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Confirmatory Factor Analysis

Confirmatory Factor Analysis

  • J. Micah Roos - Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA
  • Shawn Bauldry - Purdue University, Purdue University, USA

October 2021 | 144 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Measurement connects theoretical concepts to what is observable in the empirical world, and is fundamental to all social and behavioral research. In this volume, J. Micah Roos and Shawn Bauldry introduce a popular approach to measurement: Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). As the authors explain, CFA is a theoretically informed statistical framework for linking multiple observed variables to latent variables that are not directly measurable. The authors begin by defining terms, introducing notation, and illustrating a wide variety of measurement models with different relationships between latent and observed variables. They proceed to a thorough treatment of model estimation, followed by a discussion of model fit.  Most of the volume focuses on measures that approximate continuous variables, but the authors also devote a chapter to categorical indicators. Each chapter develops a different example (sometimes two) covering topics as diverse as racist attitudes, theological conservatism, leadership qualities, psychological distress, self-efficacy, beliefs about democracy, and Christian nationalism drawn mainly from national surveys. Data to replicate the examples are available on a companion website at, along with code for R, Stata, and Mplus.
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Model Specification
Chapter 3: Identification and Estimation
Chapter 4: Model Evaluation and Respecification
Chapter 5: Measurement Invariance
Chapter 6: Categorical Indicators
Chapter 7: Conclusion
Appendix: Reliability of Scales


Student Study Site

Example code as well as data (variously in R using lava, Stata, and Mplus) is provided by chapter.

Confirmatory Factor Analysis is well written and easy to read, The book covers the essentials necessary for understanding and using CFA. It is appropriate for graduate students and professors new to this analysis approach.

Jerry J. Vaske
Colorado State University

The authors provide a masterful and fluid overview of confirmatory factor analysis that will guide readers to the best practices whether conducting their own research or evaluating the research of others.

John Hoffmann
Brigham Young University

This is a well-written and comprehensive text.

Michael D. Biderman
University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Roos and Bauldry lucidly set out foundations of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) as applied in the assessment and construction of scales. Beginning with model specification, they discuss identification, estimation, and assessment of CFA models, before developing extensions to assessing measurement invariance and categorical (rather than quantitative) indicators.

Peter V. Marsden
Harvard University

This is an important text to support the validation of surveys

Professor Melanie Taverna
Periodontics Dept, Univ Of Texas Hlth Sci Center
April 1, 2024

J. "Jason" Micah Roos

J. Micah Roos is an associate professor of sociology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. His research interests include knowledge, science, religion, culture, stratification, measurement, racial attitudes, and quantitative methods. He ties these interests together through a quantitative, measurement approach to the sociology of knowledge and culture, with a focus on stratification along the early life course. Another strand of his work involves applying techniques in confirmatory factor analysis to the problem of differential item functioning or item-level bias. He holds a PhD in Sociology from the University of North... More About Author

Shawn Bauldry

Shawn Bauldry is an Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology at Purdue University. He received a Ph.D. in Sociology and an M.S. in Statistics from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 2012 and has previously taught at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. His research in applied statistics primarily focuses on the development of structural equation models. His research in sociology explores interrelationships between socioeconomic resources and health over the life course and across generations. His work has appeared in a variety of outlets including Sociological Methodology, Sociological Methods & Research,... More About Author

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ISBN: 9781544375137

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