal articles have been updated to introduce students to current research on important topics such as racial and ethnic disparities in probation, influences on inmate misconduct, transgender prison inmates, and lethal injection protocol.
  • Updated and expanded coverage of ethical considerations, special populations, and the history of corrections provides students with the context for understanding policy decisions and their consequences, both past and present. 
    New Sections on Ethics (Section IV) and the Death Penalty (Section XVI) offer students insights into key issues in corrections today.
  • More coverage on disparities in sentencing and drug courts encourages students to think critically about U.S. drug policies and their effectiveness.
  • Additional content on federal procedures and private prisons shows real examples of private prisons, their profit motives, and the effect they have on the correctional system.
  • The most current data, facts, statistics, and research are included throughout the book to provide students with insights into the world of corrections today.

Give your students the SAGE edge! 
SAGE edge offers a robust online environment featuring an impressive array of free tools and resources for review, study, and further exploration, keeping both instructors and students on the cutting edge of teaching and learning. Learn more at

About the Authors
SECTION I. The Philosophical and Ideological Underpinnings of Corrections
Introduction: What Is Corrections?

From Arrest to Punishment

The Major Punishment Justifications

READING 1. The Goals of Corrections: Perspectives From the Line

READING 2. Broken Beyond Repair: Rehabilitative Penology and American Political Development

SECTION II. Correctional History: Ancient Times to Colonial Jails
Narrative of What Happened When Three Men Were First Placed in the Missouri State

Introduction: The Evolving Practice of Corrections

Themes: Truths That Underlie Correctional Practice

Early Punishments in Westernized Countries

Enlightenment—Paradigm Shift

Colonial Jails and Prisons

READING 3. An Historical Outline of the Penitentiary System

SECTION III. Correctional History: The 17th to 20th Centuries
Jim Crow Treatment in Prisons

Introduction: The Grand Reforms

Early Modern Prisons and the Pennsylvania and New York Models

Early Prisons and Jails Not Reformed

The Renewed Promise of Reform

Southern and Northern Prisons and the Contract and Lease Systems, and Industrial Prisons

Correctional Institutions or Warehouse Prisons?

Themes That Prevail in Correctional History

READING 4. “Much and Unfortunately Neglected”: Women in Early and Mid-Nineteenth-Century Prisons

SECTION IV. Ethics and Corrections
A Novice Bows to Subcultural Pressure

Introduction: To Do the Right Thing!

Defining Ethics: What Is Right (and Wrong)?

Ethical Foundation for Professional Practice

Why People Behave Unethically

How to Prevent Unethical Behavior and to Promote Ethical Work Practices

War on Drugs = Attack on Ethics?

READING 5. Ethics in a Mountain State County Jail

READING 6. Deconstructing Correctional Officer Deviance: Toward Typologies of Actions and Controls

SECTION V. Sentencing: The Application of Punishment
Vindictive Versus Sensible Sentencing

What Is Sentencing?

Types of Sentences: Indeterminate, Determinate, and Mandatory

Habitual Offender Statutes

Other Types of Sentences: Shock, Split, and Noncustodial Sentences

Sentencing by Civil Commitment for Sex Offenders

Problem-Solving Courts

Drug Courts

Sentencing Disparity, Legitimate and Illegitimate

Structuring Sentencing: The Presentence Investigation Report

Structured Sentencing: Sentencing Guidelines

The Future of Sentencing Guidelines

READING 7. Cracked Justice

READING 8. Determinants of State Innovations in American Sentencing and Corrections Policy: A Systematic Review

SECTION VI. Jails and Detention Centers
A Mentally Ill Inmate in the Dona Ana County Jail, New Mexico

Introduction: The Community Institution

Jail Types

Jail Inmates and Their Processing


Gender, Juveniles, Race, and Ethnicity

The Poor and the Mentally Ill

Medical Problems

Substance Abuse and Jails

Suicides, Gangs, and Sexual Violence in Jails

Innovations in Jails

READING 9. Why Do Some Jail Inmates Not Engage in Treatment and Services?

READING 10. National Study of Jail Suicide: 20 Years Later

SECTION VII. Community Corrections: Probation and Intermediary Sanctions
The Origins of Probation

Number and Demographic Characteristics of Offenders on Probation

Why Do We Need Community Corrections?

