You are here

An Introduction to Statistics
Share

An Introduction to Statistics
An Active Learning Approach

Second Edition
Additional resources:


December 2016 | 656 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

The Second Edition takes a unique, active approach to teaching and learning introductory statistics that allows students to discover and correct their misunderstandings as chapters progress rather than at their conclusion. Empirically-developed, self-correcting activities reinforce and expand on fundamental concepts, targeting and holding students’ attention. Based on contemporary memory research, this learner-centered approach leads to better long-term retention through active engagement while generating explanations. Along with carefully placed reading questions, this edition includes learning objectives, realistic research scenarios, practice problems, self-test questions, problem sets, and practice tests to help students become more confident in their ability to perform statistics. 

 

 
Preface
 
About the Authors
 
1 Introduction to Statistics and Frequency Distributions
How to Be Successful in This Course

 
Math Skills Required in This Course

 
Why Do You Have to Take Statistics?

 
Statistics and the Helping Professions

 
Hypothesis Testing, Effect Size, and Confidence Intervals

 
Testing Causal Hypotheses

 
Populations and Samples

 
Independent and Dependent Variables

 
Scales of Measurement

 
Discrete Versus Continuous Variables

 
Graphing Data

 
Shapes of Distributions

 
Frequency Distribution Tables

 
SPSS

 
Overview of the Activity

 
Chapter 1 Practice Test

 
 
2 Central Tendency
Central Tendency

 
Computing the Mean

 
Find the Median

 
Find the Mode

 
SPSS

 
Overview of the Activity

 
Chapter 2 Practice Test

 
 
3 Variability
Population Variability

 
Steps in Computing a Population’s Standard Deviation

 
Sample Variability

 
SPSS

 
Overview of the Activity

 
Chapter 3 Practice Test

 
 
4 z Scores
z for a Single Score

 
Using X to Find Important “Cut Lines”

 
z Scores and the Standard Normal Curve

 
Example 1: Positive z Score

 
Example 2: Negative z Score

 
Example 3: Proportion Between Two z Scores

 
Overview of the Activity

 
Chapter 4 Practice Test

 
 
5 The Distribution of Sample Means and z for a Sample Mean
Sampling and Sampling Error

 
Distribution of Sample Means

 
z for a Sample Mean

 
Example: Computing and Interpreting the z for a Sample Mean

 
Exact Probabilities Versus Probability Estimates

 
Overview of the Activities

 
Chapter 5 Practice Test

 
 
6 Hypothesis Testing With z Scores
Introduction to Hypothesis Testing

 
Hypothesis Testing With z for a Sample Mean Example (One-Tailed)

 
What Does It Mean to Describe Something as “Statistically Significant”?

 
Errors in Hypothesis Testing

 
Hypothesis Testing Rules

 
What Is a p Value?

 
Why Statisticians “Fail to Reject the Null” Rather Than “Accept the Null”

 
Why Scientists Say “This Research Suggests” Rather Than “This Research Proves”

 
Overview of the Activities

 
Chapter 6 Practice Test

 
 
7 Single-Sample t Test
Single-Sample t Test

 
Conceptual Information

 
One-Tailed Single-Sample t Test Example

 
Two-Tailed Single-Sample t Test Example

 
Other Alpha Levels

 
SPSS

 
Overview of the Activity

 
Chapter 7 Practice Test

 
 
8 Estimation With Confidence Intervals
Three Statistical Procedures With Three Distinct Purposes

 
Logic of Confidence Intervals

 
Computing a Confidence Interval for a Population Mean

 
Computing Confidence Intervals for a Mean Difference

 
Reporting Confidence Intervals in APA Style

 
Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes

 
Interpretations of Confidence Intervals

 
SPSS

 
Overview of the Activity

 
Chapter 8 Practice Test

 
 
9 Related Samples t Test
Repeated/Related Samples t Test

 
Logic of the Single-Sample and Repeated/Related Samples t Tests

 
Related Samples t (Two-Tailed) Example

 
Related Samples t (One-Tailed) Example

 
Statistical Results, Experimental Design, and Scientific Conclusions

 
SPSS

 
Overview of the Activities

 
Chapter 9 Practice Test

 
 
10 Independent Samples t Test
Independent Samples t

 
Conceptual Formula for the Independent Samples t

 
Two-Tailed Independent t Test Example

 
One-Tailed Independent t Test Example

 
Other Alpha Levels

 
SPSS

 
Overview of the Activities

 
Chapter 10 Practice Test

 
 
11 One-Way Independent Samples ANOVA
Independent Samples ANOVA

 
An Example ANOVA Problem

 
An Additional Note on ANOVAs: Family-Wise Error and Alpha Inflation

 
SPSS

 
Overview of the Activities

 
Chapter 11 Practice Test

 
 