The Probation Officer Role

Models of Probation Supervision

Probation Violations and Graduated Sanctions

Probation Officer Stress

Engaging the Community to Prevent Recidivism

Intermediate Sanctions

READING 11. A Probation Profanation: Race, Ethnicity, and Probation in a Midwestern Sample

READING 12. Sex Offender Supervision in Context: The Need for Qualitative Examinations of Social Distance in Sex Offender–Supervision Officer Relationships

SECTION VIII. Prisons and the Correctional Client
Kitchen Supervisor Sexually Abuses Two Male Inmates

Introduction: The State of Prisons

Prison Organizations

Prison Value?

Attributes of the Prison That Shape the Experience

The Prison Subculture

Gangs and the Prison Subculture


Solutions: Strategies to Reduce Violence, Mature Coping, and Social Support

Special Populations

READING 13. Sex Differences in the Predictors of Prisoner Misconduct

READING 14. Prison Architecture and Inmate Misconduct: A Multilevel Assessment

SECTION IX. The Corrections Experience for Staff
John’s Tragic Story


The State of the Work in Correctional Institutions and Programs

Why the Need to Require More Education and Training Exists

Organizational-Level Factors That Affect the Correctional Workplace

Organizational Culture

Individual-Level Factors That Affect the Correctional Workplace

Correctional Roles

The Subculture and Socialization

Staff Interactions With Inmates

Other Issues for Staff: Stress, Burnout, Turnover


Perceived Benefits of Correctional Work

READING 15. Problems at Work: Exploring the Correlates of Role Stress Among Correctional Staff

READING 16. Gendered Adherence: Correctional Officers and Therapeutic Reform in a Reentry Facility

SECTION X. Community Corrections: Parole and Prisoner Reentry
The Perils of Parole

What Is Parole?

Parole Boards

What Goes In Must Come Out: Prisoner Reentry Into the Community

The Impact of Imprisonment and Reentry on Communities

What Makes for a Successful Reentry?

Determining Parole “Success”

Parole Violations and Graduated Sanctions

House Arrest, Electronic Monitoring, and Global Positioning Systems

Concluding Remarks on Reentry and Recidivism

READING 17. Examining the Predictors of Recidivism Among Men and Women Released From Prison in Ohio

READING 18. Prisoner Reentry in a Small Metropolitan Community: Obstacles and Policy Recommendations

SECTION XI. Women and Corrections
Supervising Is Different for Women


History and Growth

Current Figures on the Number of Women and Girls in Corrections

Females in Corrections: Needs, Programming, Abuse, and Adjustment

Female Correctional Officers

READING 19. A Historical Review of Mother and Child Programs for Incarcerated Women

READING 20. Examining External Support Received in Prison and Concerns About Reentry Among Incarcerated Women

SECTION XII. Minorities and Corrections
Undocumented Workers and Their Side of the Story


Defining Race, Ethnicity, Disparity, and Discrimination

A Legacy of Racism

The Connection Between Class and Race/Ethnicity

Minorities: Policies and Practices That Have Resulted in Increased Incarceration

Minorities: Adjustment to Incarceration

Minorities Working in Corrections

READING 21. Racial Desegregation in Prisons

READING 22. Mass Incarceration Through a Different Lens: Race, Subcontext, and Perceptions of Punitiveness of Correctional Alternatives When Compared to Prison

SECTION XIII. Juveniles and Corrections
Too Young for Life

Introduction: Delinquency and Status Offending

The Extent of Delinquency

The Juvenile Brain and Juvenile Behavior

History and Philosophy of Juvenile Justice

Childhood in the United States

The Beginning of the Juvenile Courts

Processing Juvenile Offenders

Juvenile Community Corrections

Intensive Probation

Residential and Institutional Juvenile Corrections

READING 23. Juvenile Justice: The Legacy of Punitive Policy

READING 24. Managing the Threat of Violence: Coping Strategies Among Juvenile Inmates

SECTION XIV. Legal Issues in Corrections
Prison Without Law


The Rule of Law

The Hands-Off Period: 1866–1963

The Prisoners’ Rights Period: 1964–1978

The Deference Period: 1979–Present

First Amendment

Fourth Amendment

Eighth Amendment

Fourteenth Amendment

The Civil Commitment of Sex Offenders

Curtailing Prisoner Petitions

Legal Issues in Probation and Parole

READING 25. Correctional Officer Excessive Use of Force: Civil Liability Under Section 1983

READING 26. Transgender Inmates in Prisons: A Review of Applicable Statutes and Policies

SECTION XV. Correctional Programming and Treatment
Life’s Turning Points

The Rise and Fall (and Rise Again) of Rehabilitation

The Shift From “Nothing Works” to “What Works?”

Evidence-Based Practices

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Substance Abuse Programming

Anger Management

Sex Offenders and Their Treatment

Mentally Ill Offenders

READING 27. Reducing Institutional Disorder: Using the Inmate Risk Assessment for Segregation Placement to Triage Treatment Services at the Front End of Prison Sentences

READING 28. Gender Differences in Prison-Based Drug Treatment Participation

SECTION XVI. The Death Penalty
A Very Unusual, Very Expensive Serial Killer

The Death Penalty and Public Opinion

Methods of Execution Used in the United States

Legal Challenges to the Death Penalty

Does the Death Penalty Deter?

Financial Costs and the Death Penalty

Women and the Death Penalty

The Death Penalty and Mental Disability

The Death Penalty and Mental Illness

The Innocence Revolution

READING 29. The Execution of Wallace Wilkerson: Precedent and Portent

READING 30. How Would You Like to Die? Glossip v. Gross Deals Blow to Abolitionists

SECTION XVII. Corrections in the 21st Century
Introduction: Learning From the Past So That We Have Hope for the Future

Punitive Policies Yield Overuse of Corrections



Corrections Is a Relationship Business


Concluding Thoughts

READING 31. The Risk-Need-Responsivity Model Revisited: Using Biosocial Criminology to Enhance Offender Rehabilitation

READING 32. Decarceration and Its Possible Effects on Inmates, Staff, and Communities



Student Study Site

SAGE edge for Students provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.

  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts.
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material.
  • Learning objectives reinforce the most important material.
  • Carefully selected chapter-by-chapter video and multimedia content which enhance classroom-based explorations of key topics
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter.
Instructor Resource Site

Password-protected Instructor Resources include the following:

  • SAGE edge for Instructors, supports your teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.
  • Microsoft® Word® test bank is available containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course.
  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts by chapter to help you prepare for lectures and class discussions.
  • Lively and stimulating ideas for class activities that can be used in class to reinforce active learning. The activities apply to individual or group project.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter is included.
  • Video and web resources provide further research and insights that bring concepts to life and make learning easier.
  • Access to all tables, figures, learning objectives, and chapter outlines from the text.

Mary K. Stohr

Mary K. Stohr is a professor in the Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology at Washington State University. She received a PhD (1990) in political science from Washington State University, with specializations in criminal justice and public administration. Many moons ago, and before she earned her graduate degrees, she worked as a correctional officer and then as a counselor in an adult male prison in Washington State. Professor Stohr has published more than 100 academic works in the areas of correctional organizations and operation, correctional personnel, inmate needs and assessment, program evaluation, gender, policing,... More About Author

Anthony Walsh

Anthony Walsh, is a professor of criminology at Boise State University. He received his PhD from Bowling Green State University at the ripe old age of 43. He has field experience in law enforcement and corrections and is the author of more than 150 journal articles and book chapters and 41 books, including Biology and Criminology; Feminist Criminology Through a Biosocial Lens; Law, Justice, and Society (with Hemmens); Correctional Assessment, Casework, and Counseling (with Stohr); The Neurobiology of Criminal Behavior: Gene-Brain-Culture Interaction (with Bolen, Ashgate); Corrections: The Essentials ... More About Author

Craig T. Hemmens

Craig Hemmens is a professor in the Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology at Washington State University. He holds a JD from North Carolina Central University School of Law and a PhD in criminal justice from Sam Houston State University. Professor Hemmens has published 20 books and more than 200 articles, many dealing with legal issues in criminal justice. He currently serves as editor of the Criminal Law Bulletin and previously served as the editor of the Journal of Criminal Justice Education and as president of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. His current research interests include criminal law and procedure. More About Author

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ISBN: 9781544339221