12 Two-Factor ANOVA or Two-Way ANOVA
Purpose of the Two-Way ANOVA

 
Describing Factorial Designs

 
Logic of the Two-Way ANOVA

 
Example of a Two-Way ANOVA

 
SPSS

 
Overview of the Activities

 
Chapter 12 Practice Test

 
 
13 Correlation and Regression
When to Use Correlations and What They Can Tell You

 
Review of z Scores

 
The Logic of Correlation

 
Direction and Strength of Correlation Coefficients

 
Computational Formulas

 
Spearman’s (rs) Correlations

 
Using Scatterplots Prior to Correlation Coefficients

 
Alternative Use for Correlation

 
Correlation and Causation

 
Hypothesis Testing With Correlation

 
Two-Tailed Pearson’s Correlation Example

 
One-Tailed Pearson’s Correlation Example

 
What If You Need to Do a Spearman’s Correlation?

 
Confidence Intervals

 
SPSS

 
Overview of the Activities

 
Chapter 13 Practice Test

 
 
14 Goodness of Fit and Independence Chi-Square Statistics
Overview of Chi-Square

 
Logic of the Chi-Square Test

 
Comparing the Goodness-of-Fit Chi-Square and the Chi-Square for Independence

 
Goodness-of-Fit Chi-Square Example

 
Chi-Square for Independence

 
SPSS

 
Overview of the Activities

 
Chapter 14 Practice Test

 
 
Appendices
 
Appendix A
Unit Normal Table (z Table)

 
 
Appendix B
One-Tailed Probabilities t Table

 
Two-Tailed Probabilities t Table

 
 
Appendix C
F Table (a = .05)

 
F Table (a = .01)

 
 
Appendix D
The Studentized Range Statistic (q) Table

 
 
Appendix E
One-Tailed Pearson’s Correlation Table

 
Two-Tailed Pearson’s Correlation Table

 
 
Appendix F
Spearman’s Correlation Table

 
 
Appendix G
Fisher r to z Table

 
 
Appendix H
Critical Values for Chi-Square

 
 
Appendix I
Computing SSs for Factorial ANOVA

 
 
Appendix J
Choosing Correct Test Statistics

 
 
Index

Supplements

Instructor Teaching Site

SAGE edge for Instructors supports teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.

  • Test banks provide a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding
  • Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for structuring one’s course
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for the course
  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts by chapter to ease preparation for lectures and class discussions
Student Study Site

SAGE edge for Students provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.

  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material
  • A  customized online action plan includes tips and feedback on progress through the course and materials, which allows students to individualize their learning experience
  • Learning objectives reinforce the most important material

“The text is the most thorough I have seen as far as going through examples. After this text, students are almost guaranteed to be able to complete these statistical measures on their own.”

Elizabeth Axel, Adelphi University

Elizabeth Axel
Adelphi University

“The most impressive feature of the text is the manner in which it invites the student to interact with and digest the material covered in each chapter.”

Lyon Rathbun, University of Texas, Brownsville

Lyon Rathbun
University of Texas, Brownsville

This is perhaps the most student friendly intro to statistics book I've had the pleasure of reading. I work with students from the social sciences and before learning can begin, fear must be put to rest. This text presents statistical terms in small chunks to alleviate fear and even perhaps to begin a love affair with the language of statistics.

Daniel Smith
Counseling, School & Educational Psychology Dept., SUNY At Buffalo
March 24, 2017

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 1

Chapter 3

Chapter 10


Preview this book

Kieth Alton Carlson

Kieth A. Carlson received his PhD in Experimental Psychology with an emphasis in Cognitive Psychology from the University of Nebraska in 1996. He is currently Professor of Psychology at Valparaiso University. He has published research on visual attention, memory, student cynicism toward college, and active learning. He enjoys teaching a wide range of courses including statistics, research methods, sensation and perception, cognitive psychology, learning psychology, the philosophy of science, and the history of psychology. Dr. Carlson was twice honored with the Teaching Excellence Award from the United States Air Force Academy. More About Author

Jennifer R. Winquist

Jennifer R. Winquist is currently Professor of Psychology at Valparaiso University. Dr. Winquist received her PhD in Social Psychology from the University of Illinois at Chicago and her bachelor’s degree in Psychology from Purdue University. She has published research on self-focused attention, group decision making, distributive justice, and the scholarship of teaching and learning. Dr. Winquist regularly teaches courses in introductory and advanced statistics and research methods. More About Author

Purchasing options

Please select a format:

ISBN: 9781483378732
$100.